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Who Was Paul VI?
Catholic Family News ^ | February 2013 | Robert J. Siscoe

Posted on 02/05/2013 7:40:53 PM PST by ebb tide

Who Was Paul VI?
A review of Msgr. Villa’s Paul VI Beatified?

By Robert J. Siscoe

It was during the 35th Assembly of the Italian Bishops that Cardinal Ruini, President of the Italian Episcopal Conference, announced his intention to submit the cause for beatification of Paul VI. On May 13, 1992, he issued an Edict that appeared in the
Roma Sette, inviting “every single faithful to communicate to us directly… any information which, in any way, may argue against the reputation of sanctity of the Servant of God [Paul VI]”. Fr. Luigi Villa, editor of Chiesa Viva, answered the call.

In the early 1950’s, Fr. Villa was informed by Padre Pio that he had been personally chosen by our Lord to “defend the Church of Christ from the work of Freemasonry, especially the ecclesiastical Freemasonry”. (1) Padre Pio discussed this divine mission with Fr. Villa in three separate meetings that occurred over the course of fifteen years. This mission was approved by Pius XII, who provided Fr. Villa with a Papal Mandate to carry out the work. During a meeting with Padre Pio that took place in 1963, the Saint said to Fr. Villa: “Courage, courage, courage! For the Church is already invaded by Freemasonry”, and then said: “Freemasonry has already reached the Pope’s slippers”. (2)

In responding to the call of Cardinal Ruini, Fr. Villa said he spent more than a decade going through “no less than 30,000 pages of encyclicals, speeches, Conciliar documents, historical journals, commentaries and magazines of all kinds, in order to gather an overview adequate enough to weigh up the Pontificate” of Paul VI. (Pg 8) This research resulted in a monumental work containing devastating evidence against the orthodoxy of Paul VI, which brought the process of beatification to a screeching halt. The information first appeared in book form, in 1998, under the title Paul VI Beatified?

In the Prologue, Fr. Luigi provides an interesting quote from Paul VI to his good friend Jean Guitton, in which the Pontiff confessed that he never felt called to the Priesthood, but instead had an “intense calling” to live as a laymen. “I had an intense calling”, said Paul VI, “to live in the world, to be a layman, as they say today. I did not feel cut out for the clerical life that, at times, seemed to me static, closed… implying the renunciation of earthly tendencies in the measure of its condemnation of the world”. The Pontiff then wondered if, perhaps, he could somehow find a way to merge his “intense calling” to live in the world as a laymen (thesis), with the priesthood (antithesis), thereby forming within himself a kind of synthesis.

“Nonetheless”, said the Pope, “if one has these feelings, could one join the priesthood in the Twentieth century? If I feel thus, it means that I am called to another state, where I will realize myself more harmoniously for the common good of the Church”. Jean Guitton said Paul VI always seemed to him more like a layman than a cleric. “I noticed how his thoughts were of a secular kind. With him, one was not in the presence of a ‘cleric’, but of a layman, promoted, unexpectedly, to the papacy”. (Pg. 12)

CHAPTER ONE begins with the “New Religion” of Paul VI, which was spread throughout the universal Church by Vatican II. Fr. Villa begins the chapter with these words:

“The Pontificate of Paul VI has been, to us, a real catastrophe, for the reason that it was an authentic revolution that spun the Church on a 180 degree about-turn, by means of a Council that supplanted the ‘Traditional Church’ with a ‘New Church’…”. (Pg 27)

Fr. Villa explains that the roots of this New Religion are the Subjectivism of Kant and the Naturalism of Rousseau. Fr. Villa shows how the New Religion of Paul VI puts man in the place of God, and consequently redirects the focus away from God and toward man; from God who became man, to man who makes himself God. It is a religion “wherein the supernatural and Revelation are excluded” (Pg 40), and in which everything is inverted and turned upside down: rather than “loving our neighbor as our self, for the love of God”, as we say in the Act of Charity, the New Religion teaches that we are to love our neighbor for himself,
in order to love God, since, in this religion, man is God. He quotes Paul VI’s closing speech of Vatican II, in which he said:

[T[his council… has concentrated principally on man … Would it not be, in short, a simple,
new and solemn teaching to love man in order to love God? To love man, we say, not as a means but as the first step toward the final and transcendent goal which is the basis and cause of every love… The religion of God who became man has met the religion of man who makes himself God. And what happened? Was there a clash, a battle, a condemnation? There could have been, but there was none. … we call upon those who term themselves modern humanists, and who have renounced the transcendent value of the highest realities, to give the Council credit for one quality and to recognize our own new type of humanism; we, too, in fact, we more than any others, honor man; we have the Cult of Man”.

