Free Republic
Browse · Search
Topics · Post Article

To: All

From: Hebrews 12:18-19, 21-24

Striving for Peace; Purity; Reverent Worship (Continuation)

[18] For you have not come to what may be touched, a blazing fire, and dark-
ness, and gloom, and a tempest, [19] and the sound of a trumpet, and a voice
whose words made the hearers entreat that no further messages be spoken to
them. [21] Indeed, so terrifying was the sight that Moses said, “I tremble with
fear.” [22] But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God,
the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable angels in festal gathering, [23] and
to the assembly of the first-born who are enrolled in heaven, and to a judge who
is God of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect, [24a] and to Jesus,
the mediator of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood that speaks more
graciously than the blood of Abel.


18-21. The text recalls in detail all the physical signs which accompanied the ma-
nifestation of God on the heights of Sinai (cf. Ex 19:12-16; 20:18), and to these it
adds other things taken from Jewish oral tradition.

All this helps to inspire feelings of religious reverence and fear, which explains
why the people begged God not to speak further, for they were afraid they would
die. To assert his transcendence God forbade anyone to put foot on the moun-
tain (Ex 19:12, 21); this was a way of showing this as yet uncivilized people the
difference between the true God and idols.

There is no mention in the Pentateuch of Moses being frightened of the vision he
saw when God manifested himself on Sinai; when his fear is mentioned (Deut 9:
19) it is in the context of the second time he went up the mountain to be given
replacements for the tables he had broken in a fit of rage (Deut 9:15-18; Ex 32:
19-20). His fear was that God would punish with death those who had adored the
golden calf. When telling (cf. Acts 7:32) the story of God’s first revelation to Mo-
ses in the burning bush, St Stephen says that “Moses trembled and did not dare
to look”: thus, the presence of divinity provokes in him the deepest feelings of re-
verence and fear (cf. the attitude of Abraham: Gen 15:12; of Zechariah: Lk 1:12;
of Isaiah: Is 6:4-5; of Jeremiah: Jer 1:6; of Gideon: Judg 6:22-23; etc.).

22-24. The sacred text dramatically contrasts two scenes—that of the establish-
ment of the Covenant on Sinai, and the vision of the heavenly city, the dwelling-
place of the angels and saints. The comparison implies a rhetorical question: if
the setting of the Old Covenant was so solemn and awesome, and if the Cove-
nant itself was so supernatural and divine, what must not be said of the New

We have therefore overwhelming reasons for staying faithful: what awaits us is
not an austere and vengeful God but, rather, the joy and splendor of the heaven-
ly city. For the Hebrew people Mount Sinai was the most important symbol of
their special connection with God, reminding them that the Almighty was also
the Supreme Judge who claimed their exclusive devotion and who abominated
idolatry. Similarly, another mountain, Mount Zion, on which the Temple was built,
repre- sented God’s protective presence in the midst of his people. Both moun-
tains, Sinai and Zion, prefigured the mountain from which the Messiah-King
would reign and towards which all peoples would flock to worship the true God
(cf. Ps 2:6; Is 2:2).

The vision which Judaism, on the basis of Scripture, had elaborated of heaven
as the “new Jerusalem” is now extended: not only is it the holy mountain, the
source of the light and glory of Yahweh (cf. Is 8:18; 28:16; 60: 1-11; Ps 50:2;
74:2; Joel 3: 17), the city of peace (cf. Is 33:20); it is the city where the angels
and saints dwell and rejoice, the demesne of the living God and of Jesus—the
heavenly and everlasting Jerusalem, which is also illustrated in the Book of
Revelation (cf. Rev 21:15-17; 22:1-5).

The text once more recalls the Exodus (cf. Heb 3:16-18; 4:1-2; 9:18-20; 10:19-
22). Christians are making their way to heaven, their lasting homeland, their true
place of rest, just as the ancient Israelites made their way out of Egypt and
crossed the desert to reach the land promised to their forefathers.

However, despite this parallel there are differences: the Old Covenant, although
it did include expressions and promises of joy and jubilation, was set in an at-
mosphere of religious fear and trembling; whereas the New Covenant is full of joy
and exultation, although in the midst of suffering.

