Not sure where to start with this, but it's not as if Martin Luther was full of love and charity toward Jews prior to his break with Rome. He was a leading figure in the Reformation. He retained some beliefs that he acquired as a Catholic. He rejected those he believed to have been not Biblically supported.
The collection of smaller states that later became Germany did not exist as a united nation in Luther's time. There were states where Jews settled and were treated reasonably well by medieval standards. There were those that weren't so hospitable. Taken on the whole, it's unlikely that the Germany to come was any more or any less antisemite than other nations on the European continent or the British Isles. Recall the Jews were expelled from Spain by the Catholic king and queen well before Luther's time. Expelled from England as well. Luther was a product of this environment.
Then, to leap forward four entire centuries and to lay blame for Hitler at Luther's feet is just bizarre. Hitler needed an üntermenschen, a scapegoat. Historically speaking, in Europe, this had always been the Jews and so he dusted that ancient libel off and used it again. Hitler was raised Catholic, not Lutheran.
But, Hitler rejected even Catholicism by his early 20's and became a political radical. His ideology was socialism. His religion, if it could be said that he had one above and beyond power, would have been occult-tinged Teutonic paganism. This is amply documented. He sought to co-opt and use the church, not because he believed it, but because he simultaneously wanted to destroy it, and to take it over and remake it into something alien that served his purpose.
To tie this back in to replacement theology, the belief that the Church supplanted Israel or even became Israel in God's promise, well, it's an old belief as you pointed out. It's a more Catholic belief than a Protestant one, but there are numerous Protestant denominations that accept the belief to this day.
However, even identifying the falsehood of replacement theology fell to Protestants after the Reformation, so blaming Luther for actions 400 years into the future, for failing to reject a widespread belief that existed a priori is very misleading. That it was error only came to light as a result of the actions of Luther and other Reformation figures. Those who openly and loudly denounce it today are almost exclusively Protestant or certainly would be identified as such by others.
I guess if you define "Protestant" as "American evangelical after 1820" and "Catholic" as "everyone else", that might be true.
I was raised Lutheran. Both Catholics and Lutherans embrace replacement theology
Hitler’s main problem with Catholicism, from what I have read in his writings, was that it looked to Rome and Italy - and not to anywhere in Germany.