Is there a similar sentiment in the new testament?
I don't think that many can argue that the old testament required capital punishment for murder....with exceptions....David vs Uriah the Hittite is one example.
Is there anything that demonstrates a requirement for the death penalty in the new Christian era ... or is it just an allowance? (Similar to divorce when adultery is discovered...not a requirement but an allowance.)
Romans 13:3-4 (NAS)
3 For rulers are not a cause of fear for good behavior, but for evil. Do you want to have no fear of authority? Do what is good and you will have praise from the same; 4 for it is a minister of God to you for good. But if you do what is evil, be afraid; for it does not bear the sword for nothing; for it is a minister of God, an avenger who brings wrath on the one who practices evil.
I interpret this passage from Romans to require (at least expect) the governing authorities to "bear the sword" agianst those who practice evil. The authority in this instance is a minister of God - one who has responsibility to act on God's wrath over evil.