“It is a question [...] of the glorious and supernatural joy, prophesied for the new
Jerusalem redeemed from the exile and loved with a mystical love by God him-
self [...]. Through the course of many centuries and in the midst of most terrible
trials, these promises wonderfully sustained the mystical hope of ancient Israel.
And it is ancient Israel that transmitted them to the Church of Jesus Christ, in
such a way that we are indebted to ancient Israel for some of the purest expres-
sions of our hymn of joy. And yet, according to faith and the Christian expe-
rience of the Holy Spirit, this peace which is given by God and which spreads
out like an overflowing torrent when the time of ‘consolation’ comes, is linked to
the coming and presence of Christ” (Paul VI, “Gaudete In Domino”, 2-3).

22. The mention of Zion recalls the other mountain on which the Covenant was
made (Sinai), as also the many prophetical texts which proclaimed that the Mes-
siah’s reign would begin on Zion, his holy mountain (cf. Ps 2:6; Is 2:2-4:25:6;
Zech 14:4). Thus, Mount Zion, the city of the living God, and the heavenly Jeru-
salem all mean the Church in triumph in heaven.

St Thomas emphasizes that part of eternal happiness in heaven consists in the
vision of the heavenly assembly: “for in the glory of heaven there are two things
which most cause the blessed to rejoice enjoyment of the Godhead and the
fellowship of the saints” (”Commentary on Heb., ad loc.”).

“Proceeding from the love of the eternal Father (cf. Titus 3:4), the Church was
founded by Christ in time and gathered into one by the Holy Spirit (cf. Eph 1:3,
5, 6, 13-14, 23). It has a saving and eschatological purpose which can be fully
attained only in the next life. But it is now present here on earth and is composed
of men; they, the members of the earthly city, are called to form the family of the
children of God in this present history of mankind and to increase it continually
until the Lord comes” (Vatican II, “Gaudium Et Spes”, 40).

23. “The assembly of the first-born who are enrolled in heaven”: the blessed, in-
cluding the righteous of the Old Testament, the Apostles and all Christians who
have attained the beatific vision. They are called first-born because, as in the
case of the Patriarchs, they were the first to have faith; because, as in the case
of the Apostles, it was they who received Christ’s call initially, to pass it on to
others; and, finally, because, as in the case of faithful Christians, they were cho-
sen by God from among the pagans (cf. Rom 8:29; Phil 3:20; Col 1:18; Rev 1:5;
14:4). Their names are written in heaven (cf. Lk 10:20; Rev 2:17; 3:5; 13:8; 17:8).

24. As Incarnate Word and High Priest, Jesus is the mediator of the New Cove-
nant (cf. Heb 8:6; 9:15; 1 Tim 2:5; cf. Heb 2:17; 13:1; 7:25). The letter focuses
for a moment on the most significant point in the alliance—the shedding of our
Lord’s blood, which ratifies the Covenant and cleanses mankind (cf. Ex 24:8; Heb
9:12-14, 20; 10:19, 28-29; 13:20; 1 Pet 1:2). This blood “speaks more graciously
than the blood of Abel”, “for the shedding of Christ’s blood was represented figura-
tively by the shedding of the blood of all the just there have been since the begin-
ning of the world [...]. Therefore, the spilling of Abel’s blood was a sign of this new
spilling of blood. But the blood of Christ is more eloquent than that of Abel, be-
cause Abel’s called for vengeance whereas the blood of Christ claims forgiveness”
(St Thomas Aquinas, “Commentary On Heb., ad loc.”). The confidence the blood
of Christ gives us makes us feel happy to be sinners who, repentant, take refuge
in his wounds.

“Sinners, says the Epistle, you are fortunate indeed, for after you sin you have
recourse to the crucified Jesus, who shed all his blood so that he might stand as
mediator to make peace between God and sinners, and win you forgiveness from
him. If your evildoing shouts against you, the Redeemer’s blood cries aloud in
your favor, and divine justice cannot but listen to what this blood says” (St Al-
phonsus, “The Love of Jesus Christ Reduced to Practice”, 3).

Source: “The Navarre Bible: Text and Commentaries”. Biblical text from the
Revised Standard Version and New Vulgate. Commentaries by members of
the Faculty of Theology, University of Navarre, Spain.

Published by Four Courts Press, Kill Lane, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland, and
by Scepter Publishers in the United States.

3 posted on 02/06/2013 8:44:20 PM PST by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies ]

To: All

From: Mark 6:7-13

The Mission of the Twelve

[7] And he (Jesus) called to him the Twelve, and began to send them out two
by two, and gave them authority over the unclean spirits. [8] He charged them
to take nothing for their journey except a staff; no bread, no bag, no money in
their belts; [9] but to wear sandals and not put on two tunics. [10] And he said
to them, “Where you enter a house, stay there until you leave the place. [11]
And if any place will not receive you and they refuse to hear you, when you
leave, shake off the dust that is on your feet for a testimony against them.” [12]
So they went out and preached that men should repent. [13] And they cast out
many demons, and anointed with oil many that were sick and healed them.


