Skip to comments.Yom Kippur: Israel's Reconciliation
Posted on 09/29/2006 8:27:34 AM PDT by Buggman
In my first article on the Fall High Holy Days, we saw that the Feast of Trumpets is intimately linked by both Yeshua and Shaul with Yeshuas Second Coming on the clouds of heaven, and saw that this corresponded with the expectations of the rabbis. Now we come to the second of the Fall Feastdays, and the holiest day of the Jewishwhich is to say, Biblicalcalendar: Yom Kippur takes place on the tenth of Tishri, nine days after Rosh Hashanah.
On that day, the high priest would put on a special coat of white linen and carry out a very unusual sacrifice.
And he shall take the two goats, and present them before YHVH at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for YHVH, and the other lot for the scapegoat. And Aaron shall bring the goat upon which YHVH's lot fell, and offer him for a sin offering. But the goat, on which the lot fell to be the scapegoat, shall be presented alive before YHVH, to make an atonement with him, and to let him go for a scapegoat into the wilderness. . . .Today, the sacrifices which were the centerpiece of the Levitical ceremony cannot be held of course, but this does not make it impossible to observe the day. Like Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur is not a pilgrimage Feast: No one was required to be in Jerusalem (other than the cohenim, or priests) for its service. However, those outside of Jerusalem still bore the responsibility for not doing any work, gathering in a holy convocation (i.e., in their home synagogues), and for denying themselves (Lev. 23:27ff). Out of these three commands, modern Judaism has built its customs.
And when he hath made an end of reconciling the holy place, and the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar, he shall bring the live goat: And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, putting them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of a fit man into the wilderness: And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land not inhabited: and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness. (Lev. 16:7-10, 20-22)
After a final, festive meal in the afternoon before Yom Kippur, Jews the world over dress in white in remembrance of the High Priests white linen robe that he would wear within the Holy of Holies, and at sundown go to what is known as the Kol Nidre (All Vows) service. The Kol Nidre is a prayer sung to a haunting cadence, which asks God to release one from any wrongful oaths taken that year. It dates to the Middle Ages, when Jews were forcibly converted to Christianity; they would ask God to release them of the vows taken at the point of a sword. Another traditional song is Avinu Malkeynu (Our Father, Our King), which translates as follows:
Our Father and Our King
Our Father and Our King
Our Father and King
Be merciful to us
Be merciful unto us.
For we have done no deeds
Commending us unto You
For we have no deeds commending us to You
Be merciful, save us, we pray.
Synagogue services typically run all day, with observant Jews petitioning God to forgive their sins. Fasting, denying ones self, is mandated by Torah, and observant Jews will usually refrain from any comforts at all during the day, including bathing, wearing leather shoes, etc. It should be noted that Isa. 58 and Mat. 6:16-18 both speak against fasting to be seen and fasting in lieu of true repentance:
Wherefore have we fasted, say they, and Thou seest not? wherefore have we afflicted our soul, and thou takest no knowledge? Behold, in the day of your fast ye find pleasure, and exact all your labours. Behold, ye fast for strife and debate, and to smite with the fist of wickedness: ye shall not fast as ye do this day, to make your voice to be heard on high.True self-denial is not the mere restraint from food, though it may include fasting from food (Mat. 6:16-18, 1 Co. 7:5).
Is it such a fast that I have chosen? a day for a man to afflict his soul? is it to bow down his head as a bulrush, and to spread sackcloth and ashes under him? wilt thou call this a fast, and an acceptable day to YHVH? Is not this the fast that I have chosen? to loose the bands of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free, and that ye break every yoke? Is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry, and that thou bring the poor that are cast out to thy house? when thou seest the naked, that thou cover him; and that thou hide not thyself from thine own flesh? (Isa. 58:3-7)
Yom Kippur ends with the Neilah (The Closing of the Gates) service and a final blast from the shofar. It is said by the rabbis that the gates of Heaven through which our prayers of repentance can rise close at this time, sealing ones fate for the year. Of course, in the Messiah Yeshua, we may always come boldly unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need (Heb. 4:16). However, there is still an eschatological truth to the rabbinical belief, discussed in the previous article on Rosh Hashanah.
Of course, it may rightly be asked in what sense can one be atoned for on this day without blood, for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul (Lev. 17:11). One who believes in the Messiah Yeshua, of course, looks to Him and His perfect sacrifice for their atonement. Non-Messianic Jews follow the belief established by Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai that acts of righteousness provide atonement (Avot de Rabbi Nathan 4:18). However, even in the Jewish community, the need for blood redemption still runs deep. In the ceremony called Kaparot, practiced only in very Orthodox circles, a chicken is waived over the head three times as the man says,
This is my substitute, my vicarious offering, my atonement. This fowl shall meet death, but I shall enjoy a long, happy life. After reading several selections from Job and the Psalms, the person lays his hand on the head of the bird as a symbol of identification, it is killed as his substitute, and given to the poor for their final meal before the fast. (Howard and Rosenthal, The Feasts of the Lord, p. 126)Why is a chicken used instead of a goat, for example? Because goats, bulls, oxen, rams, and lambs could only be offered for sacrifice in the Temple, so the rabbis forbade the use of any animal which might make it appear that one was continuing the sacrificial system. (Turkey or chicken is substituted for lamb for the Passover dinner in most Ashkenazi homes for the same reason.)
In Biblical times, of course, a bull and two goats were the sacrifices made. The bull was offered for the sins of the High Priest and the other priests, so that he could be purified before entering into Gods presence. The goats, one for Yhvh and one for the scapegoat would then atone for Israel. The word scapegoat is a translation of Azazel. Keil and Delitzsch explain the significance of the word:
Azazel, which only occurs in this chapter, signifies neither a remote solitude, nor any locality in the desert whatever (as Jonathan, Rashi, etc., suppose); nor the he-goat . . . The words, one lot for Jehovah and one for Azazel, require unconditionally that Azazel should be regarded as a personal being, in opposition to Jehovah. . . We have not to think, however, of [just] any demon whatever, who seduces men to wickedness in the form of an evil spirit, as the fallen angel Azazel is represented as doing in the Jewish writings . . . but of the devil himself, the head of the fallen angels, who was afterwards called Satan; for no subordinate evil spirit could have been placed in antithesis to Jehovah as Azazel is here, but only the ruler or head of the kingdom of demons. The desert and desolate places are mentioned elsewhere as the abode of evil spirits (Isa. 13:21 and 34:14; Mat. 12:43; Luk. 11:24; Rev. 18:2). (Keil, Johann and Franz Delitzsch, Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament, [e-Sword version 7.0.0, ed. Rick Meyers, 2000-2003])And yet, while the scapegoat was, in effect, given over to Azazel, to the very Enemy himself, the two goats . . . must be altogether alike in look, size, and value; indeed, so earnestly was it sought to carry out the idea that these two formed parts of one and the same sacrifice, that it was arranged that they should, if possible, even be purchased at the same time (Edersheim, The Temple: Its Ministry and Services, p. 248). So all speculations that the scapegoat might represent Satan or the Antichrist or some other evil entity fall short. What could these two goats signify other than the dual-natured Messiah Yeshua? He carried away all our sin, just as the scapegoat would be sent into the wilderness with the sins of Israel: As far as the east is from the west, so far hath He removed our transgressions from us (Psa. 103:12). Unlike the lambs, goats, and bulls that died on the altar, our Messiah rose again. Thus, like the two goats, He was both sacrificed and yet lives.
A red ribbon was tied in the horns of the scapegoat. When the goat was led out before the people, if God accepted the sacrifice, the ribbon would miraculously turn white as a reminder of the promise that though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool (Isa. 1:18). It is most interesting that for the forty years between the sacrifice of Yeshua and the destruction of the Temple, the scarlet ribbon did not turn white!
Forty years before the Temple was destroyed the chosen lot was not picked with the right hand, nor did the crimson stripe turn white, nor did the westernmost light burn; and the doors of the Temples Holy Place swung open by themselves, until Rabbi Yochanon ben Zakkai spoke saying: O most Holy Place, why have you become disturbed? I know full well that your destiny will be destruction, for the prophet Zechariah ben Iddo has already spoken regarding you saying: 'Open thy doors, O Lebanon, that the fire may devour the cedars' (Zech. 11:1). (Babylonian Talmud, Yoma 39b)Hebrews 8 -10 explains that when Messiah completed His sacrifice on the cross, He entered the heavenly Holy of Holies, of which that of the Tabernacle and the Temple were merely copies, to complete the Yom Kippur ritual of atonement. The sacrifice was not accepted because it was being offered by the wrong High Priest:
For Messiah is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us: nor yet that He should offer Himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood of others . . . But this Man, after He had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God; from henceforth expecting till His enemies be made His footstool. (Heb. 9:24-25, 10:12-13)But if this is the sole and sufficient fulfillment of the feastday of Yom Kippur, then we have a problem. In every other feastday that we have seen fulfilled in history, the fulfillment took place on that day. Yeshua was offered up on Passover as the Lamb of God, thus taking away our sin just as leaven was removed from the Hebrews houses during the seven days of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. He rose as the firstfruits of the dead (cf. 1 Co. 15:20-23) on Sfirat HaOmer or HaBikkurim, the Feast of Firstfruits. The Church was given the Ruach HaKodesh (the Holy Spirit) in power on Shavuot, or Pentecost, the Feast of Weeks. And we have seen that His Second Coming seems likely to occur on a Rosh Hashanah in order to fulfill that feastday. Why then would the Day of Atonement be out of sequence?
The Feastdays of the Torah are divided into three groupsthe spring feasts, Shavuot (Pentecost), and then the fall feastseach of which is linked to a distinct stage of the Exodus and Israels instruction at Sinai. In addition, there are at least three minor feasts (that is, those which were not ordained at Sinai) which are also prophetically significant. The key to understanding the Feasts prophetic significance is to understand their historical significance.
When YHVH reorganized Israels calendar by proclaiming the month of the Pesach (Passover) to be the beginning of months (Exo. 12:2), He was establishing that His plan of salvation begins with the Passover. However, to truly understand Gods plan, we begin our brief study not with the Passover, but with the six silent months which separate the Passover from the previous Sinai-ordained Feastday, Sukkot, the Feast of Tabernacles. Within this silent period lie two minor Feasts: Hanukkah, which celebrates the victory of Israel over the forces of Antiochus Epiphanes, and Purim, which celebrates her victory over the forces of Haman some three centuries earlier as is described in the book of Esther. Hanukkah has an eschatological significance which will be explored in another article, but for now it is enough to note the element these two feasts share in common: Both celebrate YHVHs hidden protection of and provision for His people. Though He did not act with any obvious miracles like fire from the sky or supernatural plagues, nevertheless He brought His people to victory against overwhelming odds: In Purim by the placement of a Jewish queen, and in Hanukkah by giving the Jews might in battle.
These silent months between Sukkot and Pesach correspond to the 430 silent years which lead up both to the Passover of the Exodus (Gal. 3:17) and the Passover of the Messiah. Both periods were characterized by the lack of a true prophet to lead the people, a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of YHVH" (Amos 8:11). God had not forgotten His people, but it probably felt to them like He had.
When the Lord fulfilled His promise to redeem His people from bondage, it was through the Passover and the death of a Lamb. Gods people were set free from Egypt via the blood of the lamb painted on their doorposts, so that they would not die in Gods wrath. Likewise, Gods people were set free from sin by the blood of the Lamb painted on their hearts, so that they would not die in Gods wrath. The seven days of the Feast of Matzah, in which all the leaven had to be removed from Israels houses and no leaven could be eaten, represents the quick removal of Israel from Egypt (in which there was no time to make leavened bread) and the complete removal of all sin in our lives by the sacrifice of Yeshua as we flee the ways of the world.
In the third month after Israels departure from Egypt, they arrived at Mt. Sinai (Ex. 19:1). There God descended on the mountain in fire, with the sound of a shofar (vv. 16ff), and called Moses up the mountain to begin giving him the Torah. According to Jewish tradition, the day that this happened was the day of Shavuot, the Feast of Weeks, a date consistent with the Biblical record. Like HaBikkurim, the Feast of Firstfruits for the barley harvest, on which Messiah was raised as the Firstfruits of the dead (cf. 1 Co. 15:20), Shavuot is a firstfruits festival for the wheat harvest. On the first Shavuot, the firstfruits of the nation of Israel began receiving the Torah. On Shavuot after the death and resurrection of the Messiah, the firstfruits of the Church began receiving the Torah written on their hearts by the giving of the Spirit of God in the form of fire and with a great sound (Jer. 31:33, Ezk. 36:26-27, Acts 2:3ff).
After giving Moses the first commandments, the Lord called him back up the mountain to receive further instruction, and Moses remained with Him for forty days (Exo. 24:18). It was during this period that Aaron led the people in the sin of making and worshiping the golden calf. When Moses descended again from the mountain and saw this, he smashed the stone tablets on which God had written His commandments, signifying that Israel had broken the covenant they had made to follow all of Gods commands, and many in Israel died, both at the hands of the Levites whom Moses commanded to take arms against their kinsmen, and by a plague sent by God. Moreover, Moses removed the Tent of Meeting (not the Tabernacle, which had not yet been built, but a different tent in which Moses lived and met with YHVH; Exo. 33:7ff) to outside the camp, signifying that the peoples sin was great enough that God had removed the visible place which was the focal point of Israels worship and His Presence.
The parallel is not difficult to understand: Forty years after Yeshua ascended into Heaven, Israel still had not repented as a body from her golden calf. Just as Israel in the Exodus fell into the sin of worshipping God in the manner of their tradition (in this case, image-based worship), which they learned while in Egypt, instead of worshipping God in the manner in which He had commanded them, Israel in the first century fell into the sin of worshipping God in the manner of their traditions rather than doing so through the Messiah as He had commanded them. While the details differed, the essential core of the sin was the same.
So was the punishment. As Israel in the Exodus was punished by the sword and plague, so Israel in 70 AD was punished by the sword and plague. And as Israel in the Exodus had the Tent of Meeting removed by their prophet, Moses, so Israel in the first century had the Temple removed by the prophet after Moses, Yeshua HaMashiach. The destruction of both Temples took place on Tishbi bAv, or the 9th of the month of Av. While it cannot be proven, the timing of the Golden Calf incident makes it quite possible that Tishbi bAv is the day on which Moses removed the Tent of Meeting as well.
In the Exodus sin, Gods fury was so great that He said to Moses, Now therefore let Me alone, that My wrath may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them: and I will make of thee a great nation (Exo. 32:10). YHVH-Tzvaot, the Lord of Hosts, was actually planning to destroy the whole nation and start over with Moses and his children! This is, in fact, what Replacement Theology claims that God did to Israel in the first century: destroyed them, and replaced them with the Messiahs children, the Church.
Those who believe that God has cast away His chosen nation need to take another look at Exodus. Moses, who had not joined in the sin of the people, interceded for Israel so that God would not utterly destroy them, though He did punish them, even (temporarily) taking away their place of worship. Are we to think that Yeshua did any less, or that His intercession for Israel would be any less heard? And notice the basis on which Moses interceded for Israel: Not on the basis of their obedience or repentance, but on the basis of YHVHs Namethat is, His reputationand His promises (ibid., vv. 12-13). It is on this same basis that the Lord has already begun returning Israel to her land: Thus saith the Lord YHVH; I do not this for your sakes, O house of Israel, but for Mine holy Name's sake . . . (Ezk. 36:22).
The Future Fulfillment
Okay, the amillennialist answers, clearly not all of the Jews were destroyed, but the Temple was, and since we are now the Temple of God, there will be no other. Again, keep reading. After seeing to the punishment of Israel and removing the Tent of Meeting, Moses was told by God, And I will send an angel before thee . . . for I will not go up in the midst of thee; for thou art a stiffnecked people: lest I consume thee in the way (Exo. 33:2, 3). But Moses, not content that a lesser angel go with Israel, returned up the mountain, and interceded with God for another forty days, going without food or water, until YHVH relented and agreed to send His Presence with Israel. The form in which His Presence went with Israel was in the pillar of fire and cloud which was intimately connected with the Tabernacle:
The Tabernacle of Israel was known by several names. . . The name dwelling from Heb. mishkan, from shakan, to lie down, a dwelling, connected itself with the Jewish, though not scriptural, word Shekinah, as describing the dwelling place of the divine glory. (Unger, F., The New Ungers Bible Dictionary, R.K. Harrison, ed. [Moody, 1988] Tabernacle of Israel, p. 1238)According to the Talmud, the day on which Moses returned with the second set of stone tablets, showing that YHVH had forgiven Israel and restored fellowship with them, was the day of Yom Kippur (Tractate Taanit 30b), and the forty days that he fasted before God correspond with the forty days of Tshuva (Repentence) that are traditionally observed leading up to the Day of Atonement. (This forty-day period of fasting may be the same forty-day period that Yeshua spent fasting and being tested in the wilderness after His baptism.)
Likewise, the day on which Yeshua will return to restore His fellowship with Israel, and direct them in building a Temple greater than that which they built on their own, just as Moses directed Israel in building a Tabernacle greater than the former Tent of Meeting which was taken away from the camp, will be on Yom Kippur. Like the Levitial High Priest emerging from the Holy of Holies to show that God had accepted the sacrifice of the goat on the peoples behalf, Yeshua will emerge from the Holy of Holies in Heaven to show Israel that God has accepted His sacrifice on their behalf.
Yom Kippur is not yet complete. Our High Priest is hidden from our eyes, beyond the veil, making intercession for us day and night, but He has not yet emerged to show all Israel that His blood-stained garments have been turned as white as snow, proving that the Father has accepted the High Priests sacrifice on behalf of all Israel, not just the remnant that now believe. When He does, carrying the sign of a covenant restored before Israel even as Moses did, then the Temple promised by Ezekiel will be built, just as the Tabernacle was.
When will the High Priest come forth? On the last day of Daniels Seventieth Week when Israel and Jerusalem will make reconciliation for iniquity (Dan. 9:24). The word for reconciliation, kaphar, is most often translated atonement.
With Israels sins atoned for, the way will be made for the final stage of the Messiahs reconciliation of all things to Himself. Next we will study Sukkot, the Feast of Tabernacles, when Yeshua will be officially crowned King over all the nations . . . on His birthday.
Shalom, and God bless.
A warning in advance: I'm going to be away from my computer for most of today and most of the weekend, so it'll probbly feel like I've abandoned this thread. I apologize for that, but there were a number of Freepers who asked me to go ahead and post this article now before the advent of the Day of Atonement. Those demanding a defense of my belief that Christians should observe the same Feastdays that our Lord did and does can read my comments on the previous thread or visit my blog.
To any of my non-Messianic Jewish friends who might be offended at my "co-opting" of the Feastdays, I apologize for the offense, but I have to share what I see revealed in the Scriptures, both the Tanakh and the New Testament.
Also, I apologize in advance for any typos that might have escaped me. I didn't have as much time for editing as I would've preferred.
This is sort of the informal Messianic not-a-ping-list. Those I've pinged either directly requested it or showed enough interest in the previous article that I thought you'd enjoy reading this one. If you want on or off this non-ping-list (the Neeners have a strict rule against actually having a ping list), then let me know.
Since you kept the last thread going for so long, I thought I'd invite you to this one as well. Again, I apologize in advance that I won't have time to join in the usual debates until next week.
Ping for later review
Non-ping-list.... 4 me -- please
Will there be more on Yom Kippur, or is this it?
This is it for Yom Kippur, I think, barring any "additions" I make in responding to posts when I can get to it. What, eight pages in MSWord isn't enough for you? ;-)
I see I wasn't invited to the party, but once again, your ideas do not match written scripture.
And I saw no temple therein (the new Jerusalem) for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb (Jesus Christ) are the temple of it.
And the reason you weren't invited is because I saw no reason to invite one who makes unfounded accusations against my integrity instead of making well-written arguments about the subject. If you're going to hang around on this thread, please leave the snarking behind.
Paul says in Romans 5:11. ..through our Lord Jesus Christ, we have the atonement.
We do not have "an atonement", we have the atonement
Jesus' ordainment as High Priest was from God.
Hebrews 7:15-28 gives all the reasons why Christ and Christ alone is able to make atonement.
Hebrews 9:11-28 lists all the reasons why Christ was the perfect offering for sins.
Hebrews 10:1-18, shows why the sacrifice was once, for all
Hebrews10:12, He offered one sacrifice for sins, forever
Your millenial temple is the new Jerusalem, better read it again. You are teaching incorrect ideas not based on scripture, and that is the one reason you don't want me here. I will continue to correct any false notions that I see. If that is "snarking" so be it.
So the Millennial Temple is the New Jerusalem, which has no Temple.
You're just nitpicking without actually reading the article, aren't you?
Thanks for the ping!
Those interested might also want to read:
Count me in, Buggman! Thanks!
"And I saw no temple therein (the new Jerusalem) for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb (Jesus Christ) are the temple of it."
Amen. Christ our only fortress.
18 Again the word of the LORD Almighty came to me. 19 This is what the LORD Almighty says: "The fasts of the fourth, fifth, seventh and tenth months will become joyful and glad occasions and happy festivals for Judah. Therefore love truth and peace."
From an earlier footnote:
35 [Comp. Recognitions, ii. 50, 51, 61-65. The emphasis laid upon supernatural visions in the remainder of the Homily has been supposed to convey an insinuation against the revelations to the Apostle Paul.-R.]
And Peter said: "I remember that I promised to prove this point, and to give my proofs in regard to it from Scripture and apart from Scripture. sand now listen to what I say. We know that there are many (if you will pardon me the statement; and if you don't, I can appeal to those who are present as judges) who worship idols, commit adultery, and sin in every way, and yet they see true visions and dreams, and some of them have also apparitions of demons. For I maintain that the eyes of mortals cannot see the incorporeal form of the Father or Son, because it is illumined by exceeding great light. Wherefore it is not because God envies, but because He pities, that He cannot be seen by man who has been turned into flesh. For he who sees God cannot live. For the excess of light dissolves the flesh of him who sees; unless by the secret power of God the flesh be changed into the nature of light, so that it can see light, or the substance of light be changed into flesh, so that it can be seen by flesh. For the power to see the Father, without undergoing any change, belongs to the Son alone. But the just shall also in like manner behold God;39 for in the resurrection of the dead, when they have been changed, as far as their bodies are concerned, into light, and become like the angels, they shall be able to see Him. Finally, then, if any angel be sent that be may he seen by a man, he is changed into flesh, that he may be able to be seen by flesh. For no one can see the incorporeal power not only of the Son, but not even of an angel. But if one sees an apparition, he should know that this is the apparition of an evil demon.
Chapter XVIII.-The Nature of Revelation.
"Thus to me also was the Son revealed by the Father. Wherefore I know what is the meaning of revelation, having learned it in my own case. For at the very time when the Lord said, `Who do they say that I am? '47 and when I heard one saying one thing of Him, and another another, it came into my heart to say (and I know not, therefore, how I said it), `Thou art the Son of the living God.'48 But He, pronouncing me blessed, pointed out to me that it was the Father who had revealed it to me; and from this time I learned that revelation is knowledge gained without instruction, and without apparition and dreams. And this is indeed the case. For in the soul49 which has been placed in us by50 God, there is all the truth; but it is covered and revealed by the hand of God, who works so far as each one through his knowledge deserves.51 But the declaration of anything by means of apparitions and dreams from without is a proof, not that it comes from revelation, but from wrath. Finally, then, it is written in the law, that God, being angry, said to Aaron and Miriam,52 `If a prophet arise from amongst you, I shall make myself known to him through visions and dreams, but not so as to my servant Moses; because I shall speak to him in an outward appearance, and not through dreams, just as one will speak to his own friend.' You see how the statements of wrath are made through visions and dreams, but the statements to a friend are made face to face, in outward appearance, and not through riddles and visions and dreams, as to an enemy.
Chapter XIX.-Opposition to Peter Unreasonable.
"If, then, our Jesus appeared to you in a vision, made Himself known to you, and spoke to you, it was as one who is enraged with an adversary; and this is the reason why it was through visions and dreams, or through revelations that were from without, that He spoke to you. But can any one be rendered fit for instruction through apparitions? And if you will say, `It is possible, 'then I ask, `Why did our teacher abide and discourse a whole year to those who were awake? 'And how are we to believe your word, when you tell us that He appeared to you? And how did He appear to you, when you entertain opinions contrary to His teaching? But if you were seen and taught by Him, and became His apostle for a single hour, proclaim His utterances, interpret His sayings, love His apostles, contend not with me who companied with Him. For in direct opposition to me, who am a firm rock, the foundation of the Church,53 you now stand. If you were not opposed to me, you would not accuse me, and revile the truth proclaimed by me, in order that I may not be believed when I state what I myself have heard with my own ears from the Lord, as if I were evidently a person that was condemned and in bad repute.54 But if you say that I am condemned, you bring an accusation against God, who revealed the Christ to me, and you inveigh against Him who pronounced me blessed on account of the revelation. But if, indeed, you really wish to work in the cause of truth, learn first of all from us what we have learned from Him, and, becoming a disciple of the truth, become a fellow-worker with us."
Meanwhile, back at the ranch (house of Israel is at v. 13, but then...?)...
Zechariah 8:23 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; In those days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall take hold out of all languages of the nations, even shall take hold of the skirt of him that is a Jew, saying, We will go with you: for we have heard that God is with you.
Galatians is written to Jewish Christians:
But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage ?
Ye observe days, and months, and times, and years.
I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain.
Beware of dogs, beware of evil workers, beware of the concision.
For we are the circumcision, which worship God in the spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh.
This is incorrect. "Replacement" theology is a misnomer. I'm not sure where the name came from but it is an inaccurate description of the theology.
Replacement Theology does not claim that God destroyed Israel and replaced them with the Church. Replacement Theology follows Pauls doctrine and states that Gentiles are grafted into the true Israel, the believing Jews. All believers, Jews and Gentiles share in Gods covenant as Christians. All unbelieving Jews and Gentiles are outside of Gods covenant as unbelievers. Israel was never destroyed. Christians are the true Israel.
Heb 8:10 "FOR THIS IS THE COVENANT THAT I WILL MAKE WITH THE HOUSE OF ISRAEL AFTER THOSE DAYS, SAYS THE LORD: I WILL PUT MY LAWS INTO THEIR MINDS, AND I WILL WRITE THEM ON THEIR HEARTS. AND I WILL BE THEIR GOD, AND THEY SHALL BE MY PEOPLE.
God is not schizophrenic. His plan today is the same as yesterday's plan and tomorrow's plan -- for Jesus Christ to gather God's flock, all believing Jews and Gentiles, and bring them home.
Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children: but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called. That is, They which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed." -- Romans 9:6-8
"Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect. For they are not all Israel, which are of Israel:
Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children: but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called.
That is, They which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed." -- Romans 9:6-8
An astounding statement, considering that this is just the opposite of what the book of Hebrews teaches!
Please provide chapter and verse to support this argument.
Just to be clear, do you believe that Paul is calling holy days that the almighty eternal God created, such as the day of atonement, "weak and beggarly elements"?
4:11 I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain.
After hearing the gospel preached, Paul is telling them that he is concerned that they understand nothing about Jesus. They cling to the old way of life, the shadows as opposed to the true light.
The word elements comes from root words meaning a cooling as in end of summer, or a chill.
Just to be clear, do you believe that Paul is calling holy days that the almighty eternal God created, such as the day of atonement, "weak and beggarly elements"?
Paul was addressing two groups in Galatians, the false teachers who were formerly Jewish and the converted, formerly pagan Galatians. As it would be blasphemy, both for anyone and for Paul to call God's ordained holy days anything like weak and beggarly, and since verse 3, chapter 4, mentions the elements of the world, it is clear that the elements of the world, not God is what he is addressing, or pagan beliefs.
Thanks for clearing that up. I wasn't sure where you were coming from.
Who might these be? James? Peter?
Gal 2:4 And that because of false brethren unawares brought in, who came in privily to spy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into bondage:
Gal 2:9 And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we [should go] unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision.
Oh yeah, funny how the Apostles that actually knew Yehoshua became the 'false brethren'.
Hardly! Verse 8 says, "Formerly, when you did not know God, you were slaves to those who by nature are not Gods." When was the last time you heard of any Jewish folks who "did not know God?"....at least in New Testament times!
4:10 Ye observe days, and months, and times, and years.
Pagans observed the above.....have you ever heard of the "Venerable Day of the Sun?" There is no mention of Sabbaths or Feast Days in this scripture! Pagans did indeed have "special days".....and months....and years.
There are a couple of problems with this (thus some of the debates you might see on this thread, etc.) But, in my view, one of simplest objections to the 'law is a curse' argument, is just that through book after book of the Bible, no one seems to suggest it is impossible to keep, although many of the Prophets point out that there is a lot more to keeping the law than outward observances.
Some would argue that the Old Testament is abrogated by the New, but even in the New Testament we read of: 'a certain priest named Zacharias ... and his wife ... and they were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord, blameless.' (Luke 1,5-6)
A standard theological response to these questions is given by John Calvin who says:
When [God] calls it a perpetual or eternal covenant, the Jews rest on it as a ground of their obstinacy, and wantonly rave against Christ as a covenant-breaker, because He abrogated the Sabbath.... Whatever was spoken of under the Law as eternal, I maintain to have had reference to the new state of things which came to pass at the coming of Christ; and thus the eternity of the Law must not be extended beyond the fulness of time, when the truth of its shadows was manifested, and Gods covenant assumed a different form. If the Jews cry out that what is perpetual, and what is temporary, are contraries to each other, we must deny it in various respects, since assuredly what was peculiar to the Law could not continue to exist beyond the day of Jesus Christ.
The spiritual Law had been in effect from creation....the Law of Moses was the Law added later.
It was added because of transgressions (sin). The definition of sin? [1 John 3:4] The transgression of the Law. What Law???? God's spiritual Law that preceded "The Law of Moses!"
The civil and ceremonial "Law of Moses" is what has been done away with and is of what the Apostle speaks. Deuteronomy, chapters 27 & 28 are good examples of the Mosaic Law. Exodus 20:1-17 is a good example of the Law of God.
Thank you for your post.
Let us review:
The purpose of the letters to the churches, and even though they were addressed to"Galatians" they were circulated throughout all of them. They are even written to us today, and the message is timeless.
Galatians was written to refute the Judaizers and to call people back to the true Gospel.
Chapter1: verse8- 9, is his warning against listening to those who preach any gospel other than the one Paul preached
He proceeds to tell them that he received the Gospel from God, and in chapter 2:4, he says that false brethren were unawares brought in.
In chapter 3, he explains the superiority of the Gospel over all others.
Chapter 3:1, he asks the foolish "Who has bewitched you", so they were getting false information from someone, and it would not be from the Apostles.
Chapter 4, verses 8-20 shows his concern for the deceived.
Chapter 5, he preaches the liberty of the Gospel and here once again, he shows why the Law cannot save.
Chapter 6, verses 11-18 he gives his last warning, especially see verse 13, and again in verse 15, he says that Jesus is all that matters.
To conclude, beware, for false teachers want you to think that Christ's death did not make a final atonement for sin, they say that people must obey the Law in order to be saved, they try to find favor with God by observing certain rituals. When told that he was disregarding the Law of Moses, Paul responds by putting the Law in its proper place. He says it shows people how they sin and points them to Christ.
When [God] calls it a perpetual or eternal covenant, the Jews rest on it as a ground of their obstinacy, and wantonly rave against Christ as a covenant-breaker, because He abrogated the Sabbath.... From Dictionary.com:
ab·ro·gate (br-gt) Pronunciation Key tr.v. ab·ro·gat·ed, ab·ro·gat·ing, ab·ro·gates To abolish, do away with, or annul, especially by authority.
Jesus did not abrogate the Sabbath:
Isa 8:20 To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.
Deu 13:1 If there arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and giveth thee a sign or a wonder, Deu 13:2 And the sign or the wonder come to pass, whereof he spoke unto thee, saying, Let us go after other gods, which thou hast not known, and let us serve them; Deu 13:3 Thou shalt not hearken unto the words of that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams: for the LORD your God proveth you, to know whether ye love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul. Deu 13:4 Ye shall walk after the LORD your God, and fear him, and keep his commandments, and obey his voice, and ye shall serve him, and cleave unto him. Deu 13:5 And that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams, shall be put to death; because he hath spoken to turn you away from the LORD your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed you out of the house of bondage, to thrust thee out of the way which the LORD thy God commanded thee to walk in. So shalt thou put the evil away from the midst of thee.
Note 1: the standard for judging prophets.
Joh 8:12 Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life.
Note 2: Jesus IS the light that Isaiah references!
Mat 12:1 At that time Jesus went on the sabbath day through the corn; and his disciples were hungry, and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat. Mat 12:2 But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto him, Behold, thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do upon the sabbath day. Mat 12:3 But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did, when he was hungry, and they that were with him; Mat 12:4 How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the shewbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests Mat 12:5 Or have ye not read in the law, how that on the sabbath days the priests in the temple profane the sabbath, and are blameless Mat 12:6 But I say unto you, That in this place is one greater than the temple. Mat 12:7 But if ye had known what this meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned the guiltless. Mat 12:8 For the Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath day. Mat 12:9 And when he was departed thence, he went into their synagogue: Mat 12:10 And, behold, there was a man which had his hand withered. And they asked him, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath days? that they might accuse him. Mat 12:11 And he said unto them, What man shall there be among you, that shall have one sheep, and if it fall into a pit on the sabbath day, will he not lay hold on it, and lift it out? Mat 12:12 How much then is a man better than a sheep? Wherefore it is lawful to do well on the sabbath days. Mat 12:13 Then saith he to the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it forth; and it was restored whole, like as the other.
Note 3: The Pharisees were testing Jesus with the Deuteronomy and Isaiah standard. They failed.
Note 4: Jesus could not say there was no more Sabbath or it has changed because if he had, he would have been contradicting the Law, he would have been stoned, and that would have been that
It is obvious to even the most casual reader that following the Law does not save anyone. For instance, not stealing cars will not earn you a good result at the Resurrection. No sleeping with your neighbor's wife will not earn your place in the Kingdom. Keeping 52 Sabbaths a year and the Holy Days will not earn your salvation. If it could, then we would not have needed a Saviour. The gift of salvation is free, and one must accept it. Obedience to God's Law is the product of faith.
Rom 3:31 Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish the law.
They are both the Laws of YHWH. Mat 23:23
Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier [matters] of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.
It is clear that both sets are to be practiced.
1And God spake all these words, saying,
2I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.
3Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
4Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.
5Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;
6And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.
7Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.
8Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
9Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work:
10But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates:
11For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.
12Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
13Thou shalt not kill.
14Thou shalt not commit adultery.
15Thou shalt not steal.
16Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.
17Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.
16Cursed be he that setteth light by his father or his mother. And all the people shall say, Amen.
17Cursed be he that removeth his neighbour's landmark. And all the people shall say, Amen.
18Cursed be he that maketh the blind to wander out of the way. And all the people shall say, Amen.
19Cursed be he that perverteth the judgment of the stranger, fatherless, and widow. And all the people shall say, Amen.
20Cursed be he that lieth with his father's wife; because he uncovereth his father's skirt. And all the people shall say, Amen.
21Cursed be he that lieth with any manner of beast. And all the people shall say, Amen.
22Cursed be he that lieth with his sister, the daughter of his father, or the daughter of his mother. And all the people shall say, Amen.
23Cursed be he that lieth with his mother in law. And all the people shall say, Amen.
24Cursed be he that smiteth his neighbour secretly. And all the people shall say, Amen.
25Cursed be he that taketh reward to slay an innocent person. And all the people shall say, Amen.
26Cursed be he that confirmeth not all the words of this law to do them. And all the people shall say, Amen.
Hebrews 8 -10 explains that when Messiah completed His sacrifice on the cross, He entered the heavenly Holy of Holies, of which that of the Tabernacle and the Temple were merely copies, to complete the Yom Kippur ritual of atonement. The sacrifice was not accepted because it was being offered by the wrong High Priest:
I looked at the verses from a couple of different bibles. The Amplified shows it as :
8 But at that previous time, when you had not come to be acquainted with and understand and know the true God, you [Gentiles] were in bondage to gods who by their very nature could not be gods at all [gods that really did not exist].
9 Now, however, that you have come to be acquainted with and understand and know [the true] God, or rather to be understood and known by God, how can you turn back again to the weak and beggarly and worthless elementary things [[c]of all religions before Christ came], whose slaves you once more want to become?
10 You observe [particular] days and months and seasons and years!
11 I am alarmed [about you], lest I have labored among and over you to no purpose and in vain.
Hopefully the Amplified is in error about Paul meaning ALL religions before Christ, as that would also include Judaism or at least the religions that were given to us by YHWH.
I think and hope that Paul is merely talking about the pagan/heathen practices and feasts.
Thanks for the reminder. Who are those 'false teachers' that Paul is talking about?
Ah, yes....Judaizer, the Catholic excuse for changing the set times and the Law [Daniel 7:25]. The Sabbath, of course, is the only commandment that deals with a specific time and the Festivals are at appointed times also. Sure wouldn't want our religion to look too Jewish....would we? The word Judaizer is not found in scripture but began circulating throughout early writings when the powers that stood wanted all semblance of Jewishness erased from liturgy.
The fact remains....the citizens of Galatia were not Jewish. They were Greco Romans and were being evangelized by Paul. Paul was sent to the Gentiles [Galatians 2:7]. Peter and the other Apostles had been sent to the Israelites [Matthew 10:5-6]. The false brethren were the same folks mentioned in Acts 15:1-2 and circumcision for Gentiles had been dealt with by James in verse 19.
Do you observe the Catholic Sabbath?
The Amplified is of course a commentary. Most modern commentators are eager to group God's holy days and their observance into this category. No surprise there. That being said, Judaism, by the time of Christ, had corrupted the true religion given by God. So some of the non-scriptural, perhaps pagan elements, of Judaism could well have been referred to.
Lev 23:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the feasts of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts.
Lev 23:26 And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying, Lev 23:27 Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement: it shall be a holy convocation unto you; and ye shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD.
Lev 23:28 And ye shall do no work in that same day: for it is a day of atonement, to make an atonement for you before the LORD your God.
Lev 23:29 For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day, he shall be cut off from among his people.
Lev 23:30 And whatsoever soul it be that doeth any work in that same day, the same soul will I destroy from among his people.
Lev 23:31 Ye shall do no manner of work: it shall be a statute forever throughout your generations in all your dwellings.
Lev 23:32 It shall be unto you a sabbath of rest, and ye shall afflict your souls: in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye celebrate your sabbath.
According to the Karaites who do not follow the Talmud nor the Misnah only the Tanach;
the following are the dates of the feasts based only the sighting of the New Moon:
Dates of Biblical Holidays
1st Unleavened Bread
April 14, 2006
א' חג המצות
7th Unleavened Bread
April 20, 2006
ז' חג המצות
June 4, 2006
(Day of Shouting)
September 25, 2006
Yom Kippurim (Day of Atonement)
October 4, 2006
1st Sukkot (Feast of Tabernacles)
October 9, 2006
א' חג הסוכות
Shemini Atzeret (Last Great Day)
October 16, 2006
Days of Purim
March 4-5, 2007
All of the Biblical Holy Days begin at sunset on the day before the date listed and continue for 24 hours until sunset on the following day.
What is Karaism?b'shem Y'shua
Karaites preserve the original religion of the Hebrew Bible,
rejecting later innovations such as the Rabbinic Oral Law.
Every individual is required to take responsibility for interpreting the Tanach.
What translation is this?
Here's the NAS:
Gal 4:9 But now that you have come to know God, or rather to be known by God, how is it that you turn back again to the weak and worthless elemental things, to which you desire to be enslaved all over again?
Gal 4:9 and now, having known God--and rather being known by God--how turn ye again unto the weak and poor elements to which anew ye desire to be in servitude?
I think it was in high school where I first learned that Romans/Greeks were the ones who worshipped elements: earth, wind, fire, and water was it?
Paul was, again, preaching to Gentiles - Hellenistic Gentiles to be precise.
I believe in a replacement theology of sorts, or rather an addition theology.:
Rev 12:17 And the dragon was enraged with the woman, and went off to make war with the rest of her offspring, who keep the commandments of God and hold to the testimony of Jesus.
The Nation of Israel today only has half of the recipe, and those of you who spend your days trying to convince us not to keep God's 4th commandment only have the other half.
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