Fr. Villa shows how Paul VI’s “Cult of Man” caused the Church’s orientation to go from
theocentric (God centered) to anthropocentric (man centered), thereby bringing it more in line with secular society. According to Paul VI, this was no accident:

“Has all this, and all that we might say about the human value of the Council, perhaps diverted the attention of the Church in the Council toward the anthropocentric direction of modern culture? Diverted, no; directed, yes” (Paul VI, Pg. 36)

How did Paul VI justify this new orientation which “savourest not the things that are of God, but the things that are of men”? (Mt. 16:23) He explained his reasoning as follows: “If the world changes, should not religion change as well?” (3)

And change it did. Fr. Villa demonstrates how, in the new orientation, emphasis is redirected away from the Rights of God and toward the Masonic inspired Rights of Man. The supremacy of the supernatural is replaced with the supremacy of the natural; the supremacy of the law of God is replaced by the supremacy of man’s conscience; while the supremacy of the Kingdom of God and eternal life is replaced by the supremacy of this world and human life, with the goal of achieving a sort of paradise of earth. And lastly, the Divine Mission of the True Church to “preach the Gospel to all creatures, baptizing them in the name of the Father, Son and the Holy Ghost”, is replaced by the “human mission” of the New Church, which is “dialogue”, in which, as Paul VI admitted, “conversion to the true Faith is not the primary object”. (4)

This same reorientation, which Sister Lucy called a “diabolical disorientation”, resulted in Paul VI turning not to Jesus Christ for world peace, but instead to the United Nations. Fr. Villa quotes from a speech Paul VI gave to the U.N. in 1965 in which he said: “The peoples of the earth turn to the United Nations as the last hope of concord and peace”.

CHAPTER TWO discusses Paul VI’s “opening to the world”, which, as Fr. Villa shows, is more properly described as ‘an osmosis’ between the Church and the world; “an inter-penetration of reciprocal influence”. He quotes Paul VI saying that the Council has brought about a substantial change in the Church’s judgment and approach to the world, which it now views with “affection and admiration”.

“How does the Church regard the world today?” asked Paul VI. “This vision [of] the Council has broadened us… to the point of changing
substantially our judgment and approach before the world”. (5) “A wave of affection and admiration flowed out from the Council over the modern world of humanity … The modern world’s values were not only respected, but honored”. (6) “Our Testimony is a sign of the approach of the Church toward the modern world; an approach made up of attention, of understanding, of admiration, and of friendship”. (7)

As Fr. Villa says, it seems Paul VI forgot the words of the Bible, which call friendship with the world adultery, and those who engage in it, enemies of God: “Adulterers, know you not that the friendship of this world is the enemy of God? Whosoever therefore will be a friend of this world, becometh an enemy of God” (James 4:4); and the words of John the Apostle: “Love not the world, nor the things which are in the world. If any man love the world, the charity of the Father is not in him” (1 John 2:15-16).

Fr. Villa explains that this “opening to the world” of Paul VI is the very essence of Modernism. “It is Modernists, in fact, who call for a Church open to the world through integral humanism, through ignorance of the supernatural…”. (Pg. 66) He quotes Paul VI who, seeing the disastrous condition of the Church, was forced to admit that his “opening to the world became a veritable invasion of the Church by worldly thinking. We have perhaps been too weak and imprudent." (8)

CHAPTER THREE documents Paul VI’s opening of the Church to Modernism. Fr. Villa begins by quoting the little known Motu Proprio of Pius X, Praestantia Scripturae, in which the sainted Pope attached ipso facto excommunication to anyone who will “be so rash as to defend any one of the propositions, opinions or teachings condemned in … Lamentabili… [and ] our encyclical letter Pascendi [two anti Modernist documents]. … This excommunication”, continued the Pope, “is to be understood as salvis poenis, which may be incurred by those who have violated in any way the said documents, as propagators and defenders of heresies...”.

The vigilance of the saintly Pius X did much to protect the Church from Modernism during his day, but it began to resurface again under the name
Nouvelle Theologie (New Theology) during the reign of Pius XII, who, like his predecessor, promptly condemned the errors in the encyclical Humani Generis (1950). However, as Fr. Villa shows, Paul VI did the exact opposite by systematically destroying each and every one of the barriers erected by Pius X for the purpose of protecting the Church against Modernism, and elevating to key positions in the Church the very men who were the leading proponents of the Nouvelle Theologie (many of whom are now Cardinal). He quotes Fr. Henrici who admitted in 30 Days Magazine, in December of 1991, that the Nouvelle Theologie “has become the official theology of Vatican II”. (Pg. 94)

CHAPTER FOUR discusses Paul VI’s opening of the Church to Freemasonry, which has always desired the destruction of the Church; or rather, the infiltration of the Church in order to use it to achieve their ends. Adam Weishaupt, the founder of the Illuminati, wrote: "We will infiltrate that place [the Vatican], and once inside, we will never come out. We will bore from within until nothing remains but an empty shell”.

Fr. Villa discusses Papal and other Ecclesiastical condemnations of Freemasonry from the time of Clement XII up to Vatican II, and then demonstrates, what he calls, “the change of course by Vatican II, guided by John XXIII, and subsequently by Paul VI, which adopted ecumenical and liberal positions toward Freemasonry…”. (Pg 119)

He cites a document issued from the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish Bishops, stating that the “Episcopal conference has decided” that Freemasons “wishing to embrace Catholicism [are] to be welcomed in the Church without renouncing their active membership in Freemasonry”. Rather than condemning this action of the Bishops, a letter from the Holy Office, dated July 1974, invited the Bishops, in dealing with Freemasons, to follow their example. (Pg. 122)

Fr. Villa quotes from the book
Ecumenism as seen by a Traditional Freemason, written by Yves Marsaudon, head of Scottish Rite Freemasonry in France, who said: “One could really speak of a Revolution that from our Masonic Lodges has spread magnificently, reaching the top of St. Peter’s Basilica”. (Pg. 124) It is also of interest to note that the book itself was dedicated to John XXIII and Paul VI. Marsaudon wrote:

“The Memory of Angelo Roncalli, Priest, Archbishop of Messembria, Apostolic Nuncio in Paris, Cardinal of the Roman Church, Patriarch of Venice, Pope under the name of John XXIII, who has deigned to give us his benediction, his understanding and his protection”, and to “The Pope of Peace, to the Father of all Christians, to the Friend of All Men, to his August continuer, His Holiness Pope Paul VI”. (9)

Fr. Villa documents the infiltration of Freemasons into the hierarchy, naming names along the way, and complains that “even the public and repeated admission of the Grand Master Salvini as to the current affiliation to Freemasonry of various High Ecclesiastics fell on deaf ears”. (Pg 132) He discusses how Paul VI always refused to receive Traditional Catholics, yet “continually welcomed, instead, the members of the Masonic Lodge, like, for example, those of the Masonic Lodge of the B’Nai-Brith; like those of
L’Alliance Israelite Universelle, which aims at achieving the union of all religions into one”. (Pg. 125)

The content of this chapter brings to mind the
Alta Vendita, which is the Masonic blueprint for the subversion of the Catholic Church. This document fell into the hands of Pope Gregory XVI, and was later published, at the request of Pope Pius IX, by Cretineau-Joly in The Roman Church and Revolution. The document explains that the goal of Freemasonry “is the total annihilation of Catholicism”. In addition to direct infiltration of Masonic agents into the priesthood, they also began the process of circulating Masonic ideas in the Seminaries with the goal of infecting the men who would later be ordained priest. Eventually these priests, imbued with their ideas, would rise to positions of authority within the Church. “Within a few years, this same younger clergy will, of necessity occupy responsible positions. They will govern, administrate, judge and form the council of the Sovereign Pontiff; some will be called upon to elect a future pope. This pope, like most of his contemporaries, will be to a greater or lesser degree influenced by those Italian and humanitarian principles which we are now circulating” (Alta Vendita). (10)

Hence the opening of the Church to Freemasonry, which took place at Vatican II, was long expected by Freemasons themselves, and spotted at once. Fr. Villa provides the following quote from History of Freemasonry in France:

“The Council of Rome (Vatican II), in its second session, let transpire a great diplomatic movement of the Church in the direction of Freemasonry. The approach of the Church does not surprise the French Freemasonry’s leaders, who had long been expecting it…”. (117)

He quotes Don Esposito, Grand Master of Italian Freemasonry, who said: “A series of Paul VI’s decisions are an indiscriminate opening toward Freemasonry” (Pg. 132). He also quotes from an obituary, written by Giordano Gamberini, former Grand Master of the Masonic Grand Orient in Italy, which appeared in the Masonic magazine,
La Rivista Massonica, after the death of Paul VI:

“To us, it is the death of him who made the condemnation of Clement XII [against Freemasonry] and of his successors fall. … it is the first time… that the Head of the greatest Western religion dies not in a state of hostility with the Freemasons. … For the first time in history, the Freemasons can pay respect to the tomb of a Pope, without any ambiguities or contradiction”. (Pg. 120)

CHAPTER FIVE discusses the opening of the Church to the Masonic New World Order/Universal Democracy. The ultimate aim of Freemasonry has always been, as Pope Leo XIII taught, “the utter overthrow of that whole religious and political order of the world which the Christian teaching has produced, and the substitution of a new state of things in accordance with their ideas, of which the foundations and laws shall be drawn from mere naturalism” (Humanum Genus). The destruction of the “old world order” was a necessary step for the establishment of the New World Order.

The Christian world order, in which the Rights of God and of His Church are acknowledged, subordinates the temporal realm to the spiritual realm. In Christendom, law is based on the Ten Commandments and the teachings of Revelation, thereby conforming civil law to the Eternal law of God, and civil society to the Divine Plan.

In the Masonic world order, the Rights of God and Revelation are completely ignored, while laws are based on mere naturalism and the “Rights of Man”. Fr. Villa explains how, in the Masonic world order, the will of man replaces the Will of God; the ‘sovereign’ man replaces the Sovereignty of God; and the rights of man supersede the Rights of God.

Fr. Villa cites Pope Pius IX who said the Masonic “French Revolution was inspired by Satan himself. Its goal is the destruction of Christianity from top to bottom”, and then quotes Pope St. Pius X lamenting the fact that there are some who “fear not to draw between the Gospel and the Revolution, blasphemous comparisons”. (Pg. 159) Fr. Villa then goes on to quote Paul VI doing just that, namely, continuously drawing blasphemous comparisons between the Gospel and the Revolution, and promoting the rebuilding of society based on the Masonic principles of naturalism and false ecumenism. He quotes Paul VI saying:

“The hour has come for the great fellowship of men with each other, and for the setting up a United and Fraternal World Community … The world of peace is not limited to one religious faith; it is the work and duty of every man, regardless of his religious convictions”.

Fr. Villa quotes Paul VI repeatedly teaching that this new “Fraternal World Community” is to be founded on Human Rights and “conscience”, but as he shows, the formation of conscience, for Paul VI, is not based on the Rights of God and man’s corresponding duties, nor on the teachings of Divine Revelation, but merely on the “rights of man” (tolerance, non discrimination, etc.).

In a speech to the United Nations, the Pope said:

“What does this conscience, then, express with so much strength? ‘Human Rights’. The conscience of humanity grows stronger and stronger. Men rediscover this inalienable part of themselves which binds them together: the human in man. … Is ‘The Charter of Human Rights’, not only to claim for anyone, regardless of race, age, sex
and religion, respect for human dignity and for the conditions necessary for its practice, but also to translate, loud and clear, the unanimous aspiration of hearts and the universal testimony of conscience?”

As Fr. Villa points out, for Paul VI, “everything is based on man. Religion with him had no longer a place.” (Pg 165) With Paul VI, there is no mention of offending the Dignity of God, only of offending the dignity of man.

Fr. Villa repeatedly shows how the new humanistic orientation of Paul VI was condemned by Pope St. Pius X in his encyclical against the Sillon; an organization that promoted a form of social modernism that sought to rebuild society based on the Masonic notions of “Liberty, Justice, Fraternity, Love, Equality, and human exultation, all resting upon an ill-understood human dignity”. (11) He quotes Paul VI, who said:

“True peace must be founded upon justice, upon a sense of the intangible dignity of man, upon the recognition of an abiding and happy equality between men, upon the basic principle of human brotherhood”. (12) He called for “
a human community to be built where men can live truly human lives, free from discrimination on account of race, religion, or nationality…”. (Pg. 170)

The problem with this humanistic idea is that, as our Lord said, those who are not with Christ are against Him (Luke 11:23); and this teaching applies to individuals and the State. Hence, the “human community” that does not acknowledge Christ as King will be against Christ the King, and will eventually persecute the members of His Mystical body. The secular state will always end by being an antichrist state.

CHAPTER SIX explores the tolerance and complicity of Paul VI. Fr. Villa discusses the “reform” of the Holy Office (a longtime goal of the Modernists), in such a way that “errors could no longer be condemned in the way it was done before” (Pg. 181); the elimination of the Index, because as Paul VI said, “the Church has confidence in the mature conscience of the faithful”; the elimination of the Oath Against Modernism; and more. He quotes Paul VI, in June of 1969, as saying:

“We are headed toward a period of greater freedom in the life of the Church, and, consequently, for each of her children. This freedom shall mean less legal obligations and less inner inhibitions. Formal discipline shall be softened, every arbitrariness abolished… Every intolerance, and every absolutism shall similarly be abolished”.

According to Fr. Villa “the simpleton had seen, in those words of Paul VI, a luminous sign of charity”. He then shows that this “charity” and tolerance of Paul VI was not extended to Traditional Catholics, whom he repeatedly refused to receive in audience. Neither was this “tolerance” extended to those who wanted to retain the old Mass, which was illicitly suppressed under his watch.

It should also be noted that the condemnation of error is itself an act of charity, since it serves as a warning to those who are entangled in it, and prevents the innocent from being led astray. Not to mention the fact that those whose job it is to protect the Faith have an obligation to condemn error. Failure to do so, when necessity demands, is contrary to justice; and since justice falls under the theological virtue of charity, this sin of omission is not an act of charity, but a sin against charity. Allowing the wolves to devour the flock, under the pretense of “toleration”, is no virtue for he who is duty bound to defend the Faith.

The book concludes with a chapter on Paul VI’s Ecumenical Novus Ordo Missae, and the illicit suppression of the Traditional Mass. Fr. Villa explains that the Traditional Mass was codified by Pope St. Pius V, in the 16th Century, as a barrier against Protestant influence. Paul VI did exactly the opposite: he suppressed the Traditional Mass, and introduced, in its place, a new Mass that was more in conformity with Protestant theology. Fr. Villa said:

“While St. Pius V retained the traditional Roman Rite, ‘as surely Catholic’, Paul VI, on the contrary, abolished the Traditional Roman Rite precisely because it was Catholic, in order to bring about his ‘new Missal’, positively Protestantized, as one can easily prove”. (246)

Fr. Villa quotes one Protestant minister after another who had favorable things to say about the new Mass of Paul VI, including an Anglican Bishop who said “This new Rite is perfectly in keeping with our Protestant ideas”. (Pg.247) Fr. Villa asks the question: “How is it that today, after Paul VI’s ‘reformation’ of the Mass, the Protestants say they can accept the Catholic Mass, whereas, before, they would not accept at all that of Pius V? Is it perhaps that the Protestants have embraced the Catholic Faith? Or is it rather because Paul VI’s Mass has ‘embraced’ Lutheran thinking? (Pg 246) This question is answered in the quote Fr. Villa provides from the Vatican’s own newspaper, Osservatore Romano, which reported that “The liturgical reform has taken a remarkable step forward, and has come closer to the liturgical forms of the Lutheran Church”. (Pg. 246)

Fr. Villa quotes Cardinal Ratzinger, who said: “Tragic error was committed by Paul VI with the prohibition of the use of Pius V’s Missal and the approval of the ‘new’ Missal, which would break away from the liturgical traditional of the Church” (Pg. 244). It would be the same Cardinal Ratzinger who, after being elected Pope in 2005, would finally admit to the world that the old Mass was “never juridically abrogated and, consequently, in principle, was always permitted”. (13) Yet in a supreme act of irony, it is the same Cardinal Ratzinger — now Benedict XVI — who is giving his approval to Paul VI’s “beatification”.

Near the end of the Chapter, Fr. Villa quotes an apostate priest of the 19th Century named Canon Roca, who, through association with occult sources, was able to predict that the “Divine worship, as expressed in the liturgy… and precepts of the Roman Church will undergo in the near future at an ecumenical council, a transformation”, which will bring it “in harmony with
the new state of consciousness and modern civilization”. (Pg.266)

CONCLUSION: This book is a must read for every serious Catholic. Fr. Villa pulls no punches as he demonstrates that the new humanistic orientation of Paul VI is not only contrary to what was taught prior to Vatican II, but is also in perfect accord with the heretical principles of Freemasonry. The book clearly shows that Paul VI is more deserving of an anathema sit than beatification. Let us hope that the latest move of those prelates still drunk with the Conciliar wine, and who are engaged in what Fr. Villa called a “scheme to raise to the altars the two Popes of Vatican II, in order to manifest the ‘supernaturalness’ of Vatican II, and, consequently, this ‘New Church’, with its reforms” will be stopped in their tracks, once again, by this monumental work. And let us not forget to pray for Fr. Villa, who went to his eternal reward on November 18, 2012.

1) Biography of Fr. Villa, by Dr. Adessa
2) Ibid
3) General Audience, July 2, 1969
4) Ecclesiam Suam, 79
5) Paul VI. March 5, 1969
6) December 7, 1965
7) Paul VI, June 8, 1964
8) November 23, 1973
9) Destruction of Christian Tradition, pg. 129
10) Ibid, pg. 128
11) Our Apostolic Mandate, Pius X
12) November 14, 1970
13) Letter of Pope Benedict to the Bishops on the occasion of the publication of Summorum Pontificum, July 7, 2007

Printed from the February 2013 Catholic Family News - click here to subscribe
(Read hard-hitting articles like the one above every month. CFN is a print-only edition. We only post on line one or two articles from each issue)

Order on line: Msgr. Villa's
Paul VI Beatified? available here

Posted February 5, 2013

TOPICS: Apologetics; Catholic; Ecumenism; Worship
KEYWORDS: catholic; paulvi; vaticancouncilii

1 posted on 02/05/2013 7:40:57 PM PST by ebb tide
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To: ebb tide; surroundedbyblue

You can read this book online (or download the PDF) at

Frankly I think this book is exactly what the rest of the Third Secret of Fatima warned about.

If folks really want to know why our Church is so screwed up today, read this book.

2 posted on 02/05/2013 8:04:09 PM PST by Brian Kopp DPM
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To: ebb tide
He quotes Don Esposito, Grand Master of Italian Freemasonry, who said: “A series of Paul VI’s decisions are an indiscriminate opening toward Freemasonry”

I certainly do not understand this.

I grew up during the reign of Paul the VI and from my earliest memories it was not permitted for a catholic to be a member of the Freemasons.

Even today one can not be a member of the Knights of Columbus and a Freemason.

So how is it that Paul VI opened the church to Freemasonry?

3 posted on 02/06/2013 12:11:29 AM PST by Pontiac (The welfare state must fail because it is contrary to human nature and diminishes the human spirit.)
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To: ebb tide

Paul VI was Catholicism’s Barack Obama (aka Elmer Fudd).

4 posted on 02/06/2013 2:10:58 AM PST by NTHockey (Rules of engagement #1: Take no prisoners)
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To: Dr. Brian Kopp

Thank you for posting this book.

5 posted on 02/06/2013 6:39:11 AM PST by NoExpectations
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To: Pontiac
The hostility between Freemasonry and the Catholic Church goes back centuries and I think it has always been the rule that Catholics were not allowed to become Masons.

A few years ago I attended a Masonic funeral service in a Catholic parish hall for a man who had been both a Catholic and a Mason--but he had been a Mason before he converted to the Catholic Church. There was nothing anti-Catholic in the Masonic ritual that they went through. Probably there are many Masons who are unaware of the traditional anti-Catholicism of Freemasonry.

Andrew Jackson was a Mason but he appointed the first Catholic Chief Justice of the United States, Roger Taney.

Back about 1959 the Catholic newspaper Our Sunday Visitor ran a series of articles on anti-Catholic groups in the US--one of the articles was about the Masons.

6 posted on 02/06/2013 9:37:58 AM PST by Verginius Rufus
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To: Dr. Brian Kopp

Thanks for the link.

7 posted on 02/07/2013 7:14:53 PM PST by ebb tide
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