7. Cf. note on Mk 1:27; 3:14-19.

[The note on Mk 1:27 states:

27. The same authority that Jesus showed in His teaching (1:22) is now to be
seen in His actions. His will is His command: He has no need of long prayers
or incantations. Jesus’ words and actions already have a divine power which
provokes wonder and fear in those who hear and see Him.

Jesus continues to impress people in this way (Mark 2:12; 5:20-42; 7:37; 15:39;
Luke 19:48; John 7:46). Jesus of Nazareth is the long-awaited Savior. He knows
this Himself and He lets it be known by His actions and by His words; according
to the gospel accounts (Mark 1:38-39; 2:10-11; 4:39) there is complete continui-
ty and consistency between what He says and He does. As Vatican II teaches
(”Dei Verbum”, 2) Revelation is realized by deeds and words intimately connec-
ted with each other: the words proclaim the deeds and clarify the mystery con-
tained in them; the deeds confirm the teaching. In this way Jesus progressively
reveals the mystery of His Person: first the people sense His exceptional autho-
rity; later on, the Apostles, enlightened by God’s grace, recognize the deepest
source of this authority: “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God” (Matthew

[The note on Mk 3:14-19 states:

14-19. The Twelve chosen by Jesus (cf. 3:14) receive a specific vocation to be
“people sent out”, which is what the word “apostles” means. Jesus chooses
them for a mission which He will give them later (6:6-13) and to enable them to
perform this mission He gives them part of His power. The fact that He chooses
“twelve” is very significant. This is the same number as the twelve Patriarchs of
Israel, and the Apostles represent the new people of God, the Church founded
by Christ. Jesus sought in this way to emphasize the continuity that exists be-
tween the Old and New Testaments. The Twelve are the pillars on which Christ
builds His Church (cf. Gal 2:9); their mission to make disciples of the Lord (to
teach) all nations, sanctifying and governing the believers (Mt 28:16-20; Mk 16:
15; Lk 24:45-48; Jn 20:21-23).]

8-9. Jesus requires them to be free of any form of attachment if they are to
preach the Gospel. A disciple, who has the mission of bringing the Kingdom of
God to souls through preaching, should not rely on human resources but on
God’s Providence. Whatever he does not in order to live with dignity as a herald
of the Gospel, he must obtain from those who benefit from his preaching, for the
laborer deserves his maintenance (cf. Mt 10:10).

“The preacher should so trust in God that he is convinced that he will have every-
thing he needs to support life, even if he cannot himself obtain it; for he should
not neglect eternal things worrying about temporal things” (St Bede, “In Marci
Evangelium Expositio, in loc.”). “By these instructions the Lord did not mean
that the evangelists should not seek to live in any other way than by depending
on what was offered to them by those to whom they preached the Gospel; other-
wise this very Apostle (St Paul) would have acted contrary to this precept when
he earned his living by the labors of his own hands” (St Augustine, “De Consen-
su Evangelistarum”, II, 30).

13. St Mark is the only evangelist who speaks of anointing the sick with oil. Oil
was often used for treating wounds (cf. Is 1:6; Lk 10:34), and the Apostles also
use it for the miraculous cure of physical illnesses by virtue of the power given
them by Jesus. Hence the use of oil as the matter of the sacrament of the Anoin-
ting of the Sick, which cures wounds of the soul and even, if appropriate, bodily
diseases. As the Council of Trent teaches—”Doctrina De Sacramento Extremae
Unctionis”, chap. 1—in this verse of St Mark there can be seen a “hint” of the sa-
crament of the Anointing of the Sick, which our Lord will institute and which later
on “is recommended and promulgated to the faithful by St James the Apostle”
(cf. Jas 5:14ff).

Source: “The Navarre Bible: Text and Commentaries”. Biblical text from the
Revised Standard Version and New Vulgate. Commentaries by members of
the Faculty of Theology, University of Navarre, Spain.

Published by Four Courts Press, Kill Lane, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland, and
by Scepter Publishers in the United States.

4 posted on 02/06/2013 8:45:18 PM PST by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies ]

Free Republic
Browse · Search
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794 is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson