Well this Church father is wrong. And I say with confidence that God’s word says different: Hebrews 8:10-11 For this [is] the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord; I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people: And they shall not teach every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord: for all shall know me, from the least to the greatest.
You do realized that Jesus Christ fulfilled this promise. Hebrews 8:8-13 makes is clear that the real Israel of God has the "laws in their minds" and "written on their hearts" and that "none of them shall teach his neighbor and none his brother saying 'Know the Lord' for all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them."
This is NOT modern day Israel who are in unbelief. Christians have the "laws in their minds and written on their hearts." Further, John says that believers who have the Holy Spirit "[ye] need not that any man teach you: but as the same anointing teacheth you of all things, and is truth, and is no lie, and even as it hath taught you, ye shall abide in him." (1 John 2:27)
Jesus called the physical descendents of Abraham who did not believe in him "children of Satan." Jesus cursed the unproductive fig tree "forever" (Matthew 21:19). We know from Luke 13:6-9 that this is [unbelieving] Israel then. And in Matthew 21:33-40 (the parable of the vineyard) the unfaithful husbandmen were removed and replaced by those "which shall render unto him the fruits in their season."
Jesus saith unto them, Did ye never read in the scriptures, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner; this is the Lords doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes? Therefore I say unto you, The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof. And whatsoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken: but whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder. (Matthew 21:42-44)
Unbelieving Israel has been cut off and the kingdom of God has been given to a "nation bringing forth the fruits thereof." Did God break his promise? No, "for they are not all Isreal who are of Israel." (Romans 9:6)