Well, its that “duodecim” which is bound to capture the attention of the naive reader. And then see 1.16, “The Strange Death of Romulus”, which corresponds in several points to the book of Matthew, which it anticipated by some years. I stumbled upon this in my own reading some years ago, and I remain perplexed as to why these remarkable parallels do not receive popular recognition, even though, or I should say especially since, they could hardly have escaped the attention of scholars throughout the Christian Age.
The numer twelve in the selection of the Apostles is certainly a reflection of the number of the tribes of Israel. This is the connotation that would be clear to any Jew, not some obscure to them legend of Romulus.
There is a numerological significance of 12, seen as in some sense a perfect number. These are its mathematical properties that allow 12 people to be arranged in 3 x 4 or 6 x 2 formations, or 6 at each side of the leader, all convenient militarily and ceremonially and suggesting completeness. It should not suprise us when we see that number appearing in various structures independently.
What, specifically in the Book of Matthew attracts your attention? The legendary snatching of Romulus by thunderstorm indeed is somewhat similar to how ascension of Jesus is described, but that is in Luke. All accounts of the Resurrection, however, point to Jesus appearing to a group (or groups) of disciples rather than to a single individual who then has to convince the others, and the Resurrection precedes the Ascension. The match is scant, and note that Livy does not seem to believe Proculus Julius’ tale.
On the other hand, not unlike with the number 12, the belief that the beloved leader reached eternal life is a belief that rises naturally.
Eusebius and St. Jerome wrote about Livy and his book. I am not sure if they had a specific comment on these two episodes, but neither one is so striking a similarity with the gospels that they would have felt compelled to.