Free Republic
Browse · Search
Religion
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

Pope Drops Papal Crown From Coat of Arms, Adds Miter, Pallium (Not Exactly)
Catholic News Service ^ | 4/27/2005 | Carol Glatz

Posted on 04/27/2005 6:55:32 PM PDT by Pyro7480

Pope Drops Papal Crown From Coat of Arms, Adds Miter, Pallium

By Carol Glatz
Catholic News Service

VATICAN CITY (CNS) -- The papal crown has been given the boot once again, this time no longer appearing as part of the new pope's coat of arms.

Pope Benedict XVI has dispensed with the image of the three-tiered tiara that traditionally appeared at the top of each pope's coat of arms and replaced it with the pointed miter.

The pope also has added the pallium, the woolen stole symbolizing a bishop's authority, to the elements surrounding the shield.

The details of the new papal blazon were published in the April 28 edition of the Vatican newspaper, L'Osservatore Romano. A copy was released April 27 to journalists.

"Benedict XVI has chosen a coat of arms that is rich in symbolism and meaning, so as to put his personality and his papacy in the hands of history," said Italian Archbishop Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo, an expert on heraldry and creator of Benedict XVI's new insignia.

"For at least the past eight centuries, popes have had their own personal coats of arms in addition to the symbols of the Apostolic See," the archbishop said in the Vatican newspaper.

While each papal shield is unique, the elements surrounding it had more or less remained the same for centuries -- until now.

Gone is the beehive-shaped crown whose actual use in important ceremonies was abandoned during the papacy of Paul VI. For Pope Benedict's ensign, the more modest and recognizable miter has taken its place.

But the silver miter has three gold stripes to mirror the symbolism of the papal tiara's three tiers: "order, jurisdiction and magisterum," said Archbishop Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo, who had served as an apostolic nuncio for more than 20 years.

A vertical gold band connects the three stripes in the middle "to indicate their unity in the same person," he said.

Another novelty is the addition of the white pallium with black crosses draped below the shield.

"It indicates the (bishop's) role of being pastor of the flock entrusted to him by Christ," wrote Archbishop Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo.

What has not changed and has been part of papal emblems for centuries is the Holy See's insignia of two crossed keys, which symbolize the powers Christ gave to the Apostle Peter and his successors. The gold key on the right represents the power in heaven and the silver key on the left indicates the spiritual authority of the papacy on earth. The cord that unites the two keys alludes to the bond between the two powers.

Nestled on top of the keys lies the unique shield of Pope Benedict, which is based on his coat of arms as archbishop of Munich and Freising, Germany, and is particularly rich in personal and spiritual symbolism, wrote Archbishop Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo.

The shield is divided into three sections -- each of which has its own symbol.

The central element on a red background is a large gold shell that has theological and spiritual significance for the pope, the archbishop said. The shell recalls a legend in which St. Augustine came across a boy on the seashore who was scooping water from the sea and pouring it into a small hole he had dug in the sand.

When the saint pondered this seemingly futile activity, it struck him as analogous to limited human minds trying to understand the infinite mystery of the divine.

"The shell reminds me of my great master Augustine, of my theological work, and of the vastness of the mystery which surpasses all our learning," wrote then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger in his 1997 autobiography "Milestones, Memoirs: 1927-1977."

Also, Archbishop Cordero di Montezemolo wrote that the shell has long symbolized the pilgrim, "a symbolism Benedict XVI wants to keep alive" after Pope John Paul II, "the great pilgrim."

The shell is also present in the coat of arms of the Schotten monastery in Regensburg, Germany, to which the pope "feels very spiritually close," the archbishop said.

The upper left-hand section of the shield depicts a brown-faced Moor with red lips, crown and collar; it is a symbol of the former Diocese of Freising dating back to the eighth century.

Though it is not known why the Moor came to represent Freising, the pope said for him "it is an expression of the universality of the church which knows no distinctions of race or class since all are one in Christ," he said in his book, "Milestones."

