Skip to comments.Vatican Documents Reveal Stalin's Forced Starvation Plan
Posted on 11/18/2011 6:59:37 AM PST by marshmallow
Book Gives Details of 1932 'Killing by Hunger' in Ukraine
ROME, NOV. 17, 2011 (Zenit.org).- The sober skies and short days of November remind Romans that this is the month to pray for the dead. It seems fitting that this month opened with a presentation of new documents regarding one of the most tragic -- and virtually unacknowledged -- events of the modern age, the Ukrainian Famine.
"The Holy See and the Holodomor: Documents from the Vatican Secret Archives on the Great Famine of 1932-1933 in Soviet Ukraine" by Father Athanasius McVay and Professor Lubomyr Luciuk was released Oct. 26 with a book launch at the Russian Ecumenical Center in Rome. The book is available in English through Kashtan Press and Abe Books.
The Holodomor (literally "killing by hunger") took place in 1932-33 in the fertile grain-producing region of Ukrainian USSR. While the exact number of deaths is not known due to lack of precise records, an estimated 2.4 to 7.5 million people died. This man-made famine, intended to starve the Ukrainian nationalists out of existence, has been recognized as a genocide by many nations worldwide.
Father Athanasius McVay, a Canadian Greek-Catholic priest of Ukrainian ancestry, was doing doctoral research on diplomatic relations between the papacy and the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic hierarchy during the struggle for Ukrainian independence (1918-1923), when he began to realize how little research was being done on Ukrainian subjects at all.
I had the chance to ask Father McVay a few questions about his book, his research, and the surprisingly little-known Great Famine.
I asked how the Great Famine caught his attention and Father McVay explained that his interest was piqued while "working on a historical biography of the first Ukrainian bishop for Canada, Blessed Nykyta Budka (1877-1949), the centenary of whose appointment we will be celebrating in 2012. In 2008, while researching documents pertaining to Blessed Budka, I accidentally discovered documents concerning the Holodomor."
The Holodomor is better known in Canada than in the United States, it seems. Canada was the first country to declare the famine a genocide and the first to erect a monument in honor of its victims. Father McVay explained that he "had known about the Holodomor since the early 1980s when Ukrainians across Canada organized various conferences and demonstrations to have this humanitarian tragedy officially recognized by the Canadian government."
His home town in Winnipeg erected a monument to Holodomor victims in 1984 directly in front of City Hall.
Accounts describing the Holodomor vary from source to source. I asked Father McVay to give an account of the 1932 events in Ukraine for ZENIT readers. "The Soviet economy was a disaster," he began, "especially due to the ideological economic schemes such as the collective farms. Widespread famine was occurring in Russia and Ukraine at the end of the 1920s and this made the Soviet Union politically weak and fueled the Ukrainian independence movement. Stalin decided to kill two birds with one stone by weakening the Ukrainian ethnic population and also eliminating the prosperous farmer-class known as kulaks."
I had read that the Soviet government passed a law where private ownership of food was made illegal in 1932 and those who suffered the most from this legislation were the Ukrainians. But that was not all. "Grain was confiscated at gunpoint and shipped to Russian parts of the Soviet Union that were also experiencing food shortages," continued Father Mcvay. "The politically motivated famine was directed specifically against Ukrainian ethnics."
I asked if he found anything new while studying the correspondence with the Holy See and the author explained that he discovered not only "many of the details of the famine but especially documents regarding how the Apostolic See sought to intervene to make the tragedy know to the world and to alleviate the people's suffering."
Father McVay found "that the Pope learned about the Holodomor from the French Jesuit, Bishop Michel d'Herbigny, who was the president of the Pro Russia Commission. D'Herbigny was receiving letters from the Soviet Union as well as reports from foreign diplomats who had witnessed the situation first hand. D'Herbigny attempted to move mountains in order to convince Pius XI to launch an aid-mission to the Soviet Union, just as he and his predecessor Benedict XV had done in 1921-1923."
