Free Republic
Browse · Search
Religion
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

Pope Francis' official Coat of Arms
Summorum Pontificum Blog ^ | 03/180/13

Posted on 03/18/2013 8:15:50 AM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM

Monday, March 18, 2013

Pope Francis' official Coat of Arms

By Brian Kopp

From the Vatican website announcement (via Google translate, bold added):

...Pope Francis has decided to keep his coat front, chosen from his episcopal consecration and characterized by a linear simplicity.
The blue shield is surmounted by symbols of papal dignity, the same as those taken by his predecessor Benedict XVI (miter placed between crossed keys of gold and silver, bound by a red cord). At the top, stands the emblem of the order of origin of the Pope, the Society of Jesus, a radiant sun and flamboyant loaded from the letters in red IHS monogram of Christ. The letter H is surmounted by a cross, at the tip, the three nails in black.
Below, are the star and the flower of nard. The star, according to the ancient heraldic tradition, symbolizes the Virgin Mary, Mother of Christ and of the Church, while the flower of nard shows St. Joseph, patron of the universal Church. In the iconographic tradition Hispanic, in fact, St. Joseph is depicted holding a branch of spikenard. By placing these images in his shield, the Pope wanted to express his particular devotion to the Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph.


TOPICS: Catholic; Current Events
KEYWORDS: catholic; coatofarms; pope; popefrancis

1 posted on 03/18/2013 8:15:50 AM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: Dr. Brian Kopp
Christ's monogram rendered as "IHS" is the shape formed by the first Spanish survey lines marked by benchmarks preparatory to the division of the continent under the Treaty of London (1604).

This predates the boundary between Virginia and Acadia, Carolana and Virginia, Virginia and the Ohio Valley (claimed by Spain and retained) and any of the lines in Florida south of Carolana.

They sent those surveyors to what was then the ends of the Earth to do that.

I don't think the use of IHS has any implication other than that it was more popular with Spanish tradition, therefore American, than other European traditions.

2 posted on 03/18/2013 8:26:59 AM PDT by muawiyah
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: muawiyah
I don't think the use of IHS has any implication other than that it was more popular with Spanish tradition, therefore American, than other European traditions.

From the Vatican announcement:

At the top, stands the emblem of the order of origin of the Pope, the Society of Jesus, a radiant sun and flamboyant loaded from the letters in red IHS monogram of Christ. The letter H is surmounted by a cross, at the tip, the three nails in black.

The IHS on his Coat of Arms has nothing whatsoever to do with Spanish Survey lines and everything to do with the traditional meaning of IHS:

IHS

A monogram of the name of Jesus Christ. From the third century the names of our Saviour are sometimes shortened, particularly in Christian inscriptions (IH and XP, for Jesus and Christus). In the next century the "sigla" (chi-rho) occurs not only as an abbreviation but also as a symbol. From the beginning, however, in Christian inscriptions the nomina sacra, or names of Jesus Christ, were shortened by contraction, thus IC and XC or IHS and XPS for Iesous Christos. These Greek monograms continued to be used in Latin during the Middle Ages. Eventually the right meaning was lost, and erroneous interpretation of IHS led to the faulty orthography "Jhesus". In Latin the learned abbreviation IHC rarely occurs after the Carlovingian era. The monogram became more popular after the twelfth century when St. Bernard insisted much on devotion to the Holy Name of Jesus, and the fourteenth, when the founder of the Jesuati, Blessed John Colombini (d. 1367), usually wore it on his breast. Towards the close of the Middle Ages IHS became a symbol, quite like the chi-rho in the Constantinian period. Sometimes above the H appears a cross and underneath three nails, while the whole figure is surrounded by rays. IHS became the accepted iconographical characteristic of St. Vincent Ferrer (d. 1419) and of St. Bernardine of Siena (d. 1444). The latter holy missionary, at the end of his sermons, was wont to exhibit this monogram devoutly to his audience, for which some blamed him; he was even called before Martin V. St. Ignatius of Loyola adopted the monogram in his seal as general of the Society of Jesus (1541), and thus it became the emblem of his institute. IHS was sometimes wrongly understood as "Jesus Hominum (or Hierosolymae) Salvator", i.e. Jesus, the Saviour of men (or of Jerusalem=Hierosolyma).


3 posted on 03/18/2013 8:35:12 AM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: Dr. Brian Kopp

Also the initials of Christ on the cross were adopted by the Emperor Constantine after his miraculous conversion and promise of victory, as “In Hoc Signo, vinces.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_hoc_signo_vinces


4 posted on 03/18/2013 8:53:01 AM PDT by Cicero (Marcus Tullius)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Dr. Brian Kopp

Sure it does.