Finally, a brown bear loaded with a pack on his back lumbers up the upper right-hand section of the shield.

The bear is tied to an old Bavarian legend about the first bishop and patron saint of the Diocese of Freising, St. Corbinian. According to the legend, when the saint was on his way to Rome, a bear attacked and killed his horse. St. Corbinian punished the bear by making him carry the saint's belongings the rest of the way to Rome.

Archbishop Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo said the bear symbolizes the beast "tamed by the grace of God," and the pack he is carrying symbolizes "the weight of the episcopate."

The pope said in his 1997 autobiography: "Meanwhile, I have carried my pack to Rome and wander for some time now through the streets of the Eternal City. When release will come I cannot know. What I do know is that I am God's pack animal, and, as such, close to him."


TOPICS: Catholic; Current Events; General Discusssion; History; Religion & Culture
KEYWORDS: benedict; benedictxvi; catholic; coatofarms; crown; miter; pallium; pope; tiara; vatican
Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-81 next last
But the silver miter has three gold stripes to mirror the symbolism of the papal tiara's three tiers: "order, jurisdiction and magisterum," said Archbishop Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo, who had served as an apostolic nuncio for more than 20 years.


The blog The Commonplace Book of Zadok the Roman affirms the above point: Note first the crest - a slightly abstract design which appears to be a mitre, but on comparison with other Papal arms the lines on the mitre very closely resemble the shape of the tiara.

Very interesting...

1 posted on 04/27/2005 6:55:38 PM PDT by Pyro7480
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: Siobhan; Canticle_of_Deborah; broadsword; NYer; Salvation; sandyeggo; american colleen; ...

Catholic ping!


2 posted on 04/27/2005 6:57:07 PM PDT by Pyro7480 ("All my own perception of beauty both in majesty and simplicity is founded upon Our Lady." - Tolkien)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

Comment #3 Removed by Moderator

To: Pyro7480
In color, with motto:


4 posted on 04/27/2005 7:01:08 PM PDT by AnAmericanMother (. . . Ministrix of ye Chace (recess appointment), TTGC Ladies' Auxiliary . . .)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

The bear and the scallop-shell-- a unique papal coat of arms

Vatican, Apr. 27 (CWNews.com) - Pope Benedict XVI has included his old Bavarian homeland in the papal coat of arms.

All of the elements in the episcopal coat of arms that Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (bio - news) bore as Archbishop of Munich and Freising and then as the prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith have become part of his papal coat of arms as well.

The coat of arms appeared for the first time in an official commemorative picture that was published by the Vatican on the occasion of the installation of the new Pope; the heraldic insignia are presented there in an outline sketch, however, and not in full color.

The Archdiocese of Munich enumerates the elements on the coat of arms in an article posted at its website.

The shield, which is divided into three sections, displays the “Moor of Freising." The Moor’s head, facing left and typically crowned, appeared on the coat of arms of the old principality of Freising as early as 1316, during the reign of the Bishop of Freising, Prince Konrad III, and it remained almost unchanged until the “secularization” of the Church’s estates in that region in 1802-1803. Even after that time all the archbishops of Munich and Freising have included the Caput Aethiopum, the head of an Ethiopian, in their episcopal coat of arms.

An especially distinctive element in the new papal coat of arms is a bear with a pack-saddle, the so-called “Bear of Corbinian." There is a charming legend involving a bear that is told about Bishop Corbinian, who preached the Christian faith in the ancient Duchy of Bavaria in the 8th century and is honored as the spiritual father and patron of the archdiocese. It is said that while he was traveling to Rome a bear mauled his pack-animal. The saint then rebuked the wild beast, and commanded the bear to carry his packs to Rome. Once he arrived there, however, he let the bear go, and it lumbered back to its native forest. The meaning of the legend is clear: Christianity tamed and domesticated the ferocity of paganism and thus laid the foundations for a great civilization in the Duchy of Bavaria. At the same time, Corbinian’s Bear, as “God’s beast of burden,” symbolizes the burden of office. In the coat of arms of Benedict XVI, the Bear of Corbinian has now taken up permanent residence in Rome.

The third element, the shell, has several symbolic meanings. First it refers to a famous legend about St. Augustine, Bishop and Doctor of the Church (354-430 AD). Once as he was walking along the seashore, meditating about the unfathomable mystery of the Holy Trinity, he met a boy who was using a shell to pour seawater into a little hole. When Augustine asked him what he was doing, he received the reply, “I am emptying the sea into this hole.” Thus the shell is a symbol for plunging into the unfathomable sea of the Godhead. It also has a connection, though, with the theologian Joseph Ratzinger and the beginning of his academic career. In 1953 he received a doctorate in theology under Professor Gottlieb Söhngen at the University of Munich by completing a dissertation on “The People of God and the House of God in Augustine’s Teaching about the Church."

Furthermore, the shell also stands for “Jacob’s staff,” a pilgrim’s staff topped with a scallop shell, which in Church art was the symbol of the apostle James (in Latin, Jacobus). In this sense, the symbol alludes to a central concept of the Second Vatican Council, the “pilgrim people of God,” which the theologian shepherded locally as Archbishop Ratzinger and of which he is now, as Benedict XVI, the universal shepherd. When he became an archbishop he deliberately incorporated this symbol also in his coat of arms as “Jacob’s staff.” It was found in the heraldic insignia of the Schottenkloster in Regensburg, an ancient monastery founded by Irish monks, where the major seminary of that diocese is now located. Thus it also recalls a place where the Pope once lived and worked as a professor of theology. From 1969 until his appointment as Archbishop of Munich and Freising in 1977 he taught dogmatic theology and the history of doctrine at the University of Regensburg.

As his episcopal motto, Cardinal Ratzinger had again shown his background as a theologian, choosing the phrase "cooperators veritatis "-- collaborators of the truth. The Vatican has not yet disclosed whether Benedict XVI will use the same phrase as his papal motto.

5 posted on 04/27/2005 7:01:41 PM PDT by St. Johann Tetzel
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: AnAmericanMother

Interesting! That one has the tiara in it.


6 posted on 04/27/2005 7:03:47 PM PDT by Pyro7480 ("All my own perception of beauty both in majesty and simplicity is founded upon Our Lady." - Tolkien)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 4 | View Replies]

To: All; Mike Fieschko

Oh, I must credit FReeper Mike Fieschko for posting this so I could see it.


7 posted on 04/27/2005 7:04:58 PM PDT by Pyro7480 ("All my own perception of beauty both in majesty and simplicity is founded upon Our Lady." - Tolkien)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Pyro7480
I noticed that right after I posted it!

It could be that the artist has just done a drawing from the "blazon" - but surely even the blazon would distinguish between the tiara and the miter? Hmmm . ..

8 posted on 04/27/2005 7:05:01 PM PDT by AnAmericanMother (. . . Ministrix of ye Chace (recess appointment), TTGC Ladies' Auxiliary . . .)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

Comment #9 Removed by Moderator

To: sandyeggo
What I find interesting is that he put the "modern" pallium in his coat of arms, while he decided to be invested in the more ancient design.


10 posted on 04/27/2005 7:12:17 PM PDT by Pyro7480 ("All my own perception of beauty both in majesty and simplicity is founded upon Our Lady." - Tolkien)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: sandyeggo
...the wool represented the shepherd carrying the weak, injured and lost sheep on his shoulders was really enlightening.

And the black fringe signify the sheep's feet.

There are lots of layers to the symbolism, what with the pierced red crosses...Agnus Dei...

11 posted on 04/27/2005 7:18:22 PM PDT by Carolina
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: sandyeggo; Pyro7480; AnAmericanMother

If the new Papal pallium is included, then the crosses should be red not black.