"The emotional Pius XI wept when he received one report," explained Father McVay, "and he insisted that something must be done. Unfortunately churchmen and diplomats all concurred that no aid would ever reach the people because Soviet authorities were officially denying the existence of a famine that Stalin had deliberately orchestrated. In the end, the Pope was only able to authorize a gift of 10,000 Italian lire to be forwarded to starving Catholics via German charitable organizations that had contacts in Ukraine."
A light in the Vatican Archives
Father McVay had the coveted experience of doing his research in the Vatican Archives. While portrayed in Dan Brown novels as a high tech vault where all the dirty Vatican secrets lie, the archives are a very different thing to the scholars who actually work there. The Vatican Archives have made great efforts over the past years to dispel the impression of intrigue by putting much of their holdings on line and organizing exhibits from their fascinating collections. In 2012, the archives will put many more documents on display at the Capitoline Museums in Rome.
I asked Father McVay about his time in the archives, and he pointed out that "it is a great privilege to be permitted to perform research in such an important collection of archival funds known collectively as the Vatican Secret Archives." Correcting the most common mistake about the archives he explained that "the official name is a bit of a misnomer. 'Secretum' here would be the equivalent to 'privy' in English. They are the Pope's archives and, as any state archives, are private but not 'secret.'"
The Archivium Secretum Vaticanum was opened for research to scholars by Pope Leo XIII in 1881. It has been the custom for the Roman Pontiffs to de-classify series of documents dating from not less than 80 years after the end of a pontificate of one or more of their predecessors. For Father McVay's research, the necessary documents -- those from the pontificate of Pius XI (1922-1939), were de-classified in 2006 by Benedict XVI.
I asked how many documents he read for his research, and Father McVay explained that for his doctoral dissertation he "sifted through well over 10,000 folios, mainly from two collections: the Archives of the Sacred Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs (AES) and those of the Apostolic Nunciature of Warsaw. For this particular project, virtually all of the documents are found in the Pro Russia section of the AES. Pro Russia was a Pontifical Commission created by Pius XI to handle all Catholic affairs in the Soviet Union and the Russian émigrés."
The translating was extensive for the English language book as Father McVay explained that "the lingua franca used in Vatican diplomatic correspondence is Italian. Documents to and from secular diplomatic representatives are invariably in French. Only a very few documents are in Latin, often to or from churchmen who did not speak Italian or French."
The letters coming from Ukraine however, were written in Russian. Father Mcvay told me that "the AES index lists the themes of all the documents contained in that archive, including famine in Russia. Holodomor is a Ukrainian term coined later. I spent about two months on-and-off translating the documents as I had other work to perform on my biography of Bishop Budka."
Best-kept Soviet secret
Despite the extraordinary death toll and horrific conditions of a people starving to death, this story seems to have passed under the radar in most history books. Everyone knows of the Holocaust, but few Americans or others would be able to explain the Holodomor. I asked Father Mcvay how this could have happened. "The Soviet Union and its successor the Russian Federation have denied that the famine was directed against Ukraine" he stated.
"Political and diplomatic pressure has been exerted on other countries not to disseminate information about the Holodomor and especially not to give it any kind of official recognition," he added. "But when I asked him about the question of genocide, Father explained that "the question is complicated. Whatever you want to call the Holodomor, it is vital that it be recognized as a deliberate act directed mainly against the ethnically Ukrainian population of Soviet Ukraine and Russia. Films about the Holodomor have been released. At the time, journalists such as Malcolm Muggeridge and Gareth Jones broke the story after visiting Soviet Ukraine."
But some journalists deliberately covered up the story of the famine, I had read. New York Times Russian bureau chief Walter Duranty published articles claiming that there was no famine in the Ukraine. He even won a Pulitzer prize for his reporting! Father McVay clarified this story:
"After the publication of government documents proving the existence of the Holodomor, the publication of our documents and contemporary news reports by Muggeridge and Jones, it is obvious that the late Walter Duranty's reports were inaccurate. I don't know what was the motivation behind such reports. I understand that some scholars have asked for Duranty's Pulitzer prize to be posthumously revoked."
Asked about what he considered the greatest contributions of this book, Father McVay answered, "The Holy See and the Holodomor: Documents from the Vatican Secret Archives on the Great Famine of 1932-1933 in Soviet Ukraine is a specific testimony of the Holodomor from primary and international diplomatic sources. It is also a contribution to scholarship on the inner workings of the Roman Curia during the pontificate of Pius XI."
* * *
Elizabeth Lev teaches Christian art and architecture at Duquesne University's Italian campus and University of St. Thomas' Catholic Studies program. Her new book, "The Tigress of Forlì: Renaissance Italy's Most Courageous and Notorious Countess, Caterina Riario Sforza de' Medici" was published by Harcourt, Mifflin Houghton Press this Fall. She can be reached at email@example.com
But...but...Walter Duranty said the Soviet Union was a paradise under Stalin’s rule.
I guess Quail Hollow Farm owners didn’t own the food they were serving to their guests, either.
IIRC, Kruschev was involved in this. Heavily.
Any atrocity by any Marxist or leftist is always covered up. In fact, they probably believe that the Ukrainians should have been happy to die for the Father of the People.
and yet we consider Hitler as the Great Monster of the 20th century!!
Atheist communist forced starvation (2.4 to 7.5 million dead)
75 years ago
Spanish Inquisition (3-5 thousand dead) hundreds of years ago
Which is remembered more...I wonder why?
Something totally ignored in US publik skool history classes
18$ an hour for minimum wage + workers electing their supervisors + government run industries = American Holodormor.
This is what happens when an OWS crowd gets their way.
Maybe because Monty Python never did a skit about the Holomodor.
The NYT wears the its crown proudly.
There’s a rather large Ukrainian Orthodox church in my area. Believe me, those people remember. There’s a 20 foot tall memorial to the dead in the middle of the parking lot.
They also sell some outstanding pierogi on Sunday after services. I need to stop by, pay my respects, and pick some up this weekend.
“Spanish Inquisition (3-5 thousand dead) hundreds of years ago”
You need to research that a bit more, FRiend. :)
“No one expects the Holodomor!” Nah, doesn’t work.
We should have just let the Soviet Union and Hitler slug it out and only helped Britain preserve its island fortress.
Could it not be possible that Mr. Duranty received a huge sum of bribe-money by Stalin, so as not to spill the beans in the NYT about the disastrous situation in Ukraine?
Still, Hitler is the # 1 Monster of the 20th century in my book, but If I could award something like “Olympic Medals of Shame”, Stalin and Mao would be definitely the two runners-up - both equally evil.
A silver Medal of Shame for each of the two, please :-( :-(
Yes, he was, notwithstanding the fact that he was Ukrainian himself, IIRC.
I didn’t realize that he was from the Ukraine. He should have been hung for his role in the Ukrainian famine. When he was Premier of the USSR the press played him up as a grand-fatherly type. In real life he was a stone cold killer.
Robert Conquest has written about this era of history. People in the Ukraine died while looking at tons of wheat behind fences protected by armed guards. Evil incarnate.
Stalin starved the Ukrianian Kulaks of food.
Owebama is starving the American middle class of prosperity and energy. He is just getting started.
Sorry, I had been wrong about Khrushchev’s heritage.
Khrushchev was not Ukrainian by origin, but spent a large time of his youth in the Donezk region of Ukraine, where his family had moved when he was a boy.
Last names with -ev at the end are usually Russian, whereas names with -nko at the end are typically Ukrainian.
But you are right: the farmers sometimes had to watch as their grain was being transported away, leaving nothing for them to eat.
It is great that new research on this horrendous crime against humanity is coming to light. I recommend Tim Snyder’s Bloodlands which tries to assess who killed more: Hitler or Stalin. There is a heavy emphasis on Stalin’s war on the Ukranians. Our history books sanitize it by focusing on the kulaks, but the reality is that it was a genocide.
Spanish Inquisition (3-5 thousand dead) hundreds of years ago
“You need to research that a bit more, FRiend. :)”
Based on modern historians research of actual Inquisition records (and they were meticulous record-keepers), the documented numbers are indeed within the 3000 to 5000 range. The higher numbers that are typically cited (some even exceeding the entire population of Europe during that time!)are imaginary products of Reformation-era polemics.
The Myth of the Spanish Inquisition
Stalin was Georgian—Ossetian, to be exact.
And as to Walter Duranty’s falsified reporting, besides his being a fellow-traveller, I’ve also read a suggestion that the OGPU (or NKVD, or whatever the KGB’s predecessor was called then) “had the goods” on him.
Surely, Gentlemen, Stalin was Georgian/Ossetian.
However, the debate between fellow Freeper Buffaloguy and me had been about Krushchev’s heritage, not Stalin’s. Sorry.
I regret any misunderstanding :-)
What a time...
1930s : (COMMUNIST PARTY MEMBER SAUL ALINSKY BASES IMSELF IN CHICAGO'S MEATPACKING DISTRICT "THE BACK OF THE YARDS"----see FRANK NITTI, AL CAPONE, CHICAGO MOB, STALIN, OBAMA)
“We should have just let the Soviet Union and Hitler slug it out and only helped Britain preserve its island fortress.”
If we did that Stalin would have taken all of Europe.
But, who’s worse than Joseph Stalin to the “enlightened” left? Joseph McCarthy.
Hitler in a one-front war against the Soviets - hard to say what result would have been. Even then - why was Eastern Europe given away to Stalin at Yalta and Potsdam?
“Hitler in a one-front war against the Soviets”
Hitler was pretty much in a one front war until 1944.
Actually he’s in the ballpark with those numbers.
I think it was the fact that the Red Army in fact held sway of all Europe east of the Elbe.
The fact that President FDR considered Stalin an, at heart, kindly “Uncle Joe”, and would not listen to Churchill’s warnings of the Soviet leader’s true nature, was another factor.
Because the elite were socialists. Including the post war US government.
Robert Conquest wrote an excellent book on this Communist engineered famine back in 1987, “Harvest of Sorrow”, as did Miron Dolot in “Execution by Hunger”.
Conquest is a British Soviet scholar and an excellent writer. The book is well worth reading. Miron Dolot lived through the Ukrainian terror-famine as a teenage boy.
IIRC Nikita Khruschchev was the Communist apparatchik assigned to enforce the famine, for those of us old enough to remember the chubby shoe-pounder. The Evil Empire was just that, and most of its victims were its own unfortunate citizens.
“IIRC, Kruschev was involved in this. Heavily.”
You remember correctly. Although you have abridged the shoe-pounder’s name a bit.
Myth of the Spanish Inquisition BBC documentary
Someone should set up a "Revoke Walter Duranty's Pulitzer" Facebook page to help expose the Holodomor and the NYTimes' incompetence or complicity in it.
Yes I have. Sorry about that.
“Conquest is a British Soviet scholar and an excellent writer.”
He is also an excellent researcher. After the USSR fell, some people in the Russian government confirmed that all his numbers were dead on. Very sobering numbers.
why was Eastern Europe given away to Stalin at Yalta and Potsdam?
1. The Russians were one of the victors.
2. FDRs main advisor at Yalta and Potsdam was Harold Ickes Sr. When the soviet archives were opened to scholars we found out that Ickes was in the pay of Joe Stalin. Joe was as generous with his money as was Ickes in his efforts to give the soviet Union the upper hand in Europe.
Writers’ guilds are heavily Communist
FDR was a commie himself