The article you posted says “It may be stated that algebra and both plane and spherical trigonometry were Arab developments.”
The article is wrong though, it was a Persian not Arab with the algebra advances — Al-Khwarzimi...
His contributions were major to the field.
Trigonometry dates way, way, way back to Egypt and Babylon ~ circa 2000 BC. That is not intuitively obvious to the students though ~ they imagine it derived from geometry. Actually, it’s the other way around. Spherical trigonometry comes later.
Linguistically Arabic isn't terribly different from several cognate languages in the Middle East, e.g. Hebrew, Egyptian, Aramaic (Jesus language), and the various Phoenician dialects ~ where we derive our Alphabet!
Culturally, the Middle Eastern milieu is fairly uniform and encompasses everything South of the Mediterranean to the Great Desert, and everything East to the Indus valley ~ and Arabs are just part of that culture. In modern times the area is dominated by Islam. In ancient times people adhered to a great number of religions ~ frequently religions that didn't reach beyond the local town stockade. At the moment Arabic speaking areas are carved up into a number of smaller countries. Earlier, they were part of the Ottoman Empire (owned and operated by the Turks for the benefit of the Turks ~ who are not Arabs). Before that they were carved up into a number of smaller countries or were part of various empires.
Now, the Persians ~ they're a bit different from the Arabs in that they speak an Indo-European language. At the same time their ancestors were obviously the same as the Arab's ancestors ~ same DNA markers, et al.
Lets not forget, how & when the “Golden Age of Islam” died. Secondly, muslims conquered greater civilizations & non were Islamic or muslim before their mohammad.