12 posted on 04/27/2005 7:18:56 PM PDT by Siobhan ("Christianity is, by its very nature, joy -- the ability to be joyful." -- Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: sandyeggo; Pyro7480
I see you reference Zadok the Roman's blog - he gave a great first-person report on the white smoke and the ensuing drama. A very good read!

Or, you can listen to Fr Roderick Vonhögen, priest of the Archdiocese of Utrecht, The Netherlands, as he podcasted the crowd, live and at St Peter's Square, awaiting the smoke and the announcement, then the words 'Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum. Habemus Papam ...' and the Pope's first words and papal blessing, at

http://www.rorate.com/podcasts/ci20050419b.mp3.

The blog entry is still on the main page at Catolicinsider.com (search for 'Habemus Podcast!').
13 posted on 04/27/2005 7:20:24 PM PDT by Mike Fieschko
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: St. Johann Tetzel
There is a charming legend involving a bear that is told about Bishop Corbinian, who preached the Christian faith in the ancient Duchy of Bavaria in the 8th century and is honored as the spiritual father and patron of the archdiocese.

Here's another charming story about a bear and a priest:

Father Murphy went hiking into the mountains for some quiet contemplation. He was deep into the forest, when suddenly a ferocious grizzly bear started charging towards him.

Realizing that he couldn't outrun the bear, Father Murphy started praying:

"Oh please Lord, let this be a bear that respects human life!"

The bear kept charging.

"Oh Lord, seeing how my faith is a kind and gentile one, please let this be a Christian bear!"

The bear kept charging, getting so close Father Murphy could smell him.

"Dear God, let this be a Catholic bear!"

The bear came to a screeching halt. The terrifying beast bowed it's head. Then it said, calmly: "Bless us O Lord, for these Thy gifts which we are about to receive...."

14 posted on 04/27/2005 7:20:58 PM PDT by Yossarian (Remember: NOT ALL HEART ATTACKS HAVE TRADITIONAL SYMPTOMS)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: Carolina
... red crosses...

the Five Wounds of Christ

15 posted on 04/27/2005 7:21:40 PM PDT by Siobhan ("Christianity is, by its very nature, joy -- the ability to be joyful." -- Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 11 | View Replies]

Comment #16 Removed by Moderator

To: Siobhan
If the new Papal pallium is included, then the crosses should be red not black.

This Pope's pallium had red crosses, but in the past, the crosses have been black. For what reason(s) they were black, and now are red, I don't know.
17 posted on 04/27/2005 7:23:13 PM PDT by Mike Fieschko
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

Comment #18 Removed by Moderator

Comment #19 Removed by Moderator

Comment #20 Removed by Moderator

To: Pyro7480

Bump for a great thread.


21 posted on 04/27/2005 7:32:36 PM PDT by Salvation (†With God all things are possible.†)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: Mike Fieschko
Or, you can listen to Fr Roderick Vonhögen, priest of the Archdiocese of Utrecht, The Netherlands, as he podcasted the crowd, live and at St Peter's Square,

I think it's awesome that here we have an ancient, thousands of years old tradition, and here we are as mere masses relaying the scene by technology unimaginable 40 years ago even by the most forward futurists!

22 posted on 04/27/2005 7:36:01 PM PDT by Yossarian (Remember: NOT ALL HEART ATTACKS HAVE TRADITIONAL SYMPTOMS)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 13 | View Replies]

To: Pyro7480; american colleen; Lady In Blue; Salvation; narses; SMEDLEYBUTLER; redhead; ...
What I do know is that I am God's pack animal, and, as such, close to him.

May God bless this holy man and may he "know" that millions of Catholics have encircled him with their love and prayers.

Catholic Ping
Please freepmail me if you want on/off this list


23 posted on 04/27/2005 7:39:01 PM PDT by NYer ("Love without truth is blind; Truth without love is empty." - Pope Benedict XVI)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: sandyeggo
I can't get the link to work. Is there something I need to know about podcasting? I am pod illiterate.

I'm not a windows-head, but I imagine if you have QuickTime and/or iTunes installed on your machine, you should be able to click on the link and listen, or right-click, download the whole file, and then open it up in iTunes.

24 posted on 04/27/2005 7:39:31 PM PDT by Yossarian (Remember: NOT ALL HEART ATTACKS HAVE TRADITIONAL SYMPTOMS)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 20 | View Replies]

To: Pyro7480; american colleen; Lady In Blue; Salvation; narses; SMEDLEYBUTLER; redhead; ...
What I do know is that I am God's pack animal, and, as such, close to him.

May God bless this holy man and may he "know" that millions of Catholics have encircled him with their love and prayers.

Catholic Ping
Please freepmail me if you want on/off this list


25 posted on 04/27/2005 7:40:08 PM PDT by NYer ("Love without truth is blind; Truth without love is empty." - Pope Benedict XVI)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: St. Johann Tetzel

Very good explanation. Thanks.


26 posted on 04/27/2005 7:40:44 PM PDT by ELS (Vivat Benedictus XVI!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

Comment #27 Removed by Moderator

To: sandyeggo; Pyro7480
I like the one Pope Benedict wore, but for the coat of arms, maybe the thought was to have it [the pallium] centered.

Innocent III wore his off to the side ...



Now there's an example to follow: interdicts, excommunications, Magna Carta null and void, all emperors, kings and prince vassals of the Pope, the Fourth Crusade (well, maybe not), and ... Simon de Montfort's war on the Albigenses!

Image found at Benedict XVI's Pallium at Ad Altare Dei blog. Originally at Bill Cork's blog ut unum sint.

'We will now discuss the location of your rebel base ...'
28 posted on 04/27/2005 7:43:17 PM PDT by Mike Fieschko
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 16 | View Replies]

To: Pyro7480

Cool!


29 posted on 04/27/2005 7:43:28 PM PDT by Ciexyz (Let us always remember, the Lord is in control.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: NYer

"Pope Drops Papal Crown From Coat of Arms..."

Must be saving the Crown for the King...and I don't mean Elvis.


30 posted on 04/27/2005 7:47:04 PM PDT by SaltyJoe (May the Blessed Virgin guide mankind's effort to reaching a Just and lasting Peace.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 25 | View Replies]

To: St. Johann Tetzel
The bear and the scallop-shell-- a unique papal coat of arms
31 posted on 04/27/2005 7:47:42 PM PDT by ELS (Vivat Benedictus XVI!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: sandyeggo
I can't get the link to work. Is there something I need to know about podcasting? I am pod illiterate.

If the link you mean is http://www.rorate.com/podcasts/ci20050419b.mp3, that's a link to an mp3 file, which is an audio file, like a radio show or music. Podcasters frequently use the mp3 format for their shows.

You might want to right-mouse-button click on the link, choose 'save link as' and download it, then launch Real Player or Windows Media Player and load the file in Real Player or Windows Media Player.

An FYI: he's in the Square for maybe an hour or so before the smoke turns definitely white, and it's a while after that before St Peter's bells begin ringing, which is the definite signal that the conclave elected a pope.
32 posted on 04/27/2005 7:53:31 PM PDT by Mike Fieschko
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 20 | View Replies]

To: St. Johann Tetzel

I really like the phrase "cooperators veritatis" -- but when you compare it to the phrase on the design in Post #4, there's an extra letter in the phrase "cooperators" - the print is small on my screen and it looks like "cooperatores" -- Is anybody here competent in Latin and can clarify?


33 posted on 04/27/2005 7:56:00 PM PDT by Ciexyz (Let us always remember, the Lord is in control.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

Comment #34 Removed by Moderator

To: Ciexyz
I really like the phrase "cooperators veritatis"

That's a typo. It should be 'cooperatores veritatis'.
35 posted on 04/27/2005 8:02:09 PM PDT by Mike Fieschko
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 33 | View Replies]

To: NYer

Thanks for the ping! Lovely thread.


36 posted on 04/27/2005 8:03:04 PM PDT by american colleen (Long live Benedict XVI!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 23 | View Replies]

To: Mike Fieschko
It should be 'cooperatores veritatis'.

Grazie for the clarification!

37 posted on 04/27/2005 8:11:18 PM PDT by Ciexyz (Let us always remember, the Lord is in control.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 35 | View Replies]

To: Ciexyz
Grazie is Italian.

Gratias is Latin.

38 posted on 04/27/2005 8:16:47 PM PDT by ELS (Vivat Benedictus XVI!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 37 | View Replies]

To: ELS
Gratias is Latin.

Golly, you learn something new every day!

39 posted on 04/27/2005 8:21:01 PM PDT by Ciexyz (Let us always remember, the Lord is in control.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 38 | View Replies]

Comment #40 Removed by Moderator

Comment #41 Removed by Moderator

To: sandyeggo
Just finished listening to this wonderful podcast. Thank you SO MUCH for posting the link to it.

You're very welcome. I'm pleased you enjoyed it.

You might also enjoy listening to Vatican Radio's podcasts. The site is 105live.vaticanradio.org and the podcast feed and archives page is Vatican Radio One-O-Five Live. They don't keep a lot of older broadcasts archived, maybe a week or so, so if you miss a day, get that day before it's removed.

You can get programs which will automatically download podcasts from Catholic Insider, 105 Live and lots of other podcasts, just as your email program gets your mail at set intervals. I use one to burn a rewritable CD to listen to while working, instead of the radio.
42 posted on 04/27/2005 8:53:38 PM PDT by Mike Fieschko
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 40 | View Replies]

To: Pyro7480

I don't approve. Please, please, please don't drop the tiara. It's bad enough there's no more coronation. They'll be dropping it from the papal flag next. The tiara is an historic symbol of long standing and should not be eliminated.


43 posted on 04/27/2005 8:55:28 PM PDT by Unam Sanctam
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Yossarian

Two hours and 30 posts later, and no one laughs at my joke? Tough crowd tonight....


44 posted on 04/27/2005 9:28:03 PM PDT by Yossarian (Remember: NOT ALL HEART ATTACKS HAVE TRADITIONAL SYMPTOMS)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 14 | View Replies]

To: Ciexyz
Gratias is Latin.

Then why did you put it in Italics?

45 posted on 04/27/2005 9:39:11 PM PDT by TradicalRC (I'd rather live in a Christian theocracy than a secular democracy.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 39 | View Replies]

To: TradicalRC
"Then why did you put it in Italics?"

Har har!

46 posted on 04/27/2005 9:42:39 PM PDT by Ciexyz (Let us always remember, the Lord is in control.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 45 | View Replies]

To: Yossarian

Okay, it was funny. Two bears are in a bar. One turns to the other and says "What's ursine?"


47 posted on 04/27/2005 9:42:50 PM PDT by TradicalRC (I'd rather live in a Christian theocracy than a secular democracy.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 44 | View Replies]

To: TradicalRC

HA!


48 posted on 04/27/2005 11:09:38 PM PDT by Yossarian (Remember: NOT ALL HEART ATTACKS HAVE TRADITIONAL SYMPTOMS)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 47 | View Replies]

To: NYer

bttt


49 posted on 04/27/2005 11:32:51 PM PDT by lainde
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 25 | View Replies]

To: Mike Fieschko

Thank you SO much for posting the link to that podcast (a totally new concept and word for me ;). It was glorious to relive that joyful time.


50 posted on 04/28/2005 12:14:57 AM PDT by STARWISE (FIGHT JUDICIAL TYRANNY- CALL TO URGE COURAGE-SENATORS @ 866-808-0065+ REPS @ (202) 224-3121.FIGHT4US)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 13 | View Replies]


Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-81 next last

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
Religion
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson