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The Connection between Contraception and Abortion ^ | Janet E. Smith, Ph.D.

Posted on 06/09/2010 10:16:39 PM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM

The Connection between Contraception and Abortion

Janet E. Smith, Ph.D.

Philosophy Department,
University of Dallas

Many in the pro–life movement are reluctant to make a connection between contraception and abortion. They insist that these are two very different acts — that there is all the difference in the world between contraception, which prevents a life from coming to be and abortion, which takes a life that has already begun.

With some contraceptives there is not only a link with abortion there is an identity. Some contraceptives are abortifacients; they work by causing early term abortions. The IUD seems to prevent a fertilized egg — a new little human being — from implanting in the uterine wall. The pill does not always stop ovulation but sometimes prevents implantation of the growing embryo. And, of course, the new RU 486 pill works altogether by aborting a new fetus, a new baby. Although some in the pro–life movement occasional speak out against the contraceptives that are abortifacients most generally steer clear of the issue of contraception.

This seems to me to be a mistake. I think that we will not make good progress in creating a society where all new life can be safe, where we truly display a respect for life, where abortion is a terrible memory rather than a terrible reality until we see that there are many significant links between contraception and abortion and that we bravely speak this truth. We need to realize that a society in which contraceptives are widely used is going to have a very difficult time keeping free of abortions since the lifestyles and attitudes that contraception fosters create an alleged "need" for abortion.

Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the recent Supreme Court decision that confirmed Roe v. Wade, stated, “in some critical respects abortion is of the same character as the decision to use contraception . . . . for two decades of economic and social developments, people have organized intimate relationships and made choices that define their views of themselves and their places in society, in reliance on the availability of abortion in the event that contraception should fail.”

The Supreme Court decision has made completely unnecessary any efforts to “expose” what is really behind the attachment of the modern age to abortion. As the Supreme Court candidly states, we need abortion so that we can continue our contraceptive lifestyles. It is not because contraceptives are ineffective that a million and half women a year seek abortions as back–ups to failed contraceptives. The “intimate relationships” facilitated by contraceptives are what make abortions “necessary”. “Intimate” here is a euphemism and a misleading one at that. Here the word “intimate” means “sexual”; it does not mean “loving and close.” Abortion is most often the result of sexual relationships in which there is little true intimacy and love, in which there is no room for a baby, the natural consequence of sexual intercourse. Contraception enables those who are not prepared to care for babies, to engage in sexual intercourse; when they become pregnant, they resent the unborn child for intruding itself upon their lives and they turn to the solution of abortion.

Contraception currently is hailed as the solution to the problems conosequent on the sexual revolution; many believe that better contraceptives and more responsible use of contraceptives will reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies and abortions and will prevent to some extent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

To support the argument that more responsible use of contraceptives would reduce the number oof abortions, some note that most abortions are performed for “contraceptive purposes”. That is, few abortions are had because a woman has been a victim of rape or incest or because a pregnancy would endanger her life, or because she expects to have a handicapped or deformed newborn. Rather, most abortions are had because men and women who do not want a baby are having sexual intercourse and facing pregnancies they did not plan for and do not want. Because their contraceptive failed, or because they failed to use a contraceptive, they then resort to abortion as a back–up. Many believe that if we could convince men and women to use contraceptives responsibly we would reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies and thus the number of abortions. Thirty years ago this position might have had some plausibility, but not now. We have lived for about thirty years with a culture permeated with contraceptive use and abortion; no longer can we think that greater access to contraception will reduce the number of abortions. Rather, wherever contraception is more readily available the number of unwanted pregnancies and the number of abortions increases greatly.

The connection between contraception and abortion is primarily this: contraception facilitates the kind of relationships and even the kind of attitudes and moral characters that are likely to lead to abortion. The contraceptive mentality treats sexual intercourse as though it had little natural connection with babies; it thinks of babies as an “accident” of pregnancy, as an unwelcome intrusion into a sexual relationship, as a burden. The sexual revolution has no fondness — no room for — the connection between sexual intercourse and babies. The sexual revolution simply was not possible until fairly reliable contraceptives were available.

Far from being a check to the sexual revolution, contraception is the fuel that facilitated the beginning of the sexual revolution and enables it to continue to rage. In the past, many men and women refrained from illicit sexual unions simply because they were not prepared for the responsibilities of parenthood. But once a fairly reliable contraceptive appeared on the scene, this barrier to sex outside the confines of marriage fell. The connection between sex and love also fell quickly; ever since contraception became widely used, there has been much talk of, acceptance of, and practice of casual sex and recreational sex. The deep meaning that is inherent in sexual intercourse has been lost sight of; the willingness to engage in sexual intercourse with another is no longer a result of a deep commitment to another. It no longer bespeaks a willingness to have a child with another and to have all the consequent entanglements with another that babies bring. Contraception helps reduce one's sexual partner to just a sexual object since it renders sexual intercourse to be without any real commitments. Certainly one can easily imagine how attractive abortion would be in the face of a contraceptive failure — one has made not commmitment to one's sexual partner or exacted one, so how can one expect one's self or one's sexual partner to take on the responsiblity of raising a child. Some clinics report that up to 50% of the abortions are of pregnancies that resulted from contraceptive failure.

Futhermore, the casualness with which sexual unions are now entered is accompanied by a casualness and carelessness in the use of contraceptives. Studies show that the women having abortions are very knowledgeable about birth control methods; the great majority — eighty per cent — are experienced contraceptors but they display carelessness and indifference in their use of contraception for a variety of reasons. Contraception has enabled them to enter a sexual relationship or a life style, but while the relationship or life style continues the contraceptive practise does not continue..

One researcher reports the reasons why sexually active, contraceptively experienced women stop contracepting: she observes that some have broken up with their sexual partners and believe they will no longer need a contraceptive but they find themselves sexually active anyway. Others dislike the physical exam required for the pill, or dislike the side–effects of the pill and some are deterred by what inconvenience or difficulty there is in getting contraceptives. Many unmarried women do not like to think of themselves as sexually active; using contraceptives conflicts with their preferred self–image. The failure to use birth control is a sign that many women are not comfortable with being sexually active. That is, many of the women are engaged in an activity that, for some reason, they do not wish to admit to themselves.

One researcher, Kristin Luker, a pro-abortion social scientist, in a book entitled Taking Chances: Abortion and the Decision not to Contracept attempted to discover why, with contraceptives so widely available, so many women, virtually all knowledgeable about contraception, had unwanted pregnancies and abortions. The conclusions of her studies suggest that it is not simple “carelessness” or “irresponsibility” that lead women to have abortions, but that frequently the pregnancies that are aborted are planned or the result of a calculated risk. She begins by dismissing some of the commonly held views about why women get abortions; she denies that they are usually had by panic–stricken youngsters or that they are had by unmarried women who would otherwise have had illegitimate births. She also maintains that statistics do not show that abortion is an act of final desperation used by poor women and “welfare mothers” or that abortion is often sought by women who have more children than they can handle. What she attempts to discern is what reason women had for not using contraception although they were contraceptively experienced and knew the risks involved in not using contraception. Luker seeks to substantiate in her study that “unwanted pregnancy is the end result of an informed decision–making process. That pregnancy occurred anyway, for the women in this study, is because most of them were attempting to achieve more diffuse goals than simply preventing pregnancy.”

Luker argues that for these women (women who are having non–contracepted sex, but who are not intending to have babies), using contraceptives has certain “costs” and getting pregnant has certain “benefits”. The women make a calculation that the benefits of not using contraception and the benefits of a pregnancy outweigh the risks of getting pregnant and the need to have an abortion. She concurs that many women prefer “spontaneous sex” and do not like thinking of themselves as “sexually active”. She notes that some wondered whether or not they were fertile and thus did not take contraceptives. The “benefits” of a pregnancy for many women were many; pregnancy proves “that one is a woman”, or that one is fertile; it provides an excuse for “forcing a definition in the relationship”; it forces a woman's or girl's parents to deal with her; it is used as a “psychological organizing technique.”

In the end, almost all of the unmarried women Luker interviewed had the option to marry (and supposedly to complete the pregnancy) but none chose this option. Luker attributes this to unwillingness of women to get married under such conditions, to the disparity between this kind of marriage and their fantasy marriage, and to their belief that they were responsible for the pregnancy, and thus they had no claim on the male's support. One of her examples is of an unmarried woman who did not like using the pill because it made her gain weight. Coupled with this was her wish to force her boyfriend to openly admit his relationship with her to his parents who rejected her, and possibly to force marriage and thus she decided not to use contraception. Upon becoming pregnant, this woman had an abortion.

Much of this data suggests that there is something deep in our natures that finds the severing of sexual intercourse from love and commitment and babies to be unsatisfactory. As we have seen, women are careless in their use of contraceptives for a variety of reasons, but one reason for their careless use of contraceptives is precisely their desire to engage in meaningful sexual activity rather than in meaningless sexual activity. They want their sexual acts to be more meaningful than a handshake or a meal shared. They are profoundly uncomfortable with using contraceptives for what they do to their bodies and for what they do to their relationships. Often, they desire to have a more committed relationship with the male with whom they are involved; they get pregnant to test his love and commitment. But since the relationship has not been made permanent, since no vows have been taken, they are profoundly ambivalent about any pregnancy that might occur. They are very likely to abort a pregnancy they may even have desired. It may sound far–fetched to claim that some women may in some sense “plan” or “desire” the very pregnancies that they abort but this analysis is borne out by studies done by pro–abortion sociologists.

Contraception clearly leads to many abortions by those who have sex outside of marriage. Even within marriage, those who contracept are more likely to abort than those who do not, especially those who use NFP. It is easy to understand why contraceptors would be more likely to abort. Those using contraception who get pregnant unexpectedly, are generally very angry, since they did everything they could to prevent a pregnancy. The pregnancy is seen as a crisis. The married have often planned a life that is not receptive to children and are tempted to abort to sustain the child–free life they have designed. I am not, of course, saying that all those who contracept are likely to abort; I am saying that many more of those who contracept do abort than those who practice natural family planning.

It should be no surprise that unlike contraceptors, those using methods of natural family planning are highly unlikely to resort to abortion should an unplanned pregnancy occur. Some argue that couples using natural family planning are as closed to having babies as are those that use contraceptives; that they too wish to engage in “baby–free” sexual intercourse. But the crucial difference is that those using NFP are not engaging in an act whose nature they wish to thwart; they are keeping to the principles of sexual responsibility. Their sexual acts remain as open to procreation as nature permits. They are refraining from sexual intercourse when they know they may conceive and engaging in sexual intercourse when they are unable to conceive — precisely because of their desire to be responsible about their child–bearing.

It should be no surprise that countries that are permeated by contraceptive sex, fight harder for access to abortion than they do to ensure that all babies can survive both in the womb and out. It is foolish for pro–lifers to think that they can avoid the issues of contraception and sexual irresponsibility and be successful in the fight against abortion. For, as the Supreme Court stated, abortion is “necessary” for those whose intimate relationships are based upon contraceptive sex.

TOPICS: Apologetics; Moral Issues; Religion & Culture; Religion & Politics
KEYWORDS: abortion; catholic; contraception; moralabsolutes; nfp; prolife
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1 posted on 06/09/2010 10:16:39 PM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM
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To: Paved Paradise

Here’s another one from Janet Smith.

2 posted on 06/09/2010 10:18:01 PM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM
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To: Dr. Brian Kopp

Most people still believe that contraception is different from abortion.

3 posted on 06/09/2010 10:19:53 PM PDT by Saundra Duffy (For victory & freedom!!!)
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To: Saundra Duffy
Except for the IUD, the pill and other hormonal contraceptives, which are abortifacient, contraception is different from abortion.
4 posted on 06/09/2010 10:22:38 PM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM
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To: Dr. Brian Kopp

I really can’t find any moral reason to be against contraception. The only link I’ve noticed between contraception and abortion is that people engaging in the latter very rarely bother with the former.

5 posted on 06/09/2010 10:25:06 PM PDT by exDemMom (Now that I've finally accepted that I'm living a bad hair life, I'm more at peace with the world.)
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To: exDemMom
I really can’t find any moral reason to be against contraception.

Well, all of Christianity up till 1930 was against it, based on scripture and Natural Law. That's good enough for me.

By 1960, all of Christianity had caved on contraception, except Catholicism (and to a lesser degree the Orthodox.)

6 posted on 06/09/2010 10:28:10 PM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM
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To: Dr. Brian Kopp

You got it right there. First divorce became okay, then contraception, then childlessness, now homosexuality. Strange how the first book of Romans in the Bible says this is how things go. What is meant by women turning away from the natural function of their bodies THEN lusting aver each other?

7 posted on 06/09/2010 10:49:21 PM PDT by SorosOwnsObama
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To: Dr. Brian Kopp

it is ironic how the advent of the pill did little to stop unwanted pregnancies if abortion is any guide

8 posted on 06/09/2010 10:53:44 PM PDT by wardaddy (I am not in favor of practical endorsements in primaries, endorse the conservative please)
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To: exDemMom

Here it is: the separation of the procreative from the unitive aspect of sex. In the words of the infallible God-breathed Humanae Vitae: “The Church, nevertheless, in urging men to the observance of the precepts of the natural law, which it interprets by its constant doctrine, teaches that each and every marital act must of necessity retain its intrinsic relationship to the procreation of human life.”

You could read the whole document here:

Still can’t find “a moral reason to be against contraception”?

9 posted on 06/09/2010 10:55:30 PM PDT by blackpacific
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To: Dr. Brian Kopp

This is like the sixth or seventh thread you’ve done. Is this the Catholic caucus or what?

10 posted on 06/09/2010 11:03:14 PM PDT by ReneeLynn (Socialism is SO yesterday. Fascism, it*s the new black. Mmm Mmm Mmm.)
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To: Dr. Brian Kopp; exDemMom
Well, all of Christianity up till 1930 was against it, based on scripture and Natural Law.

Well, a few questions then. What types of contraception were even available in 1930? The oldest forms of birth control included coitus interruptus, pessaries, and the ingestion of herbs that were believed to be contraceptive or abortifacient. The earliest record of birth control use is an ancient Egyptian set of instructions on creating a contraceptive pessary. Condoms in some form or another are probably the oldest form of "barrier methods" but coitus interruptus goes back to ancient Biblical times.

It wasn't until the 18 th. century that the link was made biologically between the sperm and the fertile ovum causing fertilization. Once this was discovered, various methods were devised to prevent this from happening or if it did occur, to prevent implantation and normal gestation. Birth control in some form or another has been around for thousands of years. Seeing babies as consequences for illicit sexual pleasure is hardly a new concept.

11 posted on 06/09/2010 11:12:24 PM PDT by boatbums (God is ready to assume full responsibility for the life wholly yielded to him.)
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To: ReneeLynn

No. Its called a Religion Forum.

12 posted on 06/10/2010 6:50:42 AM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM
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To: Dr. Brian Kopp
Do you think government regulation / outlawing of contraception is compatible with the concept of a government of limited and enumerated powers?
13 posted on 06/10/2010 7:01:01 AM PDT by allmendream (Income is EARNED not distributed. So how could it be re-distributed?)
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To: allmendream
No. I'm not calling for outlawing contraception. I just want Christian to know that everything that's legal ain't necessarily moral.

On the other hand, dangerous medications which cause increased morbidity and mortality should be stringently regulated. If the birth control pill were an NSAID or a heart medication, it would have been outlawed years ago because of the known high number of mortalities associated with their use.

14 posted on 06/10/2010 7:11:22 AM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM
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To: exDemMom

You wrote:

“The only link I’ve noticed between contraception and abortion is that people engaging in the latter very rarely bother with the former.”

False. Overwhelmingly those who have abortions have used contraceptives. They might not have used them consistently, but they used them and quite often. People who embrace the contraceptive mentality invariably come to “tolerate” or embrace abortion.

15 posted on 06/10/2010 7:13:23 AM PDT by vladimir998 (Part of the Vast Catholic Conspiracy (hat tip to Kells))
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To: Saundra Duffy

One ends a pregnancy (stops a beating heart, KILLS a baby) the other simply prevents one from taking place, thus keeping people that do not want a child from having to raise one.

16 posted on 06/10/2010 7:16:30 AM PDT by Grunthor (Getting married, T minus 16 days.)
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To: Dr. Brian Kopp

“I just want Christian to know that everything that’s legal ain’t necessarily moral.”

Is it moral to produce more children than you as a married couple can support?

17 posted on 06/10/2010 7:20:07 AM PDT by Grunthor (Getting married, T minus 16 days.)
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To: boatbums
Birth control in some form or another has been around for thousands of years.

Certainly, and for two thousand years, Christianity has universally taught that it is immoral, without exception until 1930.

18 posted on 06/10/2010 7:21:59 AM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM
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To: Dr. Brian Kopp
OK, do we really want feral children walking the streets or (more likely in the US) a welfare system that takes care of the surplus children that would result if birth control is banned?

I have no problem if your religious conscience tells you not to use birth control. I do have a problem when 1. you want to make your beliefs on contraception law (not very likely) and 2. (More likely) I and millions of other tax payers have to pick up the tab for your brood.

19 posted on 06/10/2010 7:23:00 AM PDT by Clemenza (Remember our Korean War Veterans)
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To: Grunthor
My wife and I, through the grace of God, support my family. If I were to think I'm by myself in supporting my family, then my understanding of what number I can support might be far different than if I believe in Divine Providence.

Christianity has lost its sense of Divine Providence, and therefore embraced contraception.

At its root, that is a loss of Faith in God.

20 posted on 06/10/2010 7:24:44 AM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM
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