5 posted on 03/18/2013 8:53:14 AM PDT by muawiyah
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Dr. Brian Kopp

The star has some resemblance to the image of the sun on the Argentine flag, but I don’t know if that is intentional.


6 posted on 03/18/2013 8:59:41 AM PDT by Verginius Rufus
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Dr. Brian Kopp
Dear Dr. Kopp. I apologise for this off-topic post but when I tried to respond to a post of yours at Rorate Caeli I was unable to do so.

I am writing in response to you claiming that the third secret of Fatima would soon be revealed and then we would know who is the Bishop in White.

Well, with all due respect, the third secret has been released in its entirety and it has to do with the past not the future.

http://www.ewtn.com/fatima/apparitions/third_secret/fatima.htm#Commentary

7 posted on 03/18/2013 9:15:29 AM PDT by Vermont Crank
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Dr. Brian Kopp

Do the words at the bottom

“miserando atque eligendo”

mean

“lowly, but chosen”

??

I think I saw that somewhere along the way as a motto.


8 posted on 03/18/2013 9:37:06 AM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Verginius Rufus
The painting done by Baciccio of Ignatius' vision at La Storta (circa 1536/7) was not done until 1685 and authorities say it originally did not portray the Monogram nor the Jesuit symbol either overtly or covertly ~ which suggests somebody didn't think it all that important at the time ~

But that star kind of escaped me at first, but lo and behold I've already gone over the dispute between King Philip I/II ~ former husband of Queen Mary ~ and all the other Catholic authorities over sending missionaries to the Americas, particularly North America. The Jesuits seemed to have gotten a monopoly! That was withdrawn ~ and by 1604 the Spanish were carving up North America and giving away part of it to the Russian Orthodox and the European Protestant movement.

9 posted on 03/18/2013 9:51:56 AM PDT by muawiyah
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: Vermont Crank
I am writing in response to you claiming that the third secret of Fatima would soon be revealed and then we would know who is the Bishop in White.

Actually, what I said over there was

The man has a deep devotion to Our Lady of Fatima, practices the Five first Saturday Devotions, and prays 15 decades of the Rosary each day.

After he meets with Pope Emeritus Benedict, reads the 300 page dossier on the VatiLeaks scandal, and reads the rest of the Third secret of Fatima, he will be a different man than he was as Archbishop, then Cardinal, in Argentina.

I did not say that the rest of the Third Secret would be publicly revealed or that we would know who is the Bishop in White.

Well, with all due respect, the third secret has been released in its entirety

That is the subject of intense debate. There is a considerable body of evidence that the VISION accompanying the Third Secret of Fatima was released in 2000, but not the words of Secret itself.

and it has to do with the past not the future.

Not according to Pope Benedict:

From the Vatican website, INTERVIEW OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI WITH THE JOURNALISTS DURING THE FLIGHT TO PORTUGAL

Consequently, I would say that, here too, beyond this great vision of the suffering of the Pope, which we can in the first place refer to Pope John Paul II, an indication is given of realities involving the future of the Church, which are gradually taking shape and becoming evident.

10 posted on 03/18/2013 10:33:22 AM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: Dr. Brian Kopp
THE MESSAGE OF FATIMA Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith ... Fatima, 13 May 2000 THEOLOGICAL COMMENTARY A careful reading of the text of the so-called third “secret” of Fatima, published here in its entirety long after the fact and by decision of the Holy Father.. In a Document approved for publication by Pope Blessed John Paul II, Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, Prefect of The Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, clearly states that the entirety of the Third Secret has been published and that the Third Secret has to do with the Past. That being so, for you to be right, both Pope Blessed John Paul II and Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger would have had to have been lying.
11 posted on 03/18/2013 11:08:28 AM PDT by Vermont Crank (invisible are signs of the force of Tradition that'll act upon our inertia into indifferentism)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: Vermont Crank
On Tuesday, 11 May 2010 Pope Benedict stated,

Consequently, I would say that, here too, beyond this great vision of the suffering of the Pope, which we can in the first place refer to Pope John Paul II, an indication is given of realities involving the future of the Church, which are gradually taking shape and becoming evident.

I didn't make this up, its from the Vatican website, INTERVIEW OF THE HOLY FATHER BENEDICT XVI WITH THE JOURNALISTS DURING THE FLIGHT TO PORTUGAL

Yes, Pope Benedict contradicted the script written by the Vatican Secretary of State in 2000. In 2000, the Vatican Secretary of State stated the Third Secret was in the past. In 2010, Pope Benedict clearly contradicted the prior Vatican statement and said the Third Secret is still unfolding, and applies to the future.

I'm simply relating facts here, make of it what you will.

12 posted on 03/18/2013 11:22:54 AM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 11 | View Replies]

To: Salvation

(Vatican Radio ) Pope Francis has chosen the motto “Miserando atque eligendo”, meaning lowly but chosen; literally in Latin ‘by having mercy, by choosing him’.

The motto is one the Pope had already chosen as Bishop. It is taken from the homilies of the Venerable Bede on Saint Matthew’s Gospel relating to his vocation:”Jesus saw the tax collector and by having mercy chose him as an Apostle saying to him : Follow me.”

http://en.radiovaticana.va/news/2013/03/18/pope_francis_:_miserando_atque_eligendo.../en1-674605


13 posted on 03/18/2013 11:47:26 AM PDT by Excellence (9/11 was an act of faith.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 8 | View Replies]

To: Dr. Brian Kopp

Well, if anyone figures out when he was being truthful and/or accurate, post it, please


14 posted on 03/18/2013 12:07:46 PM PDT by Vermont Crank (invisible yet are signs of the force of Tradition that'll act upon our inertia into Indifferentism)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

To: Vermont Crank
I believe what he said in 2010, as Pope. What he said in 2000 was under the coercion of the Vatican Secretary of State, IMHO.

Besides the obvious...since when is the Vatican Secretary of State a competent individual to dictate the interpretation of a Marian Apparition? That job should be left to the Pope and his CDF. It should not be abrogated to themselves by what is essentially a diplomatic corps, more concerned with violating a Vatican-Moscow Treaty than with promulgating a correct interpretation of Fatima.

15 posted on 03/18/2013 12:15:33 PM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 14 | View Replies]

To: muawiyah
Sure it does.

You can continue to believe whatever you want. Just don't expect Catholics to take you seriously.

16 posted on 03/18/2013 12:39:49 PM PDT by St_Thomas_Aquinas
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: St_Thomas_Aquinas

Did you stop and think for a second that the Jesuits might have done that survey? Or ~ arranged for it?


17 posted on 03/18/2013 12:42:30 PM PDT by muawiyah
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 16 | View Replies]

To: muawiyah
Most Catholics know that IHS is taken from the Greek spelling of Jesus' name, although some Catholics mistakenly believe that it's short for "In His Service."

Every Catholic church has IHS and/or XP inscribed somewhere, usually in prominent locations in the church.

18 posted on 03/18/2013 12:47:28 PM PDT by St_Thomas_Aquinas
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 17 | View Replies]

To: Dr. Brian Kopp
Dear Dr Kopp. The then Prefect of the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, wrote what I posed (the link) his own self.

Some soi disant trads have the eyes of The Lynx and can spot rodents from a long distance away while others purporting to be Trads - like those in The Brick By Brick Bund, and other fearful communicants of the coterie of conservative catholics - have the eyes of moles and see only what is directly in front of them at the moment; and when it is pointed-out to them that what they believe at that moment is contradicted by official evidence issued from their same favorite sources, they ought at least, don't you think, confess confusion - at best?

The previous paragraph was just an exercise of creative rhetoric intended to draw attention to the difference amongst soi disant traditionalists and while it could easily be misconstrued to be a personal attack against Bishop Emeritus Bendict XVI, that was definitely not my intent.

Dear Doctor. You have a well-deserved reputation for orthodoxy and it was never my intent to advance any argument indicating otherwise. I just wanted to address this one matter; and I have now done that and I will no longer continue to hijack this thread.

Thank you for your patience.

19 posted on 03/18/2013 12:47:59 PM PDT by Vermont Crank (Invisible yet are signs of the force of Tradition that'll act upon our inertia into Indifferentism)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

To: Dr. Brian Kopp
Please post any evidence that you have that Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger was forced to publish a lie; post any evidence you have that he consented to publicly lie; and post any evidence you have that a puissant Marian Pope was complicit in this official public lie about Fatima and The Third Secret.

I thought I was done on this thread with my last post but I had to respond to your response.

And now I am done, Dr.

20 posted on 03/18/2013 12:47:59 PM PDT by Vermont Crank (Invisible yet are signs of the force of Tradition that'll act upon our inertia into Indifferentism)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 15 | View Replies]

To: St_Thomas_Aquinas

That’s the case today, and for the last couple of centuries, but way back ‘when’ folks had less money and there were far fewer ornaments ~ once Spain and the Hapsburg ‘empire’ became enormously wealthy with plenty of silver available to buy art, every noble and notable in their society got a personal portrait ~ or sometimes heroic painting done! Philip of Castile was particularly enamored of that monogram and created one for himself that was remarkably similar ~ http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Royal_Monogram_of_King_Philip_I_of_Castile%2C_Variant.svg


21 posted on 03/18/2013 12:57:32 PM PDT by muawiyah
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 18 | View Replies]

To: Vermont Crank
And now I am done, Dr.

Thanks for posting.

God bless.

22 posted on 03/18/2013 2:14:13 PM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 20 | View Replies]

To: Vermont Crank

You signed up on FreeRepublic just to post on this thread? Wow.


23 posted on 03/18/2013 2:17:29 PM PDT by Brian Kopp DPM
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 20 | View Replies]

To: Dr. Brian Kopp

Well, since I read your loving letter at Rorate, I’ve been trying to get to you...

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2xtfazXu45U

Of course, the link is all in good humor and has aught to do with any thing associated with the late and unlamented Maciel and his minions in the Legionaries

The reality that invisible as of yet within the Magisterium is one Prelate possessing the puissant power and force of Tradition that could act upon our inertia into Indifferentism is no reason to be glum


24 posted on 03/18/2013 3:05:55 PM PDT by Vermont Crank (Invisible yet are signs of the force of Tradition that'll act upon our inertia into Indifferentism)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 23 | View Replies]

To: St_Thomas_Aquinas
Feast of the Holy Name of Jesus
Jesus, The Name above all Names
Devotion to the Holy Name (of Jesus) [Catholic Caucus]
Lessons In Iconography : The Chi Rho - Christ
St. Francis de Sales on the Most Holy Name of Jesus (Excerpt from a Sermon) (Catholic Caucus)
St. Francis de Sales on the Most Holy Name of Jesus (Catholic/Orthodox Caucus)

St. Bernard on the Most Holy Name of Jesus [Ecumenical]
Saving the day in His Holy Name: St. Genevieve gets a reprieve [Catholic Caucus]
The Holy Name of Jesus
Holy Name of Jesus [San Bernadino of Siena] Ecumenical
The Holy Name of Jesus
Devotion to the Holy Name [of Jesus]
The Name of Jesus: Its Power in Our Lives
The Holy Name of Jesus
Devotion to the Holy Name of Jesus
The Holy Name of Jesus

25 posted on 03/18/2013 3:51:22 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 18 | View Replies]

To: Dr. Brian Kopp
Pope Francis' official Coat of Arms

Papal Mass (semi-vanity)
Letter #50: Hummes (Vatican releases Booklet for Pope Francis' Installation)
Is Pope Francis a Liturgical Liberal?
Pope Francis Warns Against "Demonic Worldliness"
A look at Pope Francis' schedule for next few months
Is Pope Francis a fraud? (That didn't take long)
Faith Of Our Fathers (Prayers in Song for Pope Francis) [Catholic Caucus]
Fatima Shrine recalls Pope Francis' sponsorship of the Pilgrim Image of the Virgin of Fatima
A great story of Jorge Bergoglio and a poor widow who wanted her children baptized
Former SSPX seminarian constant companion of Pope Francis
Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio's "Letter On the Year of Faith" (Crossing Threshold of Faith)
Pope Francis takes over Vatican's top secret dossiers (Fr. Georg tasked with guiding Bergoglio)
THE FULL PAPAL MASS AT SANTA ANNA'S PARISH THIS MORNING (laity kneel to receive)
Liberals will soon turn on Pope Francis
Letter #49: Black Shoes (Curia Officials Reappointed ... But ... only temporarily!)
Opening Wartime Archives? (Pope Francis will open Pope Pius XII - Shoah - WWII-era archives)
Pope Francis Speaks of God’s Mercy at First Sunday Angelus
Weigel thinks Pope Francis embodies Church's future
Oh, we are in deep, deep trouble
Pope explains name, urges 'church for the poor'

Pope Francis' first moves hint at break with past
A Pope of Contradictions
Evangelist Luis Palau: New Pope Francis a Friend of Evangelicals
A Pope for All Christians
Consolation for Boston Catholics? (Pope immediately bans Cardinal Law from St. Mary Major)
Quotes from Cardinal Bergoglio, now Pope Francis, on 7 Moral Issues
Pope to journalists: 'I love you so much and I thank you for everything'
Letter #48: Old Age (Papal Apartments opened, Pope visits local hospital)
Jesuit doorman surprised by Pope's phone call
Pope Francis on mass media and name
Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople to Attend Papal Installation Mass
Pope Francis in Motion
Who is Pope Francis? A compilation from many news reports.
"Anyone who does not pray to the Lord prays to the devil." Homily of the Holy Father Pope Francis
Joe Biden and Nancy Pelosi will represent the United States at Pope Francis’ Inaugural Mass
Beijing Cautions New Pope on Meddling in China
For the First Time Since the Great Schism, Ecumenical Patriarch to Attend Pope's Inaugural Mass
Ann Barnhardt on Pope Francis
New Pope snubs Cardinal Law
Pope Francis seen as humble man who can unite, rebuild Church

Pope Francis – the real deal – has Audience with Cardinals
Pope Francis—The Journey Begins
Report: Pope Francis bans disgraced Cardinal Law from his church
Pope tells cardinals: discover new ways to evangelize
Does this pope sound like a liberal to YOU?
Pope Francis could renew Catholicism in Americas, says Knights' chief
Letter #47: To Mary (Pope Francis prays at (tomb of Pope St. Pius V) [Catholic Caucus]
Pope To cardinals: Don't Give In To Devil's "Bitterness" And "Pessimism"
Pope Pays His Hotel Bill
Newly elected Pope knows Ukrainian Catholic Church, its Liturgy & Spirituality (Ecumenical)
'Go and Repair My House'
Why Did Pope Francis Go to St Mary Major?
Argentine priest kidnapped in Dirty War reconciled w/ Pope Francis (Don't blame Pope for Pinochet)
Weigel: "Bergoglio is an Old-School Jesuit, Formed by Classic Ignatian Spirituality..."
Vatican Responds to Accusations About Cardinal Bergoglio and the "Dirty War"
Pope Francis Knows What Must Be Done
Pope Francis tied up in Argentina's 'dirty war' debate
Pope Francis and the Traditional Liturgy
Links of Pope Francis to military dictatorship
Cardinal Bergoglio wrote to Fr. Gruner about Fatima [Catholic Caucus]

Why Pope Francis May Be a Catholic Nightmare [barf alert]
Pope Francis I: It’s All In the Name
Vatican official: Gay marriage a “revolutionary project” for “complete destruction of the family”
Pope Francis, and Blessed Aloysius and Blessed Agnellus: how the saints chose Bergoglio for pope
The Future Pope Francis: Additional Interviews and Writings
Pope Francis – What’s in a Name?
Pope Francis Warns Church Could Become 'Compassionate NGO'
Jesuits Surprised that First of Their Brethren is Elected Pope
World Jewish Congress head praises Pope Francis (Jewish-Catholic ties "best in 2,000 years")
How Summorum Pontificum was blocked and trampled on in Buenos Aires
Slaves of the Immac. Heart of Mary Profess Our Filial Submission to Pope Francis (Catholic Caucus)
Gay Advocacy Groups Rush to Demonize Pope Francis
Traditionalists and Pope Francis: Can We Take a Deep Breath and Please Calm Down?
What I would have said at the Consistory: An interview with Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio
Pope Francis Offers His Second Blessing to Pregnant Mom, Unborn Baby
Cdl. Bergoglio's Lenten Letter, 2013
UPDATE: Rorate Caeli’s diatribe against Pope Francis [Catholic Caucus]
Pope Francis: A Disappointment for Catholics Who Don't Like Being Catholic
Updates on Pope Francis’ first day as Pope – Great moments! (truly humble man)
New Pope Slips Out Of Vatican For morning Prayer Visit

Our First American Pope
Pope Francis I clear on denying Communion to those who facilitate in abortion
Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Profession: Servant of the Servants of God
EDITORIAL:Pope Francis I bridges conservative and progressive currents
New Pope Francis called homosexual ‘marriage’ a ‘machination of the Father of Lies’
Pope Francis Is First Catholic Pontiff From The Americas; He Is Known As A Humble Intellectual
New Pope lived simple life in Argentina
"Lowly, And Yet Chosen," Enter Pope Francis (some phenomenal firsts with this election)
10 Facts about Pope Francis
Vatican Web Site Updated
Full Text of Pope Francis’ Opening Address to Catholic Faithful
9 things you should know about Pope Francis
Pope Francis I promises to be strong pro-life world leader
New Pope celebrated Hanukkah as well as Christmas
New Pope- enemy of Catholic tradition
As Cardinal, Pope Francis condemned abortion even in rape cases
Profile: New pope, Jesuit Bergoglio, was runner-up in 2005 conclave
Jorge Mario Bergoglio elected pope, takes Francis as name
Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio: a Profile
HABEMUS PAPAM!!! (Live Thread)

26 posted on 03/24/2013 2:22:51 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Salvation

bttt


27 posted on 03/26/2013 11:36:28 AM PDT by ConservativeMan55
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 26 | View Replies]

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
Religion
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson