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Catholic Caucus: Sunday Mass Readings, 04-13-14, Palm Sunday of the Lord's Passion
USCCb.org/RNAB ^ | 04-13-14 | Revised New American Bible

Posted on 04/12/2014 6:43:29 PM PDT by Salvation

April 13, 2014

Palm Sunday of the Lord's Passion

 

 

At the Procession with Palms - Gospel Mt 21:1-11

When Jesus and the disciples drew near Jerusalem
and came to Bethphage on the Mount of Olives,
Jesus sent two disciples, saying to them,
“Go into the village opposite you,
and immediately you will find an ass tethered,
and a colt with her.
Untie them and bring them here to me.
And if anyone should say anything to you, reply,
‘The master has need of them.’
Then he will send them at once.”
This happened so that what had been spoken through the prophet
might be fulfilled:
Say to daughter Zion,
“Behold, your king comes to you,
meek and riding on an ass,
and on a colt, the foal of a beast of burden.”

The disciples went and did as Jesus had ordered them.
They brought the ass and the colt and laid their cloaks over them,
and he sat upon them.
The very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road,
while others cut branches from the trees
and strewed them on the road.
The crowds preceding him and those following
kept crying out and saying:
“Hosanna to the Son of David;
blessed is the he who comes in the name of the Lord;
hosanna in the highest.”
And when he entered Jerusalem
the whole city was shaken and asked, “Who is this?”
And the crowds replied,
“This is Jesus the prophet, from Nazareth in Galilee.”

At the Mass - Reading 1 Is 50:4-7

The Lord GOD has given me
a well-trained tongue,
that I might know how to speak to the weary
a word that will rouse them.
Morning after morning
he opens my ear that I may hear;
and I have not rebelled,
have not turned back.
I gave my back to those who beat me,
my cheeks to those who plucked my beard;
my face I did not shield
from buffets and spitting.

The Lord GOD is my help,
therefore I am not disgraced;
I have set my face like flint,
knowing that I shall not be put to shame.

Responsorial Psalm Ps 22:8-9, 17-18, 19-20, 23-24

R/ (2a) My God, my God, why have you abandoned me?
All who see me scoff at me;
they mock me with parted lips, they wag their heads:
“He relied on the LORD; let him deliver him,
let him rescue him, if he loves him.”
R/ My God, my God, why have you abandoned me?
Indeed, many dogs surround me,
a pack of evildoers closes in upon me;
They have pierced my hands and my feet;
I can count all my bones.
R/ My God, my God, why have you abandoned me?
They divide my garments among them,
and for my vesture they cast lots.
But you, O LORD, be not far from me;
O my help, hasten to aid me.
R/ My God, my God, why have you abandoned me?
I will proclaim your name to my brethren;
in the midst of the assembly I will praise you:
“You who fear the LORD, praise him;
all you descendants of Jacob, give glory to him;
revere him, all you descendants of Israel!”
R/ My God, my God, why have you abandoned me?

Reading 2 Phil 2:6-11

Christ Jesus, though he was in the form of God,
did not regard equality with God
something to be grasped.
Rather, he emptied himself,
taking the form of a slave,
coming in human likeness;
and found human in appearance,
he humbled himself,
becoming obedient to the point of death,
even death on a cross.
Because of this, God greatly exalted him
and bestowed on him the name
which is above every name,
that at the name of Jesus
every knee should bend,
of those in heaven and on earth and under the earth,
and every tongue confess that
Jesus Christ is Lord,
to the glory of God the Father.

Gospel Mt 26:14-27:66

One of the Twelve, who was called Judas Iscariot,
went to the chief priests and said,
“What are you willing to give me
if I hand him over to you?”
They paid him thirty pieces of silver,
and from that time on he looked for an opportunity
to hand him over.

On the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread,
the disciples approached Jesus and said,
“Where do you want us to prepare
for you to eat the Passover?”
He said,
“Go into the city to a certain man and tell him,
‘The teacher says, “My appointed time draws near;
in your house I shall celebrate the Passover with my disciples.”’”
The disciples then did as Jesus had ordered,
and prepared the Passover.

When it was evening,
he reclined at table with the Twelve.
And while they were eating, he said,
“Amen, I say to you, one of you will betray me.”
Deeply distressed at this,
they began to say to him one after another,
“Surely it is not I, Lord?”
He said in reply,
“He who has dipped his hand into the dish with me
is the one who will betray me.
The Son of Man indeed goes, as it is written of him,
but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed.
It would be better for that man if he had never been born.”
Then Judas, his betrayer, said in reply,
“Surely it is not I, Rabbi?”
He answered, “You have said so.”

While they were eating,
Jesus took bread, said the blessing,
broke it, and giving it to his disciples said,
“Take and eat; this is my body.”
Then he took a cup, gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying,
“Drink from it, all of you,
for this is my blood of the covenant,
which will be shed on behalf of many
for the forgiveness of sins.
I tell you, from now on I shall not drink this fruit of the vine
until the day when I drink it with you new
in the kingdom of my Father.”
Then, after singing a hymn,
they went out to the Mount of Olives.

Then Jesus said to them,
“This night all of you will have your faith in me shaken,
for it is written:
I will strike the shepherd,
and the sheep of the flock will be dispersed
;
but after I have been raised up,
I shall go before you to Galilee.”
Peter said to him in reply,
“Though all may have their faith in you shaken,
mine will never be.”
Jesus said to him,
“Amen, I say to you,
this very night before the cock crows,
you will deny me three times.”
Peter said to him,
“Even though I should have to die with you,
I will not deny you.”
And all the disciples spoke likewise.

Then Jesus came with them to a place called Gethsemane,
and he said to his disciples,
“Sit here while I go over there and pray.”
He took along Peter and the two sons of Zebedee,
and began to feel sorrow and distress.
Then he said to them,
“My soul is sorrowful even to death.
Remain here and keep watch with me.”
He advanced a little and fell prostrate in prayer, saying,
“My Father, if it is possible,
let this cup pass from me;
yet, not as I will, but as you will.”
When he returned to his disciples he found them asleep.
He said to Peter,
“So you could not keep watch with me for one hour?
Watch and pray that you may not undergo the test.
The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.”
Withdrawing a second time, he prayed again,
“My Father, if it is not possible that this cup pass
without my drinking it, your will be done!”
Then he returned once more and found them asleep,
for they could not keep their eyes open.
He left them and withdrew again and prayed a third time,
saying the same thing again.
Then he returned to his disciples and said to them,
“Are you still sleeping and taking your rest?
Behold, the hour is at hand
when the Son of Man is to be handed over to sinners.
Get up, let us go.
Look, my betrayer is at hand.”

While he was still speaking,
Judas, one of the Twelve, arrived,
accompanied by a large crowd, with swords and clubs,
who had come from the chief priests and the elders
of the people.
His betrayer had arranged a sign with them, saying,
“The man I shall kiss is the one; arrest him.”
Immediately he went over to Jesus and said,
“Hail, Rabbi!” and he kissed him.
Jesus answered him,
“Friend, do what you have come for.”
Then stepping forward they laid hands on Jesus and arrested him.
And behold, one of those who accompanied Jesus
put his hand to his sword, drew it,
and struck the high priest’s servant, cutting off his ear.
Then Jesus said to him,
“Put your sword back into its sheath,
for all who take the sword will perish by the sword.
Do you think that I cannot call upon my Father
and he will not provide me at this moment
with more than twelve legions of angels?
But then how would the Scriptures be fulfilled
which say that it must come to pass in this way?”
At that hour Jesus said to the crowds,
“Have you come out as against a robber,
with swords and clubs to seize me?
Day after day I sat teaching in the temple area,
yet you did not arrest me.
But all this has come to pass
that the writings of the prophets may be fulfilled.”
Then all the disciples left him and fled.

Those who had arrested Jesus led him away
to Caiaphas the high priest,
where the scribes and the elders were assembled.
Peter was following him at a distance
as far as the high priest’s courtyard,
and going inside he sat down with the servants
to see the outcome.
The chief priests and the entire Sanhedrin
kept trying to obtain false testimony against Jesus
in order to put him to death,
but they found none,
though many false witnesses came forward.
Finally two came forward who stated,
“This man said, ‘I can destroy the temple of God
and within three days rebuild it.’”
The high priest rose and addressed him,
“Have you no answer?
What are these men testifying against you?”
But Jesus was silent.
Then the high priest said to him,
“I order you to tell us under oath before the living God
whether you are the Christ, the Son of God.”
Jesus said to him in reply,
“You have said so.
But I tell you:
From now on you will see ‘the Son of Man
seated at the right hand of the Power’
and ‘coming on the clouds of heaven.’”
Then the high priest tore his robes and said,
“He has blasphemed!
What further need have we of witnesses?
You have now heard the blasphemy;
what is your opinion?”
They said in reply,
“He deserves to die!”
Then they spat in his face and struck him,
while some slapped him, saying,
“Prophesy for us, Christ: who is it that struck you?”
Now Peter was sitting outside in the courtyard.
One of the maids came over to him and said,
“You too were with Jesus the Galilean.”
But he denied it in front of everyone, saying,
“I do not know what you are talking about!”
As he went out to the gate, another girl saw him
and said to those who were there,
“This man was with Jesus the Nazorean.”
Again he denied it with an oath,
“I do not know the man!”
A little later the bystanders came over and said to Peter,
“Surely you too are one of them;
even your speech gives you away.”
At that he began to curse and to swear,
“I do not know the man.”
And immediately a cock crowed.
Then Peter remembered the word that Jesus had spoken:
“Before the cock crows you will deny me three times.”
He went out and began to weep bitterly.

When it was morning,
all the chief priests and the elders of the people
took counsel against Jesus to put him to death.
They bound him, led him away,
and handed him over to Pilate, the governor.

Then Judas, his betrayer, seeing that Jesus had been condemned,
deeply regretted what he had done.
He returned the thirty pieces of silver
to the chief priests and elders, saying,
“I have sinned in betraying innocent blood.”
They said,
“What is that to us?
Look to it yourself.”
Flinging the money into the temple,
he departed and went off and hanged himself.
The chief priests gathered up the money, but said,
“It is not lawful to deposit this in the temple treasury,
for it is the price of blood.”
After consultation, they used it to buy the potter’s field
as a burial place for foreigners.
That is why that field even today is called the Field of Blood.
Then was fulfilled what had been said through Jeremiah
the prophet,
And they took the thirty pieces of silver,
the value of a man with a price on his head,
a price set by some of the Israelites,
and they paid it out for the potter’s field
just as the Lord had commanded me.


Now Jesus stood before the governor, and he questioned him,
“Are you the king of the Jews?”
Jesus said, “You say so.”
And when he was accused by the chief priests and elders,
he made no answer.
Then Pilate said to him,
“Do you not hear how many things they are testifying against you?”
But he did not answer him one word,
so that the governor was greatly amazed.

Now on the occasion of the feast
the governor was accustomed to release to the crowd
one prisoner whom they wished.
And at that time they had a notorious prisoner called Barabbas.
So when they had assembled, Pilate said to them,
“Which one do you want me to release to you,
Barabbas, or Jesus called Christ?”
For he knew that it was out of envy
that they had handed him over.
While he was still seated on the bench,
his wife sent him a message,
“Have nothing to do with that righteous man.
I suffered much in a dream today because of him.”
The chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds
to ask for Barabbas but to destroy Jesus.
The governor said to them in reply,
“Which of the two do you want me to release to you?”
They answered, “Barabbas!”
Pilate said to them,
“Then what shall I do with Jesus called Christ?”
They all said,
“Let him be crucified!”
But he said,
“Why? What evil has he done?”
They only shouted the louder,
“Let him be crucified!”
When Pilate saw that he was not succeeding at all,
but that a riot was breaking out instead,
he took water and washed his hands in the sight of the crowd,
saying, “I am innocent of this man’s blood.
Look to it yourselves.”
And the whole people said in reply,
“His blood be upon us and upon our children.”
Then he released Barabbas to them,
but after he had Jesus scourged,
he handed him over to be crucified.

Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus inside the praetorium
and gathered the whole cohort around him.
They stripped off his clothes
and threw a scarlet military cloak about him.
Weaving a crown out of thorns, they placed it on his head,
and a reed in his right hand.
And kneeling before him, they mocked him, saying,
“Hail, King of the Jews!”
They spat upon him and took the reed
and kept striking him on the head.
And when they had mocked him,
they stripped him of the cloak,
dressed him in his own clothes,
and led him off to crucify him.

As they were going out, they met a Cyrenian named Simon;
this man they pressed into service
to carry his cross.

And when they came to a place called Golgotha
¬—which means Place of the Skull —,
they gave Jesus wine to drink mixed with gall.
But when he had tasted it, he refused to drink.
After they had crucified him,
they divided his garments by casting lots;
then they sat down and kept watch over him there.
And they placed over his head the written charge against him:
This is Jesus, the King of the Jews.
Two revolutionaries were crucified with him,
one on his right and the other on his left.
Those passing by reviled him, shaking their heads and saying,
“You who would destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days,
save yourself, if you are the Son of God,
and come down from the cross!”
Likewise the chief priests with the scribes and elders mocked him and said,
“He saved others; he cannot save himself.
So he is the king of Israel!
Let him come down from the cross now,
and we will believe in him.
He trusted in God;
let him deliver him now if he wants him.
For he said, ‘I am the Son of God.’”
The revolutionaries who were crucified with him
also kept abusing him in the same way.

From noon onward, darkness came over the whole land
until three in the afternoon.
And about three o’clock Jesus cried out in a loud voice,
Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?”
which means, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”
Some of the bystanders who heard it said,
“This one is calling for Elijah.”
Immediately one of them ran to get a sponge;
he soaked it in wine, and putting it on a reed,
gave it to him to drink.
But the rest said,
“Wait, let us see if Elijah comes to save him.”
But Jesus cried out again in a loud voice,
and gave up his spirit.

Here all kneel and pause for a short time.

And behold, the veil of the sanctuary
was torn in two from top to bottom.
The earth quaked, rocks were split, tombs were opened,
and the bodies of many saints who had fallen asleep were raised.
And coming forth from their tombs after his resurrection,
they entered the holy city and appeared to many.
The centurion and the men with him who were keeping watch over Jesus
feared greatly when they saw the earthquake
and all that was happening, and they said,
“Truly, this was the Son of God!”
There were many women there, looking on from a distance,
who had followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering to him.
Among them were Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James and Joseph,
and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.

When it was evening,
there came a rich man from Arimathea named Joseph,
who was himself a disciple of Jesus.
He went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus;
then Pilate ordered it to be handed over.
Taking the body, Joseph wrapped it in clean linen
and laid it in his new tomb that he had hewn in the rock.
Then he rolled a huge stone across the entrance to the tomb
and departed.
But Mary Magdalene and the other Mary
remained sitting there, facing the tomb.

The next day, the one following the day of preparation,
the chief priests and the Pharisees
gathered before Pilate and said,
“Sir, we remember that this impostor while still alive said,
‘After three days I will be raised up.’
Give orders, then, that the grave be secured until the third day,
lest his disciples come and steal him and say to the people,
‘He has been raised from the dead.’
This last imposture would be worse than the first.”
Pilate said to them,
“The guard is yours;
go, secure it as best you can.”
So they went and secured the tomb
by fixing a seal to the stone and setting the guard.

or Mt 27:11-54

Jesus stood before the governor, Pontius Pilate, who questioned him,
“Are you the king of the Jews?”
Jesus said, “You say so.”
And when he was accused by the chief priests and elders,
he made no answer.
Then Pilate said to him,
“Do you not hear how many things they are testifying against you?”
But he did not answer him one word,
so that the governor was greatly amazed.

Now on the occasion of the feast
the governor was accustomed to release to the crowd
one prisoner whom they wished.
And at that time they had a notorious prisoner called Barabbas.
So when they had assembled, Pilate said to them,
“Which one do you want me to release to you,
Barabbas, or Jesus called Christ?”
For he knew that it was out of envy
that they had handed him over.
While he was still seated on the bench,
his wife sent him a message,
“Have nothing to do with that righteous man.
I suffered much in a dream today because of him.”
The chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds
to ask for Barabbas but to destroy Jesus.
The governor said to them in reply,
“Which of the two do you want me to release to you?”
They answered, “Barabbas!”
Pilate said to them,
“Then what shall I do with Jesus called Christ?”
They all said,
“Let him be crucified!”
But he said,
“Why? What evil has he done?”
They only shouted the louder,
“Let him be crucified!”
When Pilate saw that he was not succeeding at all,
but that a riot was breaking out instead,
he took water and washed his hands in the sight of the crowd,
saying, “I am innocent of this man’s blood.
Look to it yourselves.”
And the whole people said in reply,
“His blood be upon us and upon our children.”
Then he released Barabbas to them,
but after he had Jesus scourged,
he handed him over to be crucified.

Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus inside the praetorium
and gathered the whole cohort around him.
They stripped off his clothes
and threw a scarlet military cloak about him.
Weaving a crown out of thorns, they placed it on his head,
and a reed in his right hand.
And kneeling before him, they mocked him, saying,
“Hail, King of the Jews!”
They spat upon him and took the reed
and kept striking him on the head.
And when they had mocked him,
they stripped him of the cloak,
dressed him in his own clothes,
and led him off to crucify him.

As they were going out, they met a Cyrenian named Simon;
this man they pressed into service
to carry his cross.

And when they came to a place called Golgotha
— which means Place of the Skull —,
they gave Jesus wine to drink mixed with gall.
But when he had tasted it, he refused to drink.
After they had crucified him,
they divided his garments by casting lots;
then they sat down and kept watch over him there.
And they placed over his head the written charge against him:
This is Jesus, the King of the Jews.
Two revolutionaries were crucified with him,
one on his right and the other on his left.
Those passing by reviled him, shaking their heads and saying,
“You who would destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days,
save yourself, if you are the Son of God,
and come down from the cross!”
Likewise the chief priests with the scribes and elders mocked him and said,
“He saved others; he cannot save himself.
So he is the king of Israel!
Let him come down from the cross now,
and we will believe in him.
He trusted in God;
let him deliver him now if he wants him.
For he said, ‘I am the Son of God.’”
The revolutionaries who were crucified with him
also kept abusing him in the same way.

From noon onward, darkness came over the whole land
until three in the afternoon.
And about three o’clock Jesus cried out in a loud voice,
Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?”
which means, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”
Some of the bystanders who heard it said,
“This one is calling for Elijah.”
Immediately one of them ran to get a sponge;
he soaked it in wine, and putting it on a reed,
gave it to him to drink.
But the rest said,
‘Wait, let us see if Elijah comes to save him.”
But Jesus cried out again in a loud voice,
and gave up his spirit.

Here all kneel and pause for a short time.

And behold, the veil of the sanctuary
was torn in two from top to bottom.
The earth quaked, rocks were split, tombs were opened,
and the bodies of many saints who had fallen asleep were raised.
And coming forth from their tombs after his resurrection,
they entered the holy city and appeared to many.
The centurion and the men with him who were keeping watch over Jesus
feared greatly when they saw the earthquake
and all that was happening, and they said,
“Truly, this was the Son of God!”



TOPICS: Catholic; General Discusssion; Prayer; Worship
KEYWORDS: catholic; lent; palmsunday; prayer
Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
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For your reading, reflection, faith-sharing, comments, questions, discussion.>

1 posted on 04/12/2014 6:43:29 PM PDT by Salvation
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To: nickcarraway; NYer; ELS; Pyro7480; livius; ArrogantBustard; Catholicguy; RobbyS; marshmallow; ...
Praise to you, Lord Jesus Christ Ping

Please FReepmail me to get on/off the Lenten Mass Ping List.


2 posted on 04/12/2014 6:44:39 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All

From: Matthew 21:1-11 (At the Procession with Palms)

The Messiah Enters the Holy City


[1] And when they drew near to Jerusalem and came to Bethphage, to the Mount
of Olives, then Jesus sent two disciples, [2] saying to them, “Go into the village
opposite you, and immediately you will find an ass tied, and a colt with her; un-
tie them and bring them to me. [3] If any one says anything to you, you shall
say, “The Lord has need of them,’ and he will send them immediately.” [4] This
took place to fulfill what was spoken by the prophet, saying, [5] “Tell the daugh-
ter of Zion, Behold, your king is coming to you, humble, and mounted on an ass,
and on a colt, the foal of an ass.” [6] The disciples went and did as Jesus had
directed them; [7] they brought the ass and the colt, and put their garments on
them, and he sat thereon. [8] Most of the crowd spread their garments on the
road, and others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road. [9]
And the crowds that went before him and that followed him shouted, “Hosanna
to the Son of David! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna
in the highest!” [10] And when he entered Jerusalem, all the city was stirred, sa-
ying, “Who is this?” [11] And the crowds said, “This is the prophet Jesus from
Nazareth of Galilee.”

*********************************************************************************************
Commentary:

1-5. In his triumphant entry into Jerusalem Jesus reveals himself as Messiah,as
St Matthew and St John (12:14) stress by quoting the prophecy of Zechariah 9:9.
Although the Latin translation says “mounted on a [female] ass”, the original He-
brew text says “mounted on a [male] ass”, and the latter is text followed in this
translation (in the Greek translation of the Septuagint no sex is specified). The
other two Synoptic Gospels limit themselves to giving the key fact of Jesus’ mes-
sianic entry into the Holy City mounted on the colt (Mk 11:2; Lk 19:30). St Mat-
thew sees in the fact that the colt is with the ass a further detail of the prophecy,
which refers to the colt being the foal of ass (that seems to be why the ass is re-
ferred to throughout the account, the ass being with the colt, although Jesus was
mounted only on the colt).

In the prophecy in Zechariah 9:9 (which in the original Old Testament is longer
than the quotation in Matthew) the future messianic king is described as “hum-
ble”. The ass, originally a noble mount (cf. Gen 22:3; Ex 4:20; Num 22:21; Jud
5:10), was replaced by the horse in the period of the Israelite monarchy (cf. 1
Kings 4:26; 10:28; etc). The prophecy, by referring to an ass, shows that the
King of peace wins his victory by humility and gentleness, not by force of arms.

The Fathers have read a deeper meaning into this episode. They see the ass
as symbolizing Judaism, for long subject to the yoke of the Law, and the foal
on which no one has ridden, as symbolizing the Gentiles. Jesus leads both
Jews and Gentiles into the Church, the new Jerusalem.

9. The Hebrew word “Hosanna”, which the people use to acclaim our Lord, was
originally an appeal to God meaning “Save us”. Later it was used as a shout of
joy, an acclamation, meaning something like “Long live...”. The people are de-
monstrating their enthusiasm by shouting, “Long live the Son of David!” The
phrase “Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord” comes from Psalm
118:26 and is a jubilant and appreciative greeting to someone entrusted with a
mission from God. The Church takes up these acclamations, incorporating them
into the preface of the Mass, to proclaim the kingship of Christ.

*********************************************************************************************
Source: “The Navarre Bible: Text and Commentaries”. Biblical text from the
Revised Standard Version and New Vulgate. Commentaries by members of
the Faculty of Theology, University of Navarre, Spain.

Published by Four Courts Press, Kill Lane, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland, and
by Scepter Publishers in the United States.


3 posted on 04/12/2014 6:45:45 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All

From: Isaiah 50:4-7

Third Song of the Servant of the Lord


[4] The Lord GOD has given me
the tongue of those who are taught;
that I may know how to sustain with a word
him that is weary.
Morning by morning he wakens,
he wakens my ear
to hear as those who are taught.
[5] The Lord GOD has opened my ear,
and I was not rebellious,
I turned not backward.
[6] I gave my back to the smiters,
and my cheeks to those who pulled out the beard;
I hid not my face
from shame and spitting.

[7] For the LORD GOD helps me;
therefore I have not been confounded;
therefore I have set my face like a flint,
and I know that I shall not be put to shame.

*********************************************************************************************
Commentary:

50:4-9. The second song dealt with the servant’s mission (cf. 49:6); the third
song focuses on the servant himself. The term “servant” as such does not ap-
pear here, and therefore some commentators read the passage as being a de-
scription of a prophet and not part of the songs. Still, the context (cf. 50:10)
does suggest that the protagonist is the servant. The poem is neatly construc-
ted in three stanzas, each beginning with the words, “The Lord God” (vv. 4, 5,
7), and it has a conclusion containing that same wording (v. 9). The first stanza
emphasizes the servant’s docility to the word of God; that is, he is not depicted
as a self-taught teacher with original ideas, but as an obedient disciple. The se-
cond (vv. 5-6) speaks of the suffering that that docility has brought him, without
his uttering a word of complaint. The third (vv. 7-8) shows how determined the
servant is: if he suffers in silence, it is not out of cowardice but because God
helps him and makes him stronger than his persecutors. The conclusion (v. 9)
is like the verdict of a trial: when all is said and done, the servant will stand tall,
and all his enemies will be struck down.

The evangelists saw the words of this song as finding fulfillment in Jesus — es-
pecially what the song has to say about the suffering and silent fortitude of the
servant. The Gospel of John, for example, quotes Nicodemus’ acknowledgment
of Christ’s wisdom: “Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God; for
no one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him” (Jn 3:21). But
the description of the servant’s sufferings was the part that most impressed the
early Christians; that part of the song was recalled when they meditated on the
passion of Jesus and how “they spat in his face; and struck him; and some
slapped him” (Mt 26:67) and later how the Roman soldiers “spat upon him, and
took the reed and struck him on the head” (Mt 27:30; cf. also Mk 15:19; Jn 19:
3). St Paul refers to v. 9 when applying to Christ Jesus the role of intercessor on
behalf of the elect in the suit pressed constantly against them by the enemies
of the soul: “Who shall bring any charge against God’s elect?” (Rom 8:33).

St Jerome sees the servant’s docility as a reference to Christ: “His self-discipline
and wisdom enabled him to communicate to us the knowledge of the Father. And
he was obedient onto death, death on the cross; he offered his body to the blows
they struck, his shoulders to the lash; and though he was wounded on the chest
and on his face, he did not try to turn away and escape their violence” (”Commen-
tarii In Isaiam”, 50, 4). This passage is used in the liturgy of Palm Sunday (along
with Psalm 22 and St Paul’s hymn in the Letter to the Philippians 2:6-11), before
the reading of our Lord’s passion.

*********************************************************************************************
Source: “The Navarre Bible: Text and Commentaries”. Biblical text from the
Revised Standard Version and New Vulgate. Commentaries by members of
the Faculty of Theology, University of Navarre, Spain.

Published by Four Courts Press, Kill Lane, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland, and
by Scepter Publishers in the United States.


4 posted on 04/12/2014 6:46:25 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All

From: Philippians 2:6-11

Hymn in Praise of Christ’s Self-Emptying


([5] Have this mind among yourselves, which was in Christ Jesus,) [6] who,
though He was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be
grasped, [7] but emptied Himself, taking the form of a servant, being born in the
likeness of men. [8] And being found in human form He humbled Himself and be-
came obedient unto death, even death on a cross. [9] Therefore God has highly
exalted Him and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name, [10]
that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in Heaven and on earth and
under the earth, [11] and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the
glory of God the Father.

*********************************************************************************************
Commentary:

5. The Apostle’s recommendation, “’Have this mind among yourselves, which
was in Christ Jesus,’ requires all Christians, so far as human power allows, to
reproduce in themselves the sentiments that Christ had when He was offering
Himself in sacrifice—sentiments of humility, of adoration, praise, and thanksgi-
ving to the divine majesty. It requires them also to become victims, as it were;
cultivating a spirit of self-denial according to the precepts of the Gospel, willing-
ly doing works of penance, detesting and expiating their sins. It requires us all,
in a word, to die mystically with Christ on the Cross, so that we may say with
the same Apostle: ‘I have been crucified with Christ’ (Galatians 2:19)” (Pius XII,
“Mediator Dei”, 22).

6-11. In what he says about Jesus Christ, the Apostle is not simply proposing
Him as a model for us to follow. Possibly transcribing an early liturgical hymn
(and) adding some touches of his own, he is—under the inspiration of the Holy
Spirit—giving a very profound exposition of the nature of Christ and using the
most sublime truths of faith to show the way Christian virtues should be prac-
ticed.

This is one of the earliest New Testament texts to reveal the divinity of Christ.
The epistle was written around the year 62 (or perhaps before that, around 55)
and if we remember that the hymn of Philippians 2:6-11 may well have been in
use prior to that date, the passage clearly bears witness to the fact that Chris-
tians were proclaiming, even in those very early years, that Jesus, born in Beth-
lehem, crucified, died and buried, and risen from the dead, was truly both God
and man.

The hymn can be divided into three parts. The first (verses 6 and the beginning
of 7) refers to Christ’s humbling Himself by becoming man. The second (the end
of verse 7 and verse 8) is the center of the whole passage and proclaims the ex-
treme to which His humility brought Him: as man He obediently accepted death
on the cross. The third part (verses 9-11) describes His exaltation in glory.
Throughout St. Paul is conscious of Jesus’ divinity: He exists from all eternity.
But he centers his attention on His death on the cross as the supreme example
of humility. Christ’s humiliation lay not in His becoming a man like us and cloa-
king the glory of His divinity in His sacred humanity: it also brought Him to lead
a life of sacrifice and suffering which reached its climax on the cross, where He
was stripped of everything He had, like a slave. However, now that He has ful-
filled His mission, He is made manifest again, clothed in all the glory that befits
His divine nature and which His human nature has merited.

The man-God, Jesus Christ, makes the cross the climax of His earthly life;
through it He enters into His glory as Lord and Messiah. The Crucifixion puts
the whole universe on the way to salvation.

Jesus Christ gives us a wonderful example of humility and obedience. “We
should learn from Jesus’ attitude in these trials,” St. Escriva reminds us. “During
His life on earth He did not even want the glory that belonged to Him. Though He
had the right to be treated as God, He took the form of a servant, a slave (cf. Phil-
ippians 2:6-7). And so the Christian knows that all glory is due God and that he
must not use the sublimity and greatness of the Gospel to further his own inte-
rests or human ambitions.

“We should learn from Jesus. His attitude in rejecting all human glory is in per-
fect balance with the greatness of His unique mission as the beloved Son of
God who becomes incarnate to save men” (”Christ Is Passing By”, 62).

6-7. “Though He was in the form of God” or “subsisting in the form of God”:
“form” is the external aspect of something and manifests what it is. When refer-
ring to God, who is invisible, His “form” cannot refer to things visible to the sen-
ses; the “form of God” is a way of referring to Godhead. The first thing that St.
Paul makes clear is that Jesus Christ is God, and was God before the Incarna-
tion. As the “Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed” professes it, “the only-begotten
Son of God, born of the Father before time began, light from light, true God from
true God”.

“He did not count equality with God as something to be grasped”: the Greek
word translated as “equality” does not directly refer to equality of nature but
rather the equality of rights and status. Christ was God and He could not stop
being God; therefore, He had a right to be treated as God and to appear in all
His glory. However, He did not insist on this dignity of His as if it were a trea-
sure which He possessed and which was legally His: it was not something He
clung to and boasted about. And so He took “the form of a servant”. He could
have become man without setting His glory aside—He could have appeared as
He did, momentarily, as the Transfiguration (cf. Matthew 17:1ff); instead He
chose to be like men, in all things but sin (cf. verse 7). By becoming man in
the way He did, He was able, as Isaiah prophesied in the Song of the Servant
of Yahweh, to bear our sorrows and to be stricken (cf. Isaiah 53:4).

“He emptied Himself”, He despoiled Himself: this is literally what the Greek verb
means. But Christ did not shed His divine nature; He simply shed its glory, its
aura; if He had not done so it would have shone out through His human nature.
From all eternity He exists as God and from the moment of the Incarnation He
began to be man. His self-emptying lay not only in the fact that the Godhead
united to Himself (that is, to the person of the Son) something which was cor-
poreal and finite (a human nature), but also in the fact that this nature did not
itself manifest the divine glory, as it “ought” to have done. Christ could not
cease to be God, but He could temporarily renounce the exercise of rights that
belonged to Him as God—which was what He did.

Verses 6-8 bring the Christian’s mind the contrast between Jesus and Adam.
The devil tempted Adam, a mere man, to “be like God” (Genesis 3:5). By trying
to indulge this evil desire (pride is a disordered desire for self-advancement) and
by committing the sin of disobeying God (cf. Genesis 3:6), Adam drew down the
gravest misfortunes upon himself and on his whole line (present potentially in
him): this is symbolized in the Genesis passage by his expulsion from Paradise
and by the physical world’s rebellion against his lordship (cf. Genesis 3:16-24).
Jesus Christ, on the contrary, who enjoyed divine glory from all eternity, “emptied
Himself”: He chooses the way of humility, the opposite way to Adam’s (opposite,
too, to the way previously taken by the devil). Christ’s obedience thereby makes
up for the disobedience of the first man; it puts mankind in a position to more
than recover the natural and supernatural gifts with which God endowed human
nature at the Creation. And so, after focusing on the amazing mystery of Christ’s
humiliation or self-emptying (”kenosis” in Greek), this hymn goes on joyously to
celebrate Christ’s exaltation after death.

Christ’s attitude in becoming man is, then, a wonderful example of humility.
“What is more humble”, St. Gregory of Nyssa asks, “than the King of all crea-
tion entering into communion with our poor nature? The King of kings and Lord of
lords clothes Himself with the form of our enslavement; the Judge of the universe
comes to pay tribute to the princes of this world; the Lord of creation is born in a
cave; He who encompasses the world cannot find room in the inn...; the pure and
incorrupt one puts on the filthiness of our nature and experiences all our needs,
experiences even death itself” (”Oratio I In Beatitudinibus”).

This self-emptying is an example of God’s infinite goodness in taking the initiative
to meet man: “Fill yourselves with wonder and gratitude at such a mystery and
learn from it. All the power, all the majesty, all the beauty, all the infinite harmony
of God, all His great and immeasurable riches. God whole and entire was hidden
for our benefit in the humanity of Christ. The Almighty appears determined to
eclipse His glory for a time, so as to make it easy for His creatures to approach
their Redeemer.” (St. J. Escriva, “Friends of God”, 111).

8. Jesus Christ became man “for us men and for our salvation”, we profess in the
Creed. Everything He did in the course of His life had a salvific value; His death
on the cross represents the climax of His redemptive work for, as St. Gregory of
Nyssa says, “He did not experience death due to the fact of being born; rather,
He took birth upon Himself in order to die” (”Oratio Catechetica Magna”, 32).

Our Lord’s obedience to the Father’s saving plan, involving as it did death on the
cross, gives us the best of all lessons in humility. For, in the words of St. Tho-
mas Aquinas, “obedience is the sign of true humility” (”Commentary on Phil.,
ad loc.”). In St. Paul’s time death by crucifixion was the most demeaning form
of death, for it was inflicted only on criminals. By becoming obedient “unto death,
even death on a cross”, Jesus was being humble in the extreme. He was perfect-
ly within His rights to manifest Himself in all His divine glory, but He chose in-
stead the route leading to the most ignominious of deaths.

His obedience, moreover, was not simply a matter of submitting to the Father’s
will, for, as St. Paul points out, He made Himself obedient: His obedience was
active; He made the Father’s salvific plans His own. He chose voluntarily to give
Himself up to crucifixion in order to redeem mankind. “Debasing oneself when
one is forced to do so is not humility”, St. John Chrysostom explains; “humility
is present when one debases oneself without being obliged to do so” (”Hom. on
Phil., ad loc.”).

Christ’s self-abasement and his obedience unto death reveals His love for us, for
“greater love has no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends”
(John 15:13). His loving initiative merits a loving response on our part: we should
show that we desire to be one with Him, for love “seeks union, identification with
the beloved. United to Christ, we will be drawn to imitate His life of dedication,
His unlimited love and His sacrifice unto death. Christ brings us face to face with
the ultimate choice: either we spend our life in selfish isolation, or we devote our-
selves and all our energies to the service of others” (St. J. Escriva, “Friends
of God”, 236).

9-11. “God highly exalted Him”: the Greek compounds the notion of exaltation,
to indicate the immensity of His glorification. Our Lord Himself foretold this when
He said, “He who humbles himself will be exalted” (Luke 14:11).

Christ’s sacred humanity was glorified as a reward for His humiliation. The
Church’s Magisterium teaches that Christ’s glorification affects his human nature
only, for “in the form of God the Son was equal to the Father, and between the
Begetter and the Only-begotten there was no difference in essence, no difference
in majesty; nor did the Word, through the mystery of incarnation, lose anything
which the Father might later return to Him as a gift” (Pope St. Leo the Great,
“Promisisse Me Memini”, Chapter 8). Exaltation is public manifestation of the
glory which belongs to Christ’s humanity by virtue of its being joined to the divine
person of the Word. This union to the “form of a servant” (cf. verse 7) meant an
immense act of humility on the part of the Son, but it led to the exaltation of the
human nature He took on.

For the Jews the “name that is above every name” is the name of God (Yahweh),
which the Mosaic Law required to be held in particular awe. Also, they regarded
a name given to someone, especially if given by God, as not just a way of refer-
ring to a person but as expressing something that belonged to the very core of
his personality. Therefore, the statement that God “bestowed on Him the name
which is above every name” means that God the Father gave Christ’s human na-
ture the capacity to manifest the glory of divinity which was His by virtue of the
hypostatic union: therefore, it is to be worshipped by the entire universe.

St. Paul describes the glorification of Jesus Christ in terms similar to those used
by the prophet Daniel of the Son of Man: “To Him was given dominion and glory
and kingdom, that all peoples, nations and languages should serve His Kingdom,
one that shall not be destroyed” (Daniel 7:14). Christ’s lordship extends to all
created things. Sacred Scripture usually speaks of “heaven and earth” when re-
ferring to the entire created universe; by mentioning here the underworld it is em-
phasizing that nothing escapes His dominion. Jesus Christ can here be seen as
the fulfillment of Isaiah’s prophecy about the universal sovereignty of Yahweh:
“To Me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear” (Isaiah 45:23). All crea-
ted things come under His sway, and men are duty-bound to accept the basic
truth of Christian teaching: “Jesus Christ is Lord.” The Greek word “Kyrios”
used here by St. Paul is the word used by the Septuagint, the early Greek ver-
sion of the Old Testament, to translate the name of God (”Yahweh”). Therefore,
this sentence means “Jesus Christ is God.”

The Christ proclaimed here as having been raised on high is the man-God who
was born and died for our sake, attaining the glory of His exaltation after under-
going the humiliation of the cross. In this also Christ sets us an example: we
cannot attain the glory of Heaven unless we understand the supernatural value
of difficulties, ill-health and suffering: these are manifestations of Christ’s cross
present in our ordinary life. “We have to die to ourselves and be born again to
a new life. Jesus Christ obeyed in this way, even unto death on a cross (Philip-
pians 2:18); that is why God exalted Him. If we obey God’s will, the cross will
mean our own resurrection and exaltation. Christ’s life will be fulfilled step by
step in our own lives. It will be said of us that we have tried to be good children
of God, who went about doing good in spite of our weakness and personal short-
comings, no matter how many” (St. J. Escriva, “Christ Is Passing By”, 21).

*********************************************************************************************
Source: “The Navarre Bible: Text and Commentaries”. Biblical text from the
Revised Standard Version and New Vulgate. Commentaries by members of
the Faculty of Theology, University of Navarre, Spain.

Published by Four Courts Press, Kill Lane, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland, and
by Scepter Publishers in the United States.


5 posted on 04/12/2014 6:47:06 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All

From: Matthew 26:14-27:66

The Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ according to Matthew

Judas Betrays Jesus


[14] Then one of the twelve, who was called Judas Iscariot, went to the chief
priests [15] and said, “What will you give me if I deliver Him (Jesus) to you?”
And they paid him thirty pieces of silver. [16] And from that moment he sought
an opportunity to betray Him.

Preparations for the Last Supper


[17] Now on the first day of Unleavened Bread the disciples came to Jesus, sa-
ying, “Where will You have us prepare for You to eat the Passover?” [18] He said,
“Go into the city to such a one, and say to him, ‘The Teacher says, My time is
at hand; I will keep the Passover at your house with My disciples.’” [19] And the
disciples did as Jesus had directed them, and they prepared for the Passover.

[20] When it was evening, He sat at table with the twelve disciples; [21] and as
they were eating, He said, “Truly, I say to you, one of you will betray Me.” [22]
And they were very sorrowful, and began to say to Him one after another, “Is it I,
Lord?” [23] He answered, “He who has dipped his hand in the dish with Me, will
betray Me. [24] The Son of Man goes as it is written of Him, but woe to that man
by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been better for that man if he
had not been born.” [25] Judas, who betrayed Him, said, “Is it I, Master?” He
said to him, “You have said so.”

The Institution of the Eucharist


[26] Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and broke it, and
gave it to the disciples and said, “Take, eat; this is my body.” [27] And he took
a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, saying, “Drink of it, all
of you; [28] for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for
the forgiveness of sins. [29] I tell you I shall not drink again of this fruit of the vine
until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.”

The Disciples’ Desertion Foretold


[30] And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. [31]
Then Jesus said to them, “You will all fall away because of me this night; for it
is written, ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.’
[32] But after I am raised up, I will go before you to Galilee.” [33] Peter declared
to him, “Though they all fall away because of you, I will never fall away.” [34] Je-
sus said to him, “Truly, I say to you, this very night, before the cock crows, you
will deny me three times.” [35] Peter said to him, “Even if I must die with you, I
will not deny you.” And so did all the disciples.

Gethsemane: The Agony in the Garden


[36] Then Jesus went with them to a place called Gethsemane, and he said to
his disciples, “Sit here, while I go yonder and pray.” [37] And taking with him
Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, he began to be sorrowful and troubled. [38]
Then he said to them, “My soul is very sorrowful, even to death; remain here, and
watch with me.” [39] And going a little farther he fell on his face and prayed, “My
Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me; nevertheless, not as I will, but
as thou wilt.” [40] And he came to the disciples and found them sleeping; and he
said to Peter, “So, could you not watch with me one hour? [41] Watch and pray
that you may not enter into temptation; the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is
weak.” [42] Again, for the second time, he went away and prayed, “My Father, if
this cannot pass unless I drink it, thy will be done.” [43] And again he came and
found them sleeping, for their eyes were heavy. [44] So leaving them again, he
went away and prayed for the third time, saying the same words. [45] Then he
came to the disciples and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and taking your
rest? Behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of man is betrayed into the hands
of sinners. [46] Rise, let us be going; see, my betrayer is at hand.”

The Arrest


[47] While he was still speaking, Judas came, one of the twelve, and with him
a great crowd with swords and club: from the chief priests and the elders of the
people. [48] Now the betrayer had given them a sign, saying, “The one I shall
kiss is the man; seize him.” [49] And he came up to Jesus once and said, “Hail,
Master!” And he kissed him. [50] Jesus said to him, “Friend, why are you here?”
Then they came up and laid hands on Jesus and seized him. [51] And behold
one of those who were with Jesus stretched out his hand and drew his sword,
and struck the slave of the high priest and cut off his ear. [52] Then Jesus said
to him, “Put your sword back into its place; for all who take the sword will perish
by the sword. [53] Do you think that I cannot appeal to my Father, and he will at
once send me more than twelve legions of angels? [54] But how then should the
scriptures be fulfilled, that it must be so?” [55] At that hour Jesus said to the
crowds, ‘Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs to cap-
ture me? Day after day I sat in the temple teaching, and you did not seize me.
[56] But all this has taken place, that the scriptures of the prophets might be
fulfilled.” Then all the disciples forsook him and fled.

Jesus Before the Sanhedrin


[57] Then those who had seized Jesus led him to Caiaphas the high priest,
where the scribes and the elders had gathered. [58] But Peter followed him at
a distance, as far as the courtyard of the high priest, and going inside he sat
with the guards to see the end. [59] Now the chief priests and the whole council
sought false testimony against Jesus that they might put him to death, [60] but
they found none, though many false witnesses came forward. At last two came
forward [61] and said, “This fellow said, ‘I am able to destroy the temple of God,
and to build it in three days.’ [62] And the high priest stood up and said, “Have
you no answer to make? What is it that these men testify against you?” [63]
But Jesus was silent. And the high priest said to him, “I adjure you by the living
God, tell us if you are the Christ, the Son of God.” [64] Jesus said to him, “You
have said so. But I tell you, hereafter you will see the Son of man seated at the
right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of heaven.” [65] Then the high
priest tore his robes, and said, “He has uttered blasphemy. Why do we still
need witnesses? You have now heard his blasphemy. [66] What is your judg-
ment?’ They answered, “He deserves death.” [67] Then they spat in his face,
and struck him; and some slapped him, [68] saying “Prophesy to us, you
Christ! Who is it that struck you?”

Peter’s Denials


[69] Now Peter was sitting outside in the courtyard. And maid came up to him,
and said, “You also were with Jesus the Galilean.” [70] But he denied it before
them all, saying, “I do not know what you mean.” [71] And when he went out to
the porch, another maid saw him, and she said to the bystanders, “This man
was with Jesus of Nazareth.” [72] And again he denied it with an oath, “I do not
know the man.” [73] After a little while the bystanders came up and said to Peter,
“Certainly you are also one of them, for your accent betrays you.” [74] Then he
began to invoke a curse on himself and to swear, “I do not know the man.” And
immediately the cock crowed. [75] And Peter remembered the saying of Jesus,
“Before the cock crows, you will deny me three times.” And he went out and
wept bitterly.

Jesus is Delivered to Pilate


[1] When morning came, all the chief priests and the elders of the people took
counsel against Jesus to put him to death; [2] and they bound him and led him
away and delivered him to Pilate the governor.

Judas’ Despair and Death


[3] When Judas, his betrayer, saw that he was condemned he repented and
brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and the elders, [4] sa-
ying, “I have sinned in betraying innocent blood.” They said, “What is that to us?
See to it yourself.” [5] And throwing down the pieces of silver in the temple, he
departed; and he went and hanged himself. [6] But the chief priests, taking the
pieces of silver, said, “It is not lawful to put them into the treasury, since they are
blood money.” [7] So they took counsel, and bought with them the potter’s field,
to bury strangers in. [8] Therefore that field has been called the Field of Blood to
this day. [9] Then was fulfilled what had been spoken by the prophet Jeremiah,
saying, “And they took the thirty pieces of silver the price of him on whom a price
had been set by some of the sons of Israel, [10] and they gave them for the pot-
ter’s field, as the Lord directed me.”

Jesus Before Pilate


[11] Now Jesus stood before the governor; and the governor asked him, “Are you
the King of the Jews?” Jesus said to him, “You have said so.” [12] But when he
was accused by the chief priests and elders, he made no answer. [13] Then Pi-
late said to him, “Do you not hear how many things they testify against you?”
[14] But he gave him no answer, not even to a single charge; so that the gover-
nor wondered greatly.

[15] Now at the feast the governor was accustomed to release for the crowd any
one prisoner whom they wanted. [16] And they had then a notorious prisoner,
called Barabbas. [17] So when they had gathered, Pilate said to them, “Whom
do you want me to release for you, Barabbas or Jesus who is called Christ?” [18]
For he knew that it was out of envy that they had delivered him up. [19] Besides,
while he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent word to him, “Have no-
thing to do with that righteous man, for I have suffered much over him today in a
dream.” [20] Now the chief priest and the elders persuaded the people to ask for
Barabbas and destroy Jesus. [21] The governor again said to them, “Which of
the two do you want me to release for you?” And they said, “Barabbas.” [22] Pi-
late said to them, “Then what shall I do with Jesus who is called Christ?” They
all said, “Let him be crucified.” [23] And he said, “Why, what evil has he done?”
But they shouted all the more, “Let him be crucified.”

[24] So when Pilate saw that he was gaining nothing, but rather that a riot was
beginning, he took water and washed his hands before the crowd, saying, “I am
innocent of this righteous man’s blood; see to it yourselves.” [25] And all the peo-
ple answered, “His blood be on us and on our children!” [26] Then he released for
them Barabbas, and having scourged Jesus, delivered him to be crucified.

The Crowning with Thorns


[27] Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the praetorium, and they
gathered the whole battalion before him. [28] And they stripped him and put a
scarlet robe upon him, [29] and plaiting a crown of thorns they put it on his head,
and put a reed in his right hand. And kneeling before him they mocked him, sa-
ying, “Hail, King of the Jews!” [30] And they spat upon him, and took the reed
and struck him on the head. [31] And when they had mocked him, they stripped
him of the robe, and put his own clothes on him, and led him away to crucify him.

The Crucifixion and Death of Jesus


[32] As they were marching out, they came upon a man of Cyrene, Simon by
name; this man they compelled to carry his cross. [33] And when they came to
a place called Golgotha (which means the place of a skull), [34] they offered him
wine to drink, mingled with gall; but when he tasted it, he would not drink it. [35]
And when they had crucified him, they divided his garments among them by cas-
ting lots; [36] then they sat down and kept watch over him there. [37] And over
his head they put the charge against him, which read, “This is Jesus the King
of the Jews.” [38] Then two robbers were crucified with him, one on the right and
one on the left. [39] And those who passed by derided him, wagging their heads
[40] and saying, “You who would destroy the temple and build it in three days,
save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross.” [41] So al-
so the chief priests, with the scribes and elders, mocked him, saying, [42] “He
saved others; he cannot save himself. He is the King of Israel; let him come
down now from the cross, and we will believe in him. [43] He trusts in God, let
God deliver him now, if he desires him; for he said, ‘I am the Son of God.’ [44]
And the robbers who were crucified with him also reviled him in the same way.

[45] Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land’” until the ninth
hour. [46] And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, “Eli, Eli, lama
sabachthani” that is, “My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me?” [47] And
some of the bystanders hearing it said, “This man is calling Elijah.” [48] And one
of them at once ran and took a sponge, filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed,
and gave it to him to drink. [49] But the others said, “Wait, let us see whether
Elijah will come to save him.” [50] And Jesus cried again with a loud voice and
yielded up his spirit.

[51] And behold, the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom;
and the earth shook, and the rocks were split; [52] the tombs also were opened,
and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised, [53] and co-
ming out of the tombs after his resurrection they went into the holy city and ap-
peared to many. [54] When the centurion and those who were with him, keeping
watch over Jesus, saw the earthquake and what took place, they were filled with
awe, and said, “Truly this was the Son of God!”

[55] There were also many women there, looking on from afar, who had followed
Jesus from Galilee, ministering to him; [56] among whom were Mary Magdalene,
and Mary the mother of James and Joseph and the mother of the sons of Zebe-
dee.

The Burial


[57] When it was evening, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph,
who also was a disciple of Jesus. [58] He went to Pilate and asked for the body
of Jesus. Then Pilate ordered it to be given to him. [59] And Joseph took the body,
and wrapped it in a clean linen shroud, [60] and laid in his own new tomb, which
he had hewn in the rock; and he rolled a great stone to the door of the tomb, and
departed. [61] Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were there, sitting opposite
the sepulchre.

[62] Next day, that is, after the day of Preparation, the chief priests and the Pha-
risees gathered before Pilate [63] and said, “Sir, we remember how that impostor
said, while he was still alive, ‘After three days I will rise again.’ [64] Therefore or-
der the sepulchre to be made secure until the third day, lest his disciples go and
steal him away, and tell the people, ‘He has risen from the dead,’ and the last
fraud will be worse than the first.” [65] Pilate said to them, ‘You have a guard of
soldiers; go, make it as secure as you can.” [66] So they went and made the
sepulchre secure by sealing the stone and setting a guard.

*********************************************************************************************
Commentary:

15. It is disconcerting and sobering to realize that Judas Iscariot actually went
as far as to sell the man whom he had believed to be the Messiah and who had
called him to be one of the Apostles. Thirty shekels or pieces of silver were the
price of a slave (cf. Exodus 21:32), the same value as Judas put on his Master.

17. This unleavened bread, azymes, took the form of loaves which had to be ea-
ten over a seven-day period, in commemoration of the unleavened bread which
the Israelites had to take with them in their hurry to leave Egypt (cf. Exodus 12:
34). In Jesus’ time the Passover supper was celebrated on the first day of the
week of the Unleavened Bread.

18. Although the reference is to an unnamed person, probably our Lord gave the
person’s actual name. In any event, from what other evangelists tell us (Mark 14:
13; Luke 22:10), Jesus gave the disciples enough information to enable them to
find the house.

22. Although the glorious events of Easter have yet to occur (which will teach
the Apostles much more about Jesus), their faith has been steadily fortified and
deepened in the course of Jesus’ public ministry (cf. John 2:11; 6:68-69) through
their contact with Him and the divine grace they have been given (cf. Matthew
16:17). At this point they are quite convinced that our Lord knows their internal
attitudes and how they are going to act: each asks in a concerned way whether
he will prove to be loyal in the time ahead.

24. Jesus is referring to the fact that He will give Himself up freely to suffering
and death. In so doing He would fulfill the Will of God, as proclaimed centuries
before (cf. Psalm 41:10; Isaiah 53:7). Although our Lord goes to His death volun-
tarily, this does not reduce the seriousness of Judas’ treachery.

25. This advance indication that Judas is the traitor is not noticed by the other
Apostles (cf. John 13:26-29).

26-29. This short scene, covered also in Mk 14:22-25, Lk 22: 19-20 and 1 Cor
11:23-26, contains the essential truths of faith about the sublime mystery of the
Eucharist—1) the institution of this sacrament and Jesus’ real presence in it; 2)
the institution of the Christian priesthood; and 3) the Eucharist, the sacrifice of
the New Testament or the Holy Mass.

1) In the first place, we can see the institution of the Eucharist by Jesus Christ,
when he says, “This is my body..., this is my blood...”. What up to this point
was nothing but unleavened bread and wine, now—through the words and by the
will of Jesus Christ, true God and true Man—becomes the true body and true
blood of the Savior. His words, which have such a realism about them, cannot
be interpreted as being merely symbolic or explained in a way which obscures
the mysterious fact that Christ is really present in the Eucharist: all we can do
is humbly subscribe to the faith “which the Catholic Church has always held
and which she will hold until the end of the world” (Council of Trent, “De SS. Eu-
charistia”). Paul VI expresses this faith in these words in his encyclical letter
“Mysterium Fidei”, 5: “The continuous teaching of the Catholic Church, the tra-
ditions delivered to catechumens, the perception of the Christian people, the
doctrine defined by the Council of Trent, and the very words of Christ as he insti-
tuted the most holy Eucharist, all insist that we profess: ‘The Eucharist is the
flesh of our Savior Jesus Christ; the flesh which suffered for our sins and which
the Father, of his kindness, brought to life.’ To these words of St Ignatius of An-
tioch may be added the statement addressed to the people by Theodore of Mo-
psuestia. a faithful witness of the Church’s belief on this subject: “The Lord did
not say: “This is the symbol of my body and this the symbol of my blood.” He
said: “This is my body and my blood”.”’

This sacrament, which not only has the power to sanctify but actually contains
the very Author of holiness, was instituted by Jesus Christ to be spiritual nourish-
ment of the soul, to strengthen it in its struggle to attain salvation. The Church
teaches that it also confers pardon of venial sins and helps the Christian not to
fall into mortal sin: it unites us to God and thereby is a pledge of future glory.

2) In instituting the Blessed Eucharist our Lord laid down that it should be re-
peated until the end of time (cf. 1 Cor 11:24-25; Lk 22:19) by giving the Apostles
the power to perform it. From this passage, and the accounts in St Paul and St
Luke (”loc. cit”.), we can see that Christ also instituted the priesthood, giving the
Apostles the power to confect the Eucharist, a power which they in turn passed
on to their successors. This making of the Eucharist takes place at Mass when
the priest, with the intention of doing what the Church does, says Christ’s words
of consecration over the bread and the wine. At this very moment, “a change
takes place in which the whole substance of bread is changed into the sub-
stance of the body of Christ our Lord and the whole substance of the wine into
the substance of his blood” (”De SS. Eucharistia”). This amazing change is gi-
ven the name of “transubstantiation”. Through transubstantiation the unleavened
bread and the fruit of the vine disappear, becoming the body, blood, soul and di-
vinity of Jesus Christ. Christ’s real presence is to be found also in any little par-
ticles which become detached from the host, or the smallest drop from the cha-
lice, after the consecration. It continues when the sacred species are reserved
in the tabernacle, as long as the appearances (of bread and wine) last.

3) At the Last Supper, Christ—miraculously, in an unbloody manner — brought
forward his passion and death. Every Mass celebrated from then on renews the
sacrifice of our Savior on the cross—Jesus once again giving his body and blood,
offering himself to God the Father as a sacrifice on man’s behalf, as he did on
Calvary—with this clear difference: on the cross he gave himself shedding his
blood, whereas on the altar he does so in an unbloody manner. “He, then, our
Lord and our God, was once and for all to offer himself by his death on the altar
of the cross to God the Father, to accomplish for them an everlasting redemption.
But death was not to end his priesthood. And so, at the Last Supper, [...] in or-
der to leave for his beloved spouse, the Church, a sacrifice that was visible, [...]
he offered his body and blood under the species of bread and wine to God the
Father and he gave his body and blood under the same species to the Apostles
to receive, making them priests of the New Testament at that time. This sacrifice
was to represent the bloody sacrifice which he accomplished on the cross once
and for all” (Council of Trent, “De SS. Missae Sacrficio”, chap. 1).

The expression, “which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins” means
the same as “which is poured out for all” (cf. now on Mt 20:27-28). Here we have
the fulfillment of the prophecies of Isaiah (chapter 53), which spoke of the atoning
death of Christ for all men. Only Christ’s sacrifice is capable of atoning to the Fa-
ther; the Mass has this power because it is that very sacrifice: “The priest offers
the Holy Sacrifice “in persona Christi”; this means more than offering “in the name
of” or “in the place of” Christ. “In persona” means in specific sacramental identifi-
cation with the eternal High Priest who is the Author and principal Subject of this
sacrifice of his, a sacrifice in which, in truth, nobody can take his place. Only he
— only Christ — was able and is always able to be the true and effective ‘expiation
for our sins and...for the sins of the whole world’ (1 Jn 2:2; cf. 4:10)” (John Paul II,
“Letter to All Bishops”, on the Eucharist, 24 November 1980).

Finally, we should notice that this sublime sacrament should be received with
proper dispositions of soul and body—in the state of grace, in a spirit of adoration,
respect and recollection, for it is God himself whom one is receiving. “Let a man
examine himself, and so eat of the bread and drink of the cup. For anyone who
eats and drinks without discerning the body eats and drinks judgment upon
himself” (1 Cor 11:28-29).

30-35. At the celebration of the Passover, Psalms 113-118 were recited: this is
what the reference to the “hymn” means. Our Lord knows what is going to hap-
pen —the main events (his death and resurrection) and the lesser ones (such as
Peter’s denials).

Peter becomes so afraid that he denies his Master three times — a fall which Je-
sus allowed to happen in order to teach him humility. “Here we learn a great truth:
that a man’s resolution is not sufficient unless he relies on the help of God” (St
John Chrysostom, “Hom. on St Matthew”, 83).

36-46. Here our Lord allows us to glimpse the full reality and exquisite sensitivity
of his human nature. Strictly speaking, Christ, because he had complete self-
control, could have avoided showing these limitations. However, by letting them
express themselves, we are better able to understand the mystery of his genuine
humanness—and to that extent, better able to imitate it. After tempting Jesus in
the wilderness, the devil “departed from him until an opportune time” (Lk 4:13).
Now, with the passion, he attacks again, using the flesh’s natural repugnance to
suffering; this is his hour “and the power of darkness” (Lk 22:53).

“Remain here”: as if he did not want them to be depressed by seeing his agony;
and “watch with me”: to keep him company and to prepare themselves by prayer
for the temptations that will follow. He goes a little farther away—about a stone’s
throw, St Luke tells us (22:41). Because there was a full moon, the Apostles
may have been able to see Jesus; they may also have heard some words of his
prayers; but that could hardly explain how they were able to report this scene in
such detail. It is more likely that our Lord, after his resurrection, told his disciples
about his agony (cf. Acts 1:3), as he must also have told them about the time he
was tempted in the wilderness (Mt 4:1).

47-56. Jesus again demonstrates that he is giving himself up of his own free will.
He could have asked his Father to send angels to defend him, but he does not do
so. He knows why this is all happening and he wants to make it quite clear that in
the last analysis it is not force which puts him to death but his own love and his
desire to fulfill his Father’s Will.

His opponents fail to grasp Jesus’ supernatural way of doing things; he had done
his best to teach them but their hardness of heart came in the way and prevented
them from accepting his teaching.

50. To effect his betrayal Judas uses a sign of friendship and trust. Although he
knows what Judas is about, Jesus treats him with great gentleness: he gives him
a chance to open his heart and repent. This is a lesson to show us that we
should respect even people who harm us and should treat them with a refined
charity.

61. As we know from St John’s Gospel (2:19), Jesus had said, “Destroy this tem-
ple, and in three days I will raise it up”, referring to the destruction of his own body,
that is, his death and resurrection. They misunderstood him (Jn 2:20), thinking he
referred to the temple of Jerusalem.

69. The houses of well-to-do Jews had a front lobby or porter’s office; going
through the lobby one came into a patio and by crossing the patio one could en-
ter the rooms proper. Peter goes through the lobby but he is afraid to buoy the
mill of people around Jesus, so he stays in the patio, with the servants.

70-75. When they went to arrest Jesus in the Garden of Olives, Peter set about
defending him and, sword in hand, he struck at the head of the first to lay a hand
on his Master, but he only succeeded in cutting off his ear. Our Lord’s reaction
(”Put your sword back into its place”: Mt 26:52) disconcerts Peter. His faith is
not in doubt—Jesus himself had praised him above the other Apostles (Mt 16:17)
—but it is still too human and needs a profound purification. On Jesus’ arrest, all
the disciples flee in disarray; thereby the prophecy is fulfilled which says “Strike
the shepherd, that the sheep may be scattered” (Zech 13:7). However, Peter
keeps following our Lord, though at a distance (Mt 26:58); he is quite demora-
lized and disconcerted yet brave enough to enter Caiaphas house, where Mal-
chus, the man whose ear he cut off, works (Jn 18:10-11).

Peter’s faith is put to the supreme test. A few hours before Jesus’ arrest Peter
had assured him, “Lord, I am ready to go with you to prison and to death” (Lk 22:
33); and now, as Jesus predicted, he three times denies that he ever knew him.
In the midst of his confusion, our Lord’s serene glance reinforces his faith (Lk 22:
61) and Peter’s tears purify it. What our Lord had said a few hours earlier, in the
intimacy of the Last Supper, has come true: “Simon, Simon, behold, Satan de-
manded to have you, that he might sift you like wheat, but I have prayed for you
that your faith may not fail; and when you have turned again, strengthen your
brethren” (Lk 22:31-32).

Peter has committed a grave sin, but his repentance also is deep. His faith, now
put to the test, will become the basis on which Christ will build his Church (Mt
16:18).

As regards our own lives we should remember that no matter how low we may
have fallen, God in his mercy, which is infinite, is ever ready to forgive us, be-
cause he does not despise a broken and contrite heart (Ps 51:19). If we sincere-
ly repent, God will use us, sinners though we be, as his faithful instruments.

2. During this period the governor or procurator was the senior official in Judea.
Although he was subordinate to the Roman legate in Syria, he had the “ius gla-
dii”, the authority to condemn a criminal to death—which was why the Jewish lea-
ders brought Jesus before Pilate: they were seeking a public sentence of death,
to counteract Jesus’ reputation and erase his teaching from people’s minds.

3-5. Judas’ remorse does not lead him to repent his sins and be converted; he
cannot bring himself to turn trustingly to God and be forgiven. He despairs mis-
trusting God’s infinite mercy, and takes his own life.

6. Once again the chief priests and elders show their hypocrisy. They behave
inconsistently: they worry about exact fulfillment of a precept of the Law—not to
put into the temple treasury money resulting from an evil action—yet they them-
selves have instigated that action.

9. By recalling the prophecy of Jeremiah (cf. Jer 18:2; 19:1; 32:6-15) and com-
pleting it with that of Zechariah (Zech 11:12-13), the Gospel shows that this
incident was foreseen by God.

14. The evangelist possibly wishes to indicate that this silence was foretold in
the Old Testament when Is 53:7 speaks of his being “afflicted, yet he opened
not his mouth; like a lamb that is led to the slaughter, and like a sheep that be-
fore its shearers is dumb.”

Sometimes the right thing for a Christian to do is to remain silent, bearing out
what Isaiah says elsewhere: ‘in quietness and in trust shall be your strength”
(Is 30:15).

“’Jesus remained silent. “Jesus autem tacebat.”’ Why do you speak, to console
yourself or to excuse yourself? Say nothing. Seek joy in contempt; you will al-
ways receive less than you deserve. Can you, by any chance, ask: ‘”Quid enim
mali feci?” What evil have I done?”’ (St. J. Escriva, “The Way”, 671).

18. The chief priests and elders had seen how the crowd followed Jesus. This
caused them to be envious of him, an envy which grew into a hatred that sought
his death (Jn 11:47). St Thomas observes that just as at the beginning it was en-
vy that caused man’s death (Wis 2:24), so it was envy that condemned Christ (cf.
“Commentary on St Matthew”, 27:18). Envy is indeed one of the causes of hatred
(Gen 37:8). “So put away all malice and all guile and insincerity and envy and all
slander” (1 Pet 2:1).

23. “It is hard to read that question of Pilate’s in the holy Gospel: ‘Whom do you
wish me to release to you, Barabbas, or Jesus, who is called Christ?’—lt is more
painful to hear the answer: ‘Barabbas!’ And more terrible still when I realize that
very often by going astray I too have said ‘Barabbas’ and added ‘Christ?...
“Crucifige eum!” Crucify him!”’ (St. J. Escriva, “The Way”, 296).

24. Pilate tries publicly to justify his lack of courage, even though he has all the
material necessary for giving an honest verdict.

His cowardice, which he disguises by this external gesture, ends up condemning
Christ to death.

26-50. Meditation on the passion of our Lord has made many saints in the course
of Church history. Few things are of more benefit to a Christian than contempla-
tion —slow and devout, to the point of being amazed—of the saving events surroun-
ding the death of the Son of God made man. Our mind and heart will be over-
whelmed to see the suffering of him who created the angels, men, heaven and
earth; who is the Lord of all creation; the Almighty who humbles himself to this
extent (something quite unimaginable, were it not that it happened). He suffers in
this way because of sin—the original sin of our first parents, the personal sins of
all men, of those who have gone before us and those who will come after us, and
each one’s own sins. Christ’s terrible sufferings spell out for us, as nothing else
can, the infinite gravity of sin, which has called for the death of God himself made
man; moreover, this physical and moral suffering which Jesus undergoes is also
the most eloquent proof of his love for the Father, which seeks to atone to him for
man’s incredible rebellion by the punishment inflicted on his own innocent huma-
nity; and of his love for mankind, his brothers and sisters; he suffers what we de-
serve to suffer in just punishment for our sins. Our Lord’s desire to atone was so
great that there was no part of his body that he did not permit to be inflicted with
pain—his hands and feet pierced by the nails; his head torn by the crown of
thorns; his face battered and spat upon; his back pitted by the terrible scourging
he received; his chest pierced by the lance; finally, his arms and legs utterly ex-
hausted by such pain and weariness that he dies. His spirit, also, is saturated
with suffering—the pain caused by his being abandoned and betrayed by his di-
sciples, the hatred his own people turn on him, the jeers and brutality of the Gen-
tiles, the mysterious way his divinity permits his soul to suffer.

Only one thing can explain why Christ undergoes this redemptive passion — love,
immense, infinite, indescribable love. As he himself taught, the entire Law of God
and the Prophets are summed up in the divine commandment of love (cf. Mt
22:36-40).

The four evangelists have filled many pages with their account of the sufferings of
our Lord. Contemplation of Jesus’ passion, identification with the suffering Christ,
should play a key role in the life of every Christian, if he is to share later in the
resurrection of his Lord: “Don’t hinder the work of the Paraclete: seek union with
Christ, so as to be purified, and feel with him the insults, the spits, and the blows,
and the thorns, and the weight of the Cross..., and the nails tearing through your
flesh, and the agony of a forsaken death.

“And enter through our Lord’s open side until you find sure refuge there in his
wounded Heart” (St. J. Escriva, “The Way”, 58).

27. A cohort, or battalion, consisted of some 625 soldiers. In Jesus’ time there
was always a cohort garrisoned in Jerusalem, quartered in the Antonia Tower,
adjoining the temple. This reported to the governor and was recruited from non-
Jewish inhabitants of the region.

28-31. The Gospel describes very soberly how Jesus puts up no resistance to
being beaten and ridiculed; the facts are allowed to speak for themselves. He
takes upon himself, out of love for the Father and for us, the punishment we de-
serve to suffer for our sins. This should make us very grateful and, at the same
time, cause us to have sorrow for sin, to desire to suffer in silence at Jesus’ side
and atone for our sins and those of others: Lord, I want never to sin again: but
you must help me to stay true to you.

32. Seeing how much Jesus has suffered, the soldiers realize that he is incapa-
ble of carrying the Cross on his own as far as the top of Golgotha. There he is,
in the center of the crowd, with not a friend in sight. Where are all the people who
benefitted from his preaching and healing and miracles? None of them is there to
help him. He had said, “If any man would come after me, let him deny himself
and take up his cross and follow me” (Mt 16:24). But cowardice and fear have ta-
ken over. The soldiers resort to laying hold of a stranger and forcing him to carry
the Cross. Our Lord will reward this favor done to him: God’s grace will come
down on “Simon of Cyrene,...the father of Alexander and Rufus” (Mk 15:21), who
will soon be prominent members of the early Church. The experience of pain
proves to be the best route to Christian discipleship.

Christ’s disciples must try to ensure that cowardice does not undermine their
commitment: “See how lovingly he embraces the Cross. Learn from him. Jesus
carries the Cross for you: you...carry it for Jesus. But don’t drag the Cross ...
Carry it squarely on your shoulder, because your Cross, if you carry it like that,
will not be just any Cross.... It will be the Holy Cross. Don’t carry your Cross with
resignation: resignation is not a generous word. Love the Cross. When you really
love it, your Cross will be...a Cross without a Cross” (St. J. Escriva, “Holy Rosa-
ry”, fourth sorrowful mystery).

33. On the outskirts of Jerusalem there was a little hill called “Golgotha”, or “the
place of a skull”, as the evangelist expressly states. It was used as a site for
executing criminals. The name “Golgotha” comes from a transcription of an Ara-
maic word meaning “head”. The name “Calvary” comes from a Latin word with
the same meaning.

34. They offered Jesus a drink consisting of a mixture of wine, honey and myrrh
(cf. Mk 15:23); this was usually given to people condemned to death, as a nar-
cotic to lessen the pain. Our Lord chooses not to take it, because he wants to
suffer the full rigor of his passion.

“Let us drink to the last drop the chalice of pain in this poor present life. What
does it matter to suffer for ten years, twenty, fifty...if afterwards there is heaven
forever, forever...forever? And, above all—rather than because of the reward,
“propter retributionem”—what does suffering matter if we suffer to console, to
please God our Father, in a spirit of reparation, united to him on his Cross; in
a word: if we suffer for Love?...” (St. J. Escriva, “The Way”, 182).

35. Some manuscripts add to this verse the following words taken from Jn 19:24:
“This was to fulfill the scripture, ‘They parted my garments among them, and for
my clothing they cast lots”’ (cf. Ps 22:19).

45. Approximately from twelve midday to three o’clock in the afternoon. See the
note on Mt 20:3.

46. Words from Psalm 22:2, which our Lord uses to show the physical and mo-
ral pain he is suffering. In no sense should these words be taken as complaint
against God’s plans. “Suffering does not consist in not feeling since that is pro-
per to those who have no feelings; nor does it lie in not showing that one feels
pain: rather, suffering means that in spite of pain one does not set aside the law
or obedience to God. For feeling is natural to the flesh, which is not like bronze;
and so reason does not remove it, because reason gives to everything what its
nature demands; and our sensitivity is very soft and tender; when it is wounded
it of necessity feels, and when it feels it has to cry out” (Fray Luis de Leon,
“Exposicion del Libro de Job”).

In his agony in the garden (cf. note on Mt 26:36-46), Jesus experienced a kind of
anticipation of the pain and abandonment he feels at this point in his Passion. In
the context of the mystery of Jesus Christ, God-and-Man, we should notice how
his Humanity—body and soul—suffers without his Divinity assuaging that suffering,
as it could have done. “Here before the Cross, we should have sorrow for our sins
and for those of all men, for they are responsible for Jesus’ death. We should have
faith to penetrate deep into this sublime truth which surpasses our understanding
and to fill ourselves with amazement at God’s love. And we should pray so that
Christ’s life and death may become the model and motivation for our own life and
self-giving. Only thus will we earn the name of conquerors: for the risen Christ will
conquer in us, and death will be changed into life” (St. J. Escriva, “Christ is Pas-
sing By”, 101).

50. The phrase “yielded up his spirit” (literally, “released, exhaled”) is a way of
saying that Christ really died; like any other man, his death meant the separation
of soul and body. The fact that he genuinely did die — something which everyone,
even his enemies, acknowledged — will show that his Resurrection was a real re-
surrection, a miraculous, divine fact.

This is the climax of Christ’s surrender to the Will of the Father. Here he accom-
plishes the salvation of mankind (Mt 26:27-28; Mk 10:45; Heb 9:14) and gives us
the greatest proof of God’s love for us (Jn 3:16). The saints usually explain the
expiatory value of Christ’s sacrifice by underlining that he voluntarily “yielded up
his Spirit”. “Our Savior’s death was a sacrifice of holocaust which he himself of-
fered to his Father for our redemption; for though the pains and sufferings of his
passion were so great and violent that anyone else would have died of them, Je-
sus would not have died of them unless he so chose and unless the fire of his in-
finite charity had consumed his life. He was, then, himself the sacrificer who of-
fered himself to the Father and immolated himself, dying in love, to love, by love,
for love and of love” (St Francis de Sales, “Treatise on the Love of God”, Book
10, Chap. 17). This fidelity of Christ to the point of dying should be a permanent
encouragement to us to persevere until the end, conscious of the fact that only
he who is true until death will receive the crown of life (cf. Rev 2:10).

51-53. The rending of the veil of the temple indicates that the way to God the
Father has been opened up to all men (cf. Heb 9:15) and that the New Covenant,
sealed with the blood of Christ, has begun to operate. The other portents which
attend Jesus’ death are signs of the divine character of that event: it was not just
one more man who was dying, but the Son of God.

52-53. These events are undoubtedly difficult to understand. No explanation
should say what the text does not say. Nor does any other part of sacred Scrip-
ture, or the Magisterium of the Church, help to clarify what actually happened.

The great Church writers have suggested three possible explanations. First: that
it was not a matter of resurrections in the strict sense, but of apparitions of these
dead people. Second: they would have been dead people who arose in the way
Lazarus did, and then died again. Third: their resurrection would have been defi-
nitive, that is glorious, in this way anticipating the final universal resurrection of
the dead.

The first explanation does not seem to be very faithful to the text, which does use
the words “were raised” (”surrexerunt”). The third is difficult to reconcile with the
clear assertion of Scripture that Christ was the first-born from the dead (cf. 1 Cor
15:20; Col 1:18). St Augustine, St Jerome and St Thomas are inclined towards
the second explanation because they feel it fits in best with the sacred text and
does not present the theological difficulties which the third does (cf. “Summa
Theologiae”, III,q. 53, a. 3) It is also in keeping with the solution proposed by the
“St Pius V Catechism”, 1, 6, 9.

55-56. The presence of the holy women beside Christ on the Cross gives an ex-
ample of stoutheartedness to all Christians.

“Woman is stronger than man, and more faithful, in the hour of suffering: Mary
of Magdala and Mary Cleophas and Salome! With a group of valiant women like
these, closely united to our Lady of Sorrows, what work for souls could be done
in the world!” (St. J. Escriva. “The Way”, 982).

60. It was customary for well-to-do Jews to build tombs for themselves on their
own property. Most of these tombs were excavated out of rock, in the form of a
cavern; they would have had a small hall or vestibule leading to the tomb proper.
At the end of the hall, which would only have been a few meters long, a very low
doorway gave access to the burial chamber. The first entrance door, which was
at ground level, was closed off by a huge stone which could be rolled (it was
called a “gobel”), fitted into a groove to make rolling easier.

62. The Day of Preparation (the Greek word “parasceve” means “preparation”)
was the day prior to the sabbath (cf. Lk 23:54). It derived its name from the fact
that it was the day when everything needed for the sabbath was prepared, the
sabbath being a day of rest, consecrated to God, on which no work was per-
mitted.

66. All these preventative measures (sealing the entrance to the tomb, placing
the guard there, etc) — measures taken by Christ’s enemies—became factors
which helped people believe in his resurrection.

*********************************************************************************************
Source: “The Navarre Bible: Text and Commentaries”. Biblical text from the
Revised Standard Version and New Vulgate. Commentaries by members of
the Faculty of Theology, University of Navarre, Spain.

Published by Four Courts Press, Kill Lane, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland, and
by Scepter Publishers in the United States.


6 posted on 04/12/2014 6:50:15 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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Readings at Mass

This gospel is read at the procession with palms before Mass:

Gospel

Matthew 21:1-11 ©

 

Blessings on him who comes in the name of the Lord!

When they were near Jerusalem and had come in sight of Bethphage on the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent two disciples, saying to them, ‘Go to the village facing you, and you will immediately find a tethered donkey and a colt with her. Untie them and bring them to me. If anyone says anything to you, you are to say, “The Master needs them and will send them back directly”.’ This took place to fulfil the prophecy:

Say to the daughter of Zion:

Look, your king comes to you;

he is humble, he rides on a donkey

and on a colt, the foal of a beast of burden.

So the disciples went out and did as Jesus had told them. They brought the donkey and the colt, then they laid their cloaks on their backs and he sat on them. Great crowds of people spread their cloaks on the road, while others were cutting branches from the trees and spreading them in his path. The crowds who went in front of him and those who followed were all shouting:

‘Hosanna to the Son of David!

Blessings on him who comes in the name of the Lord!

Hosanna in the highest heavens!’

And when he entered Jerusalem, the whole city was in turmoil. ‘Who is this?’ people asked, and the crowds answered, ‘This is the prophet Jesus from Nazareth in Galilee.’

The following are the readings at the Mass itself:


First reading

Isaiah 50:4-7 ©

The Lord has given me

a disciple’s tongue.

So that I may know how to reply to the wearied

he provides me with speech.

Each morning he wakes me to hear,

to listen like a disciple.

The Lord has opened my ear.

For my part, I made no resistance,

neither did I turn away.

I offered my back to those who struck me,

my cheeks to those who tore at my beard;

I did not cover my face

against insult and spittle.

The Lord comes to my help,

so that I am untouched by the insults.

So, too, I set my face like flint;

I know I shall not be shamed.


Psalm

Psalm 21:8-9,17-20,23-24 ©

My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?

All who see me deride me.

  They curl their lips, they toss their heads.

‘He trusted in the Lord, let him save him;

  let him release him if this is his friend.’

My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?

Many dogs have surrounded me,

  a band of the wicked beset me.

They tear holes in my hands and my feet

  I can count every one of my bones.

My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?

They divide my clothing among them.

  They cast lots for my robe.

O Lord, do not leave me alone,

  my strength, make haste to help me!

My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?

I will tell of your name to my brethren

  and praise you where they are assembled.

‘You who fear the Lord give him praise;

  all sons of Jacob, give him glory.

  Revere him, Israel’s sons.

My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?


Second reading

Philippians 2:6-11 ©

His state was divine,

yet Christ Jesus did not cling

to his equality with God

but emptied himself

to assume the condition of a slave

and became as men are;

and being as all men are,

he was humbler yet,

even to accepting death,

death on a cross.

But God raised him high

and gave him the name

which is above all other names

so that all beings

in the heavens, on earth and in the underworld,

should bend the knee at the name of Jesus

and that every tongue should acclaim

Jesus Christ as Lord,

to the glory of God the Father.


Gospel Acclamation

Phil2:8-9

Praise to you, O Christ, king of eternal glory!

Christ was humbler yet,

even to accepting death, death on a cross.

But God raised him high

and gave him the name which is above all names.

Praise to you, O Christ, king of eternal glory!

EITHER:

Gospel

Matthew 26:14-27:66 ©

One of the Twelve, the man called Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests and said, ‘What are you prepared to give me if I hand him over to you?’ They paid him thirty silver pieces, and from that moment he looked for an opportunity to betray him.

  Now on the first day of Unleavened Bread the disciples came to Jesus to say, ‘Where do you want us to make the preparations for you to eat the passover?’ ‘Go to so-and-so in the city’ he replied ‘and say to him, “The Master says: My time is near. It is at your house that I am keeping Passover with my disciples.”’ The disciples did what Jesus told them and prepared the Passover.

  When evening came he was at table with the twelve disciples. And while they were eating he said ‘I tell you solemnly, one of you is about to betray me’ They were greatly distressed and started asking him in turn, ‘Not I, Lord, surely?’ He answered, ‘Someone who has dipped his hand into the dish with me, will betray me. The Son of Man is going to his fate, as the scriptures say he will, but alas for that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! Better for that man if he had never been born!’ Judas, who was to betray him; asked in his turn, ‘Not I, Rabbi, surely?’ ‘They are your own words’ answered Jesus.

  Now as they were eating, Jesus took some bread, and when he had said the blessing he broke it and gave it to the disciples. ‘Take it and eat;’ he said ‘this is my body.’ Then he took a cup, and when he had returned thanks he gave it to them. ‘Drink all of you from this,’ he said ‘for this is my blood, the blood of the covenant, which is to be poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. From now on, I tell you, I shall not drink wine until the day I drink the new wine with you in the kingdom of my Father.’

  After psalms had been sung they left for the Mount of Olives. Then Jesus said to them, ‘You will all lose faith in me this night, for the scripture says: I shall strike the shepherd and the sheep of the flock will be scattered, but after my resurrection I shall go before you to Galilee.’ At this, Peter said, ‘Though all lose faith in you, I will never lose faith.’ Jesus answered him, ‘I tell you solemnly, this very night, before the cock crows, you will have disowned me three times.’ Peter said to him, ‘Even if I have to die with you, I will never disown you.’ And all the disciples said the same.

  Then Jesus came with them to a small estate called Gethsemane; and he said to his disciples, ‘Stay here while I go over there to pray.’ He took Peter and the two sons of Zebedee with him. And sadness came over him, and great distress. Then he said to them, ‘My soul is sorrowful to the point of death. Wait here and keep awake with me.’ And going on a little further he fell on his face and prayed. ‘My Father,’ he said ‘if it is possible, let this cup pass me by. Nevertheless, let it be as you, not I, would have it.’ He came back to the disciples and found them sleeping, and he said to Peter, ‘So you had not the strength to keep awake with me one hour? You should be awake, and praying not to be put to the test. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.’ Again, a second time, he went away and prayed: ‘My Father,’ he said ‘If this cup cannot pass by without my drinking it, your will be done!’ And he came back again and found them sleeping, their eyes were so heavy. Leaving them there, he went away again and prayed for the third time, repeating the same words. Then he came back to the disciples and said to them, ‘You can sleep on now and take your rest. Now the hour has come when the Son of Man is to be betrayed into the hands of sinners. Get up! Let us go! My betrayer is already close at hand.’

  He was still speaking when Judas, one of the Twelve, appeared, and with him a large number of men armed with swords and clubs, sent by the chief priests and elders of the people. Now the traitor had arranged a sign with them. ‘The one I kiss,’ he had said ‘he is the man. Take him in charge.’ So he went straight up to Jesus and said, ‘Greetings, Rabbi’, and kissed him. Jesus said to him, ‘My friend, do what you are here for.’ Then they came forward, seized Jesus and took him in charge. At that, one of the followers of Jesus grasped his sword and drew it; he struck out at the high priest’s servant, and cut off his ear. Jesus then said, ‘Put your sword back, for all who draw the sword will die by the sword. Or do you think that I cannot appeal to my Father who would promptly send more than twelve legions of angels to my defence? But then, how would the scriptures be fulfilled that say this is the way it must be?’ It was at this time that Jesus said to the crowds, ‘Am I a brigand, that you had to set out to capture me with swords and clubs? I sat teaching in the Temple day after day and you never laid hands on me.’ Now all this happened to fulfil the prophecies in scripture. Then all the disciples deserted him and ran away.

  The men who had arrested Jesus led him off to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled. Peter followed him at a distance, and when he reached the high priest’s palace, he went in and sat down with the attendants to see what the end would be.

  The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for evidence against Jesus, however false, on which they might pass the death sentence. But they could not find any, though several lying witnesses came forward. Eventually two stepped forward and made a statement, ‘This man said, “I have power to destroy the Temple of God and in three days build it up”’ The high priest then stood up and said to him, ‘Have you no answer to that? What is this evidence these men are bringing against you?’ But Jesus was silent. And the high priest said to him, ‘I put you on oath by the living God to tell us if you are the Christ, the Son of God.’ ‘The words are your own’ answered Jesus. ‘Moreover, I tell you that from this time onward you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the Power and coming on the clouds of heaven.’ At this, the high priest tore his clothes and said, ‘He has blasphemed. What need of witnesses have we now? There! You have just heard the blasphemy. What is your opinion?’ They answered, ‘He deserves to die.’

  Then they spat in his face and hit him with their fists; others said as they struck him, ‘Play the prophet, Christ! Who hit you then?’

  Meanwhile Peter was sitting outside in the courtyard, and a servant-girl came up to him and said, ‘You too were with Jesus the Galilean.’ But he denied it in front of them all. ‘I do not know what you are talking about’ he said. When he went out to the gateway another servant-girl saw him and said to the people there, ‘This man was with Jesus the Nazarene.’ And again, with an oath, he denied it, ‘I do not know the man.’ A little later the bystanders came up and said to Peter, ‘You are one of them for sure! Why, your accent gives you away.’ Then he started calling down curses on himself and swearing, ‘I do not know the man.’ At that moment the cock crew, and Peter remembered what Jesus had said, ‘Before the cock crows you will have disowned me three times.’ And he went outside and wept bitterly.

  When morning came, all the chief priests and the elders of the people met in council to bring about the death of Jesus. They had him bound, and led him away to hand him over to Pilate, the governor.

  When he found that Jesus had been condemned, Judas his betrayer was filled with remorse and took the thirty silver pieces back to the chief priests and elders. ‘I have sinned;’ he said ‘I have betrayed innocent blood’ ‘What is that to us?’ they replied ‘That is your concern.’ And flinging down the silver pieces in the sanctuary he made off and hanged himself; The chief priests picked up the silver pieces and said, ‘It is against the Law to put this into the treasury; it is blood-money.’ So they discussed the matter and bought the potter’s field with it as a graveyard for foreigners, and this is why the field is called the Field of Blood today. The words of the prophet Jeremiah were then fulfilled: And they took the thirty silver pieces, the sum at which the precious One was priced by children of Israel, and they gave them for the potter’s field, just as the Lord directed me.

  Jesus, then, was brought before the governor, and the governor put to him this question, ‘Are you the king of the Jews?’ Jesus replied, ‘It is you who say it.’ But when he was accused by the chief priests and the elders he refused to answer at all. Pilate then said to him, ‘Do you not hear how many charges they have brought against you?’ But to the governor’s complete amazement, he offered no reply to any of the charges.

  At festival time it was the governor’s practice to release a prisoner for the people, anyone they chose. Now there was at that time a notorious prisoner whose name was Barabbas. So when the crowd gathered, Pilate said to them, ‘Which do you want me to release for you: Barabbas, or Jesus who is called Christ?’ For Pilate knew it was out of jealousy that they had handed him over. Now as he was seated in the chair of judgement, his wife sent him a message, ‘Have nothing to do with that man; I have been upset all day by a dream I had about him.’

  The chief priests and the elders, however, had persuaded the crowd to demand the release of Barabbas and the execution of Jesus. So when the governor spoke and asked them, ‘Which of the two do you want me to release for you?’ they said, ‘Barabbas.’ ‘But in that case,’ Pilate said to them ‘what am I to do with Jesus who is called Christ?’ They all said, ‘Let him be crucified!’ ‘Why?’ he asked ‘What harm has he done?’ But they shouted all the louder, ‘Let him be crucified!’ Then Pilate saw that he was making no impression, that in fact a riot was imminent. So he took some water, washed his hands in front of the crowd and said, ‘I am innocent of this man’s blood. It is your concern.’ And the people, to a man, shouted back, ‘His blood be on us and on our children!’ Then he released Barabbas for them. He ordered Jesus to be first scourged and then handed over to be crucified.

  The governor’s soldiers took Jesus with them into the Praetorium and collected the whole cohort round him. Then they stripped him and made him wear a scarlet cloak, and having twisted some thorns into a crown they put this on his head and placed a reed in his right hand. To make fun of him they knelt to him saying, ‘Hail, king of the Jews!’ And they spat on him and took the reed and struck him on the head with it. And when they had finished making fun of him, they took off the cloak and dressed him in his own clothes and led him away to crucify him.

  On their way out, they came across a man from Cyrene, Simon by name, and enlisted him to carry his cross. When they had reached a place called Golgotha, that is, the place of the skull, they gave him wine to drink mixed with gall, which he tasted but refused to drink. When they had finished crucifying him they shared out his clothing by casting lots, and then sat down and stayed there keeping guard over him.

  Above his head was placed the charge against him; it read: ‘This is Jesus, the King of the Jews.’ At the same time two robbers were crucified with him, one on the right and one on the left.

  The passers-by jeered at him; they shook their heads and said, ‘So you would destroy the Temple and rebuild it in three days! Then save yourself! If you are God’s son, come down from the cross!’ The chief priests with the scribes and elders mocked him in the same way. ‘He saved others;’ they said ‘he cannot save himself. He is the king of Israel; let him come down from the cross now, and we will believe in him. He puts his trust in God; now let God rescue him if he wants him. For he did say, “I am the son of God.”’ Even the robbers who were crucified with him taunted him in the same way.

  From the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land until the ninth hour. And about the ninth hour, Jesus cried out in a loud voice, ‘Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?’ that is, ‘My God, my God, why have you deserted me?’ When some of those who stood there heard this, they said, ‘The man is calling on Elijah’, and one of them quickly ran to get a sponge which he dipped in vinegar and, putting it on a reed, gave it him to drink. ‘Wait!’ said the rest of them ‘and see if Elijah will come to save him.’ But Jesus, again crying out in a loud voice, yielded up his spirit.

  Here all kneel and pause for a short time.

  At that, the veil of the Temple was torn in two from top to bottom; the earth quaked; the rocks were split; the tombs opened and the bodies of many holy men rose from the dead, and these, after his resurrection, came out of the tombs, entered the Holy City and appeared to a number of people. Meanwhile the centurion, together with the others guarding Jesus, had seen the earthquake and all that was taking place, and they were terrified and said, ‘In truth this was a son of God.’

  And many women were there, watching from a distance, the same women who had followed Jesus from Galilee and looked after him. Among them were Mary of Magdala, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of Zebedee’s sons.

  When it was evening, there came a rich man of Arimathaea, called Joseph, who had himself become a disciple of Jesus. This man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Pilate thereupon ordered it to be handed over. So Joseph took the body, wrapped it in a clean shroud and put it in his own new tomb which he had hewn out of the rock. He then rolled a large stone across the entrance of the tomb and went away. Now Mary of Magdala and the other Mary were there, sitting opposite the sepulchre.

  Next day, that is, when Preparation Day was over, the chief priests and the Pharisees went in a body to Pilate and said to him, ‘Your Excellency, we recall that this impostor said, while he was still alive, “After three days I shall rise again.” Therefore give the order to have the sepulchre kept secure until the third day, for fear his disciples come and steal him away and tell the people, “He has risen from the dead.” This last piece of fraud would be worse than what went before.’ ‘You may have your guard’ said Pilate to them. ‘Go and make all as secure as you know how.’ So they went and made the sepulchre secure, putting seals on the stone and mounting a guard.

OR:

Alternative Gospel

Matthew 27:11-54 ©

Jesus was brought before Pontius Pilate, the governor, and the governor put to him this question, ‘Are you the king of the Jews?’ Jesus replied, ‘It is you who say it.’ But when he was accused by the chief priests and the elders he refused to answer at all. Pilate then said to him, ‘Do you not hear how many charges they have brought against you?’ But to the governor’s complete amazement, he offered no reply to any of the charges.

  At festival time it was the governor’s practice to release a prisoner for the people, anyone they chose. Now there was at that time a notorious prisoner whose name was Barabbas. So when the crowd gathered, Pilate said to them, ‘Which do you want me to release for you: Barabbas, or Jesus who is called Christ?’ For Pilate knew it was out of jealousy that they had handed him over. Now as he was seated in the chair of judgement, his wife sent him a message, ‘Have nothing to do with that man; I have been upset all day by a dream I had about him.’

  The chief priests and the elders, however, had persuaded the crowd to demand the release of Barabbas and the execution of Jesus. So when the governor spoke and asked them, ‘Which of the two do you want me to release for you?’ they said, ‘Barabbas.’ ‘But in that case,’ Pilate said to them ‘what am I to do with Jesus who is called Christ?’ They all said, ‘Let him be crucified!’ ‘Why?’ he asked ‘What harm has he done?’ But they shouted all the louder, ‘Let him be crucified!’ Then Pilate saw that he was making no impression, that in fact a riot was imminent. So he took some water, washed his hands in front of the crowd and said, ‘I am innocent of this man’s blood. It is your concern.’ And the people, to a man, shouted back, ‘His blood be on us and on our children!’ Then he released Barabbas for them. He ordered Jesus to be first scourged and then handed over to be crucified.

  The governor’s soldiers took Jesus with them into the Praetorium and collected the whole cohort round him. Then they stripped him and made him wear a scarlet cloak, and having twisted some thorns into a crown they put this on his head and placed a reed in his right hand. To make fun of him they knelt to him saying, ‘Hail, king of the Jews!’ And they spat on him and took the reed and struck him on the head with it. And when they had finished making fun of him, they took off the cloak and dressed him in his own clothes and led him away to crucify him.

  On their way out, they came across a man from Cyrene, Simon by name, and enlisted him to carry his cross. When they had reached a place called Golgotha, that is, the place of the skull, they gave him wine to drink mixed with gall, which he tasted but refused to drink. When they had finished crucifying him they shared out his clothing by casting lots, and then sat down and stayed there keeping guard over him.

  Above his head was placed the charge against him; it read: ‘This is Jesus, the King of the Jews.’ At the same time two robbers were crucified with him, one on the right and one on the left.

  The passers-by jeered at him; they shook their heads and said, ‘So you would destroy the Temple and rebuild it in three days! Then save yourself! If you are God’s son, come down from the cross!’ The chief priests with the scribes and elders mocked him in the same way. ‘He saved others;’ they said ‘he cannot save himself. He is the king of Israel; let him come down from the cross now, and we will believe in him. He puts his trust in God; now let God rescue him if he wants him. For he did say, “I am the son of God.”’ Even the robbers who were crucified with him taunted him in the same way.

  From the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land until the ninth hour. And about the ninth hour, Jesus cried out in a loud voice, ‘Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?’ that is, ‘My God, my God, why have you deserted me?’ When some of those who stood there heard this, they said, ‘The man is calling on Elijah’, and one of them quickly ran to get a sponge which he dipped in vinegar and, putting it on a reed, gave it him to drink. ‘Wait!’ said the rest of them ‘and see if Elijah will come to save him.’ But Jesus, again crying out in a loud voice, yielded up his spirit.

  Here all kneel and pause for a short time.

  At that, the veil of the Temple was torn in two from top to bottom; the earth quaked; the rocks were split; the tombs opened and the bodies of many holy men rose from the dead, and these, after his resurrection, came out of the tombs, entered the Holy City and appeared to a number of people. Meanwhile the centurion, together with the others guarding Jesus, had seen the earthquake and all that was taking place, and they were terrified and said, ‘In truth this was a son of God.’


7 posted on 04/12/2014 7:10:15 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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8 posted on 04/12/2014 7:11:33 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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Lent 2010: Pierce Thou My Heart, Love Crucified [Catholic Caucus]
US seminarians begin Lenten pilgrimage to Rome's ancient churches
Conversion "is going against the current" of an "illusory way of life"[Pope Benedict XVI for Lent]
vanity] Hope you all make a good Lent [Catholic Caucus]
Lent -- Easter 2010, Reflections, Prayer, Actions Day by Day
Stational Churches (Virtually visit one each day and pray)
40 Ways to Get the Most Out of Lent!
What to Give Up (for Lent)? The List
On the Spiritual Advantages of Fasting [Pope Clement XIII]
Christ's temptation and ours (Reflection for the First Sunday of Lent)
Pope Benedict XVI Message for Lent 2010 (Feb 15 = Ash Monday & Feb 17 = Ash Wednesday)
Whatever happened to (Lenten) obligations? [Prayer, Fasting, Almsgiving]Archbishop John Vlazny
Vatican Presents Lenten Website: LENT 2009
A Scriptural Way of the Cross with Meditations by Saint Alphonsus Liguori (Lenten Prayer/Devotional)
Prayer, Fasting and Mercy by St. Peter Chrysologus, Early Church Father [Catholic Caucus]
History of Lent (Did the Church always have this time before Easter?)

Beginning of Lent
Lent (Catholic Encyclopedia - Caucus Thread)
At Lent, let us pray for the Pope (converts ask us to pray for the pope)
Daily Lenten Reflections 2009
LENTEN STATIONS [Stational Churches for Lent] (Catholic Caucus)
40 Days for Life campaign is now under way (February 25 - April 5]
This Lent, live as if Jesus Christ is indeed Lord of your life
Reconciliation, forgiveness, hope – and Lent
Intro to Fast and Abstinence 101
Lent: Why the Christian Must Deny Himself (with Scriptural references)
40 Ways to Improve Your Lent
Everything Lent (Lots of links)
The Best Kind of Fasting
Getting Serious About Lent
Lent Overview
Meditations on the Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ [Devotional]
On Lent... and Lourdes (Benedict XVI's Angelus address)
Lent for Newbies
Lent -- 2008 -- Come and Pray Each Day
Lent: Why the Christian Must Deny Himself

Lenten Workshop [lots of ideas for all]
Lent and Reality
Forty Days (of Lent) [Devotional/Reflections]
Pope Benedict takes his own advice, plans to go on retreat for Lent
GUIDE FOR LENT - What the Catholic Church Says
Message of His Holiness Benedict XVI for Lent 2008
40 Days for Life: 2008 Campaigns [Lent Registration this week]
Vatican Web Site Focuses on Lent
Almsgiving [Lent]
Conversion Through Prayer, Fasting and Almsgiving [Lent]
Lenten Stations -- Stational Churches - visit each with us during Lent {Catholic Caucus}
Something New for Lent: Part I -- Holy Souls Saturdays
Reflections for Lent (February, March and April, 2007)
Lent 2007: The Love Letter Written by Pope Benedict
Pre-Lent through Easter Prayer and Reflections -- 2007
Stations of the Cross [Catholic/Orthodox Caucus]
For study and reflection during Lent - Mind, Heart, Soul [Catholic/Orthodox Caucus]
Ash Wednesday and the Lenten Fast-Family observance Lenten season [Catholic/Orthodox Caucus]
Pre-Lenten Days -- Family activities-Shrove Tuesday (Mardi Gras)[Catholic/Orthodox Caucus]
40 Ways to Get the Most Out of Lent! [Catholic/Orthodox Caucus]

Lenten Fasting or Feasting? [Catholic Caucus]
Pope's Message for Lent-2007
THE TRUE NATURE OF FASTING (Catholic/Orthodox Caucus)
The Triduum and 40 Days
The Three Practices of Lent: Praying, Fasting. Almsgiving
Why We Need Lent
MESSAGE OF HIS HOLINESS BENEDICT XVI FOR LENT 2006
Lent a Time for Renewal, Says Benedict XVI
Why You Should Celebrate Lent
Getting the Most Out of Lent
Lent: A Time to Fast >From Media and Criticism Says President of Pontifical Liturgical Institute
Give it up (making a Lenten sacrifice)
The History of Lent
The Holy Season of Lent -- Fast and Abstinence
The Holy Season of Lent -- The Stations of the Cross
Lent and Fasting
Mardi Gras' Catholic Roots [Shrove Tuesday]
Kids and Holiness: Making Lent Meaningful to Children
Ash Wednesday
All About Lent

9 posted on 04/12/2014 7:31:28 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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40 Days for Life -- March 3 through April 13 -- Pray to End Abortion
10 posted on 04/12/2014 7:42:13 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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Perpetual Novena for the Nation (Ecumenical)
11 posted on 04/12/2014 8:08:45 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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Prayers for The Religion Forum (Ecumenical)
12 posted on 04/12/2014 8:09:13 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All

 
Jesus, High Priest
 

We thank you, God our Father, for those who have responded to your call to priestly ministry.

Accept this prayer we offer on their behalf: Fill your priests with the sure knowledge of your love.

Open their hearts to the power and consolation of the Holy Spirit.

Lead them to new depths of union with your Son.

Increase in them profound faith in the Sacraments they celebrate as they nourish, strengthen and heal us.

Lord Jesus Christ, grant that these, your priests, may inspire us to strive for holiness by the power of their example, as men of prayer who ponder your word and follow your will.

O Mary, Mother of Christ and our mother, guard with your maternal care these chosen ones, so dear to the Heart of your Son.

Intercede for our priests, that offering the Sacrifice of your Son, they may be conformed more each day to the image of your Son, our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. Amen.

Saint John Vianney, universal patron of priests, pray for us and our priests

This icon shows Jesus Christ, our eternal high priest.

The gold pelican over His heart represents self-sacrifice.

The border contains an altar and grapevines, representing the Mass, and icons of Melchizedek and St. Jean-Baptiste Vianney.

Melchizedek: king of righteousness (left icon) was priest and king of Jerusalem.  He blessed Abraham and has been considered an ideal priest-king.

St. Jean-Baptiste Vianney is the patron saint of parish priests.

13 posted on 04/12/2014 8:20:53 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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The 1961 Missal says to use the Sorrowful Mysteries from Ash Wednesday to Easter.


14 posted on 04/12/2014 8:21:38 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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Pray a Rosary each day for our nation.

Pray the Rosary

1.  Sign of the Cross:  In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.  Amen.

2.  The Apostles Creed:  II BELIEVE in God, the Father almighty, Creator of heaven and earth, and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord, who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried. He descended into hell; on the third day he rose again from the dead; he ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of God, the Father Almighty; from there He shall come to judge the living and the dead.

I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.

3.  The Lord's Prayer:  OUR Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen.

4. (3) Hail Mary:  HAIL Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou amongst women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now, and in the hour of our death. Amen. (Three times)

5. Glory Be:  GLORY be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

Fatima Prayer: Oh, my Jesus, forgive us our sins, save us from the fires of hell, lead all souls to heaven, especially those in most need of your mercy.

Announce each mystery, then say 1 Our Father, 10 Hail Marys, 1 Glory Be and 1 Fatima prayer.  Repeat the process with each mystery.

End with the Hail Holy Queen:

Hail, Holy Queen, Mother of Mercy, our life, our sweetness and our hope! To thee do we cry, poor banished children of Eve! To thee do we send up our sighs, mourning and weeping in this vale of tears! Turn then, most gracious advocate, thine eyes of mercy towards us; and after this, our exile, show unto us the blessed fruit of thy womb, Jesus!

O clement, O loving, O sweet Virgin Mary! Pray for us, O holy Mother of God, that we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.

Final step -- The Sign of the Cross

 

The Mysteries of the Rosary

By tradition, Catholics meditate on these Mysteries during prayers of the Rosary.
The biblical references follow each of the Mysteries below.


The Sorrowful Mysteries
(Tuesdays and Fridays)
1. The Agony in the Garden (Matthew 26:36-46, Luke 22:39-46) [Spiritual fruit - God's will be done]
2. The Scourging at the Pillar (Matthew 27:26, Mark 15:15, John 19:1) [Spiritual fruit - Mortification of the senses]
3. The Crowning with Thorns (Matthew 27:27-30, Mark 15:16-20, John 19:2) [Spiritual fruit - Reign of Christ in our heart]
4. The Carrying of the Cross (Matthew 27:31-32, Mark 15:21, Luke 23:26-32, John 19:17) [Spiritual fruit - Patient bearing of trials]
5. The Crucifixion (Matthew 27:33-56, Mark 15:22-39, Luke 23:33-49, John 19:17-37) [Spiritual fruit - Pardoning of Injuries]

15 posted on 04/12/2014 8:22:19 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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~ PRAYER ~

St. Michael, the Archangel, defend us in battle
 Be our protection against the wickedness
and snares of the devil;
May God rebuke him, we  humbly pray,
 and do thou, O Prince of the heavenly host,
 by the power of God,
 Cast into hell Satan and all the evil spirits
who prowl through the world seeking the ruin of souls.
 Amen
+

16 posted on 04/12/2014 8:23:08 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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A Prayer for our Free Nation Under God
God Save Our Country web site (prayer warriors)
Prayer Chain Request for the United States of America
Pray for Nancy Pelosi
Prayer and fasting will help defeat health care reform (Freeper Prayer Thread)
Prayer Campaign Started to Convert Pro-Abortion Catholic Politicians to Pro-Life
[Catholic Caucus] One Million Rosaries
Non-stop Rosary vigil to defeat ObamaCare

From an Obama bumper sticker on a car:

"Pray for Obama.  Psalm 109:8"

   

PLEASE JOIN US -

Evening Prayer
Someone has said that if people really understood the full extent of the power we have available through prayer, we might be speechless.
Did you know that during WWII there was an advisor to Churchill who organized a group of people who dropped what they were doing every day at a prescribed hour for one minute to collectively pray for the safety of England, its people and peace?  


There is now a group of people organizing the same thing here in America. If you would like to participate: Every evening at 9:00 PM Eastern Time (8:00 PM Central) (7:00 PM Mountain) (6:00 PM Pacific), stop whatever you are doing and spend one minute praying for the safety of the United States, our troops, our citizens, and for a return to a Godly nation. If you know anyone else who would like to participate, please pass this along. Our prayers are the most powerful asset we have.    Please forward this to your praying friends.


17 posted on 04/12/2014 8:24:06 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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April Devotion: The Blessed Sacrament

Since the 16th century Catholic piety has assigned entire months to special devotions. The Church traditionally encouraged the month of April for increased devotion to Jesus in the Holy Eucharist. "The Church in the course of the centuries has introduced various forms of this Eucharistic worship which are ever increasing in beauty and helpfulness; as, for example, visits of devotion to the tabernacles, even every day; Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament; solemn processions, especially at the time of Eucharistic Congresses, which pass through cities and villages; and adoration of the Blessed Sacrament publicly exposed . . . These exercises of piety have brought a wonderful increase in faith and supernatural life to the Church militant upon earth and they are re-echoed to a certain extent by the Church triumphant in heaven, which sings continually a hymn of praise to God and to the Lamb 'Who was slain.'" --Pope Pius XII

ACT OF ADORATION
I adore Thee, 0 Jesus, true God and true Man, here present in the Holy Eucharist, humbly kneeling before Thee and united in spirit with all the faithful on earth and all the blessed in heaven. In deepest gratitude for so great a blessing, I love Thee, my Jesus, with my whole heart, for Thou art all perfect and all worthy of love.

Give me grace nevermore in any way to offend Thee, and grant that I, being refreshed by Thy Eucharistic presence here on earth, may be found worthy to come to the enjoyment with Mary of Thine eternal and everblessed presence in heaven. Amen.

FAITH IN THE EUCHARIST
O my God, I firmly believe that Thou art really and corporally present in the Blessed Sacrament of the altar. I adore Thee here present from the very depths of my heart, and I worship Thy sacred presence with all possible humility. O my soul, what joy to have Jesus Christ always with us, and to be able to speak to Him, heart to heart, with all confidence. Grant, O Lord, that I, having adored Thy divine Majesty here on earth in this wonderful Sacrament, may be able to adore it eternally in Heaven. Amen.

FOR THE PEACE OF CHRIST
O most sacred, most loving heart of Jesus, Thou art concealed in the Holy Eucharist, and Thou beatest for us still. Now as then Thou sayest, "With desire I have desired." I worship Thee, then, with all my best love and awe, with my fervent affection, with my most subdued, most resolved will. O make my heart beat with Thy heart. Purify it of all that is earthly, all that is proud and sensual, all that is hard and cruel, of all perversity, of all disorder, of all deadness. So fill it with Thee, that neither the events of the day nor the circumstances of the time may have power to ruffle it; but that in Thy love and Thy fear it may have peace. --Cardinal Newman

ACT OF LOVE
I believe Thou art present in the Blessed Sacrament, O Jesus. I love Thee and desire Thee. Come into my heart. I embrace Thee, O never leave me. I beseech Thee, O Lord Jesus, may the burning and most sweet power of Thy love absorb my mind, that I may die through love of Thy love, who wast graciously pleased to die through love of my love. --St. Francis of Assisi

ACT OF REPARATION
Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque, well known in connection with devotion to the Sacred Herat of Jesus, led the way in making reparation to Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament for the coldness and ingratitude of men. This prayer of hers can become our own as we attempt to make amends for our own and others' neglect of the great Sacrament of His love, the Eucharist.
O kind and merciful savior, from my heart I earnestly desire to return Thee love for love. My greatest sorrow is that Thou art not loved by men, and, in particular, that my own heart is so cold, so selfish, so ungrateful. Keenly aware of my own weakness and poverty, I trust that Thy own grace will enable me to offer Thee an act of pure love. And I wish to offer Thee this act of love in reparation for the coldness and neglect that are shown to Thee in the sacrament of Thy love by Thy creatures. O Jesus, my supreme good, I love Thee, not for the sake of the reward which Thou hast promised to those who love Thee, but purely for Thyself. I love Thee above all things that can be loved, above all pleasures, and above myself and all that is not Thee, promising in the presence of heaven and earth that I will live and die purely and simply in Thy holy love, and that if to love Thee thus I must endure persecution and suffering I am completely satisfied, and I will ever say with Saint Paul: Nothing "will be able to separate us from the love of God." 0 Jesus, supreme master of all hearts, I love Thee, I adore Thee, I praise Thee, I thank Thee, because I am now all Thine own. Rule over me, and transform my soul into the likeness of Thyself, so that it may bless and glorify Thee forever in the abode of the saints.
--Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque

OFFERING
My Lord, I offer Thee myself in turn as a sacrifice of thanksgiving. Thou hast died for me, and I in turn make myself over to Thee. I am not my own. Thou hast bought me; I will by my own act and deed complete the purchase. My wish is to be separated from everything of this world; to cleanse myself simply from sin; to put away from me even what is innocent, if used for its own sake, and not for Thine. I put away reputation and honor, and influence, and power, for my praise and strength shall be in Thee. Enable me to carry out what I profess. Amen. --Cardinal Newman

Prayer Source: Prayer Book, The by Reverend John P. O'Connell, M.A., S.T.D. and Jex Martin, M.A., The Catholic Press, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, 1954

Litany of the Most Blessed Sacrament

Lord, have mercy,  Lord, have mercy.
Christ, have mercy, Christ, have mercy.
Lord, have mercy,  Lord, have mercy.
Christ, hear us,  Christ, hear us.
Christ, graciously hear us, Christ, graciously hear us.
God the Father of Heaven, have mercy on us.
God the Son, Redeemer of the world, have mercy on us.
God, the Holy Spirit, have mercy on us.
Holy Trinity, One God, have mercy on us.

O Living Bread, Who from Heaven descended, have mercy on us.
Hidden God and Savior, have mercy on us.
Grain of the elect, have mercy on us.
Vine sprouting forth virgins, have mercy on us.
Wholesome Bread and delicacy of kings, have mercy on us.
Perpetual sacrifice, have mercy on us.
Clean oblation, have mercy on us.
Lamb without spot, have mercy on us.
Most pure feast, have mercy on us.
Food of Angels, have mercy on us.
Hidden manna, have mercy on us.
Memorial of God's wonders, have mercy on us.
Supersubstantial Bread, have mercy on us.
Word made flesh, dwelling in us, have mercy on us.
Holy Victim, have mercy on us.

O Cup of blessing, have mercy on us.
O Mystery of faith, have mercy on us.
O Most high and venerable Sacrament, have mercy on us.
O Most holy of all sacrifices, have mercy on us.
O True propitiatory Sacrifice for the living and the dead, have mercy on us.
O Heavenly antidote, by which we are preserved from sin, have mercy on us.
O stupendous miracle above all others, have mercy on us.
O most holy Commemoration of the Passison of Christ, have mercy on us.
O Gift transcending all abundance, have mercy on us.
O extraordinary memorial of Divine love, have mercy on us.
O affluence of Divine largess, have mercy on us.
O most holy and august mystery, have mercy on us.

Medicine of immortality, have mercy on us.
Awesome and life-giving Sacrament, have mercy on us.
Unbloody Sacrifice, have mercy on us.
Food and guest, have mercy on us.
Sweetest banquet at which the Angels serve, have mercy on us.
Bond of love, have mercy on us.
Offering and oblation, have mercy on us.
Spiritual sweetness tasted in its own foutain, have mercy on us.
Refreshment of holy souls, have mercy on us.
Viaticum of those dying in the Lord, have mercy on us.
Pledge of future glory, have mercy on us.

Be merciful, spare us, O Lord.
Be merciful, graciously hear us, O Lord.

From the unworthy reception of Thy Body and Blood, deliver us, O Lord.
From passions of the flesh, deliver us, O Lord.
From the concupiscence of the eyes, deliver us, O Lord.
From pride, deliver us, O Lord.
From every occasion of sin, deliver us, O Lord.
Through that desire, with which Thou desiredst to eat the Passover with Thy disciples, deliver us, O Lord.
Through that profound humility with which Thou didst wash Thy disciples' feet, deliver us, O Lord.
Through that most ardent love, with which Thou instituted this Divine Sacrament,
deliver us, O Lord.
Through the most precious Blood, which Thou hast left for us upon the altar, deliver us, O Lord.
Through those Five Wounds of Thy most holy Body, which was given up for us, deliver us, O Lord.

Sinners we are, we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst graciously preserve and augment the faith, reverence, and devotion in us towards this admirable Sacrament, we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst graciously lead us through the true confession of we beseech Thee, hear us.
our sins to a frequent reception of the Eucharist, we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst graciously free us from every heresy, falsehood, and blindness of the heart, we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst graciously impart to us the Heavenly and precious fruits of this most Holy Sacrament, we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst graciously protect and strengthen us in our hour of death with this Heavenly Viaticum, we beseech Thee, hear us.

O Son of God, we beseech Thee, hear us.
 Lamb of God, Who taketh away the sins of the world, spare us, O Lord.
Lamb of God, Who taketh away the sins of the world, graciously hear us, O Lord.
Lamb of God, Who taketh away the sins of the world, have mercy on us, O Lord.
Christ, hear us, Christ, hear us.
Christ, graciously hear us, Christ, graciously hear us.
Lord, have mercy, Lord, have mercy.
Christ, have mercy, Christ, have mercy.
Lord, have mercy, Lord, have mercy.
Our Father . . .
Hail Mary . . .
 

V. Thou didst furnish them with Bread from Heaven, Alleluia.
R. Having in it every delight.

Let us pray.

O God, Who under a marvelous Sacrament has left us a memorial of Thy Passion; grant us; we beseech Thee; so to venerate the sacred mysteries of Thy Body and Blood, that we may ever perceive within us the fruit of Thy Redemption. Thou, Who livest and reignest forever and ever. Amen.
 

From the Manuale Sacerdotum, P. Josephus Schneider, S. J., 1867

The Real Presence: The Eucharist and Chastity [Catholic/Orthodox Caucus]
The Real Presence: Faith in the Life of a Priest [Catholic/Orthodox Caucus]
The Real Presence: Eucharistic Devotion and the Real Presence [Catholic/Orthodox Caucus]
The Real Presence: The Holy Eucharist is the Whole Christ [Catholic/Orthodox Caucus]
The Real Presence: Eucharist as Presence-Sacrament [Catholic/Orthodox Caucus]
The Real Presence: Understanding the Eucharist, The Greatest Need in Church Today [Catholic/Orthodox Caucus'
The Real Presence: Living in the Presence of God [Catholic/Orthodox Caucus]
The Real Presence: The Sacred Heart Is The Holy Eucharist [Catholic/Orthodox Caucus]

The Real Presence: The Eucharist as the Living Christ [Catholic/Orthodox Caucus]
The Real Presence: Christ in the Eucharist, Introduction to the Eucharist,[Catholic/Orthodox Caucus]
The Real Presence: Christ in the Eucharist, The Last Supper, [Catholic/Orthodox Caucus]
The Eucharist: Foundation of the Christian Family(Catholic/Orthodox Caucus)
A Beautiful Summary of Eucharistic theology in an antiphon by Aquinas
Christ in the Eucharist (Ecumenical)
Canon Law and Consecrating the Eucharist (Catholic Caucus)
COMMUNION THROUGH A FEEDING TUBE (And More on Confirmations)
The Eucharist -- John 6
Catholicism and Fundamentalism — The Eucharist
On the Giving and Receiving of Holy Communion: Some norms to recall [Catholic Caucus]
Catholic Word of the Day: HOLY COMMUNION, 05-19-12
Following the Truth: Recognizing Jesus In The Eucharist [Catholic Caucus]
The Fourth Cup
The Last Supper and the Forgiveness of Sins
Bread from Heaven: The Eucharist Sustains Us and Lifts Us Up [Catholic Caucus]
Essays for Lent: The Eucharist
Essays for Lent: The Mass
Excerpt from: The Didache (The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles) [Catholic/Orthodox Caucus]
Divorced Catholics and the Eucharist
Following The Truth: So, You Just Received Jesus…Now What? (Catholic or Open)
The Coptic Orthodox doctrine of the Eucharistic sacrifice

Auxiliary Bishop Says Communion In the Hand is a Calvinist Novelty [Ecumenical]
How Something We Consider Solidly Traditional was Once Thought Progressive (Catholic)
Transubstantiation: Change We Can Believe In
Diocese limits Communion under both kinds, laments excessive extraordinary ministers
Phoenix Diocese to adopt new norms for Holy Communion [Catholic Caucus]
What Does GIRM 160 for the USA Really Say?
Lift the City - a Catholic Eucharistic flash mob (Catholic Caucus)
Justin Martyr: 1st apology: Sacraments, Eucharist {Catholic/Orthodox caucus}
The Institution of the Eucharist in Scripture [Catholic Caucus]
How the Mass is a sacrifice, and why so many deny this doctrine (Catholic/Orthodox Caucus)
[Ecumenical] Lent through Eastertide - Divine Mercy Diary Exerpts: Holy Communion and the Eucharist
Vatican consultant responds to Cardinal Mahoney ‘Christ gave Judas communion’ argument
New book connects the Eucharist with its Jewish roots
THE SACRAMENT OF THE EUCHARIST (sections 3 only) {Ecumenical Thread}
THE SACRAMENT OF THE EUCHARIST (sections 1&2 only) {Ecumenical Thread}
The Perfect Sacrifice: When Heaven Comes to Earth [Catholic Caucus]
The Real Presence [Church Fathers on the Holy Eucharist, cont'd ]
Is the Mass a Sacrifice? (Once and for all, Heb 9-10) {Catholic/Orthodox Caucus}
Radio Replies Second Volume - Holy Communion
The Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist {Catholic/Orthodox Caucus}

Radio Replies Second Volume - The Sacrifice of the Mass
Radio Replies Second Volume - Holy Eucharist
How Do We Prepare Well for the Coming of the Lord
Thanksgiving, the Prophets and the Eucharist
[CATHOLIC CAUCUS] The Pope of a Eucharistic Springtime
Lex Orandi, Lex Credendi, Lex Vivendi. As we Worship, So we Believe, So we Live
[CATHOLIC/ORTHODOX CAUCUS] 5th Luminous Mystery: Institution of the Eucharist (Patristic Rosary)
Wounded in the house of them that loved Me
[CATHOLIC / ORTHODOX CAUCUS] Eucharist is Jesus' greatest gift to us, teaches Pope Benedict XVI
[CATHOLIC CAUCUS] What makes Jesus present in the Eucharist: broadening one's view.
The Catholic Mass in 155 A.D.
Pope's Q--A at End of Priestly Year Pt 4 "We Celebrate,..Meditate..on Eucharist" [Catholic Caucus]
Sacrifice, Transubstantiation, and Real Presence (Pope Benedict XVI) [Catholic Caucus]
Catholic Caucus: Eucharist is the Heart of God
[CATHOLIC CAUCUS]'Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity': The Miracle and Gift of the Most Holy Eucharist
A Secular Eucharist
Paul and the Eucharist
Centered in the Eucharist
Centered in the Eucharist
Who Can Receive Communion? (Catholic Caucus)

Respect For Christ In The Eucharist – One Priest’s Perspective
From The Gospel To Life: The Disciples and the Eucharist
Catholic Biblical Apologetics: Opportunities of Grace: The Eucharist: The Lord's Supper
THE PRIEST IN THE COMMUNION RITES - Liturgy Prepares for Reception of the Eucharist
Novena with Saint Peter Julian Eymard for Prayer in the Presence of the Blessed Sacrament [Prayer]
Boston Cardinal: Church Needs 'Clear' Injunction Denying Pro-Abortion Pols Communion
Benedict XVI calls priests to protect communion between God and man
Eucharist: Holy Sacrifice
Fr. Men: The Eucharist [Cath-Orth caucus]
Catholics in Costa Rica outraged by disrespect toward Eucharist [Catholic Caucus]
The Institution of the Eucharist in Scripture
St Anthony and the Real Presence
The Essentials of the Catholic Faith, Part Two: Channels of Grace: The Eucharist
EWTN - October 29 - 8PM - Fr. Antoine and the Eucharist
All Should Offer Their Bodies and Blood at Mass (Father Cantalamessa) [Catholic Caucus]
The Role of the Bishop of Rome in the Communion of the Church in the First Millennium
Radio Replies First Volume - Holy Eucharist
The Institution of the Eucharist in Scripture
Catholic Caucus: The Spiritual Combat Ch 54. MANNER IN WHICH WE OUGHT TO RECEIVE...BLESSED SACRAMENT
Catholic Caucus: The Spiritual Combat: Ch 53. CONCERNING THE MOST HOLY SACRAMENT OF THE EUCHARIST

A Few Texts From Saint Cyril of Jerusalem on the Eucharist
Catholic Devotional: On Visiting Jesus Christ In the Blessed Sacrament
The Early Christians Believed in the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist
Focus on the Real Presence
A Chinese Girl-True Story That Inspired Bishop Fulton Sheen- Eucharist Adoration (Catholic Caucus)
Doubting Thomases(Eucharist); the Pitfalls of Folly(Catholic Caucus)
Rainbow sash-wearers prohibited from receiving [the Eucharist at Cathedral of St. Paul]
The significance of Holy Thursday (institution of the Eucharist and priesthood)
Our Lady of the Most Blessed Sacrament [Catholic Caucus]
The Catechism of St. Thomas Aquinas THE HOLY EUCHARIST
Holy Communion and Non-Catholics (with a Quiz!)
Beginning Catholic: The Eucharist: In the Presence of the Lord Himself [Ecumenical]
Beginning Catholic: Receiving the Lord in Holy Communion [Ecumenical]
Faithful Invited to Follow Pope, Adore Eucharist [Catholic Caucus]
Christmas and the Eucharist(Catholic/Orthodox Caucus)
Eucharist kneeling request sparks controversy [Catholic Caucus]
Eucharist vs. the Word (which is more important in the Catholic Church)
Christ the Miracle Worker in the Eucharist(Catholic Caucus)
Imitating Christ in the Eucharist(Catholic Caucus)
The Eucharist - the Lord's Sacrifice, Banquet and Presence (OPEN)

Pope Calls Eucharist History's Greatest Revolution [OPEN]
A Brief Catechism for Adults - Lesson 22: The Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist (Holy Communion)
A series of reflections from St. Peter Julian Eymard Blessed Sacrament(Catholic Caucus)
Eucharist, Holy Meal
Imitating Christ in the Eucharist
Christmas and the Eucharist
Prayer Before the Blessed Sacrament
This is My Body, This is My Blood
THE HOLY EUCHARIST IS THE WHOLE CHRIST
Gift Of Life, Gift Eternal: The Most Holy Eucharist and the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass
Area worshipers march to celebrate Holy Eucharist
Grace of the Eucharist is secret to holy priests, says Pope
The Disposition of Priests [Valid Mass, Valid Holy Eucharist?]
The Body of Christ?
Holy Sacrifice, Living Sacrament
Knights of the Eucharist
The Banquet of Corpus Christi - "Why did Jesus give us His Body and Blood?"
The Eucharist: Eternity and Time Together
Restored Order of the Sacraments of Initiation? Confirmation and First Eucharist together? (Vanity)
Reflections of Cardinal Ratzinger on the Eucharist

THE HOLY EUCHARIST: NOURISHMENT TO FINISH OUR COURSE
The Eucharist in Scripture - Part 1 - Old Testament
LITANY OF REPARATION TO OUR LORD IN THE BLESSED SACRAMENT
Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament
POPE GRANTS PLENARY INDULGENCE FOR YEAR OF THE EUCHARIST
New Plenary Indulgence to Mark Year of the Eucharist
Kneeling and Faith in the Eucharist
The Immaculate Conception and the Eucharist, a course in Christian culture in Tashkent
The Year of the Eucharist by Bishop Donald Wuerl
"While We're At It": What can we do to show that the Eucharist is a communal activity?
CATHOLICS AND BAPTISTS WITNESSED UNUSUAL IMAGES IN BLESSED SACRAMENT
The Discipline of the Eucharist Holy See Releases Redemptionis Sacramentum...
Vatican: Matters to be observed or to be avoided regarding the Most Holy Eucharist (April 23, 2004)
Devotion to the Holy Eucharist Advances Devotion to Jesus' Person
New rules on the Holy Eucharist on Holy Thursday
The Reverence due to the Holy Eucharist
The Holy Face of Jesus Christ as appeared on the Holy Eucharist
The Fourth Cup: The Sacrament of the Eucharist [Holy Thursday] [Passover]
Holy Father stresses Need of Devotion to Holy Eucharist outside of Mass: Pope Paul VI

18 posted on 04/12/2014 8:25:00 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All
April 2014 Year A

Pope's Intention

Universal: That governments may foster the protection of creation and the just distribution of natural resources.

For Evangelization: That the Risen Lord may fill with hope the hearts of those who are being tested by pain and sickness.


19 posted on 04/12/2014 8:25:45 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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Daily Gospel Commentary

Palm Sunday of the Lord's Passion - Year A

Commentary of the day
Pope Francis
Homily of 24/03/2013 (trans. © copyright Libreria Editrice Vaticana)

« Hosanna ! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord ! Blessed is the coming kingdom! » (Mk 11,9f)

Jesus enters Jerusalem. The crowd of disciples accompanies him in festive mood... The crowds acclaim him as King. And he does not deny it, he does not tell them to be silent (Lk 19,39-40). But what kind of a King is Jesus? Let us take a look at him: he is riding on a donkey, he is not accompanied by a court, he is not surrounded by an army as a symbol of power. He is received by humble people, simple folk who have the sense to see something more in Jesus; they have that sense of the faith which says: “Here is the Saviour.”

Jesus does not enter the Holy City to receive the honours reserved to earthly kings... he enters to be scourged, insulted and abused... He enters to receive a crown of thorns, a staff, a purple robe: his kingship becomes an object of derision. He enters to climb Calvary, carrying his burden of wood... to die on the Cross. And it is precisely here that his kingship shines forth in godly fashion: his royal throne is the wood of the Cross!... Why the Cross? Because Jesus takes upon himself the evil, the filth, the sin of the world, including the sin of all of us, and he cleanses it, he cleanses it with his blood, with the mercy and the love of God.

Let us look around: how many wounds are inflicted upon humanity by evil! Wars, violence, economic conflicts that hit the weakest, greed for money... Love of power, corruption, divisions, crimes against human life and against creation! And – as each one of us knows and is aware - our personal sins: our failures in love and respect towards God, towards our neighbour and towards the whole of creation. Jesus on the Cross feels the whole weight of the evil, and with the force of God’s love he conquers it, he defeats it with his resurrection. This is the good that Jesus does for us on the throne of the Cross. Christ’s Cross embraced with love never leads to sadness, but to joy, to the joy of having been saved and of doing a little of what he did on the day of his death.


20 posted on 04/12/2014 8:28:28 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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Zenit.org

Sunday Homily: Behold Your King Comes To You

Palm Sunday of the Passion of the Lord

Rome, April 11, 2014 (Zenit.org) Fr. Jason Mitchell LC | 436 hits

Matthew 21:1-11
Isaiah 50:4-7
Psalm 22:8-9, 17-18, 19-20, 23-24
Philippians 2:6-11
Matthew 26:14-27:66

Bethphage is a small town on the Mount of Olives, the hill in front of the Temple of Jerusalem. Jesus' ride is short but important. He travels over the crest of the Mount of Olives, down past the Garden of Gethsemane, through the Kidron Valley and up to the gates of Jerusalem. The crowd becomes increasingly excited because Jesus' actions are the fulfillment of a prophesy of Zechariah: "Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout aloud, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your king comes to you; triumphant and victorious is he, humble and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey" (Zech 9:9).

The crowds proclaim that Jesus is the son of David, the son of a king. Not only is he the humble king promised by Zechariah; he is proclaimed to be the Prophet-like-Moses promised in Deuteronomy (18:15). The crowds cry out: "Hosanna", which originally meant "rescue us" or "save us" and gradually came to be a word of praise and jubilation. Pope Benedict also explains that: "By the time of Jesus, the word had also acquired Messianic overtones. In the Hosanna acclamation, then, we find an expression of the complex emotions of the pilgrims accompanying Jesus and of his disciples: joyful praise of God at the moment of the processional entry, hope that the hour of the Messiah had arrived, and at the same time a prayer that the Davidic kingship and hence God's kingship over Israel would be reestablished" (Jesus of Nazareth, vol. 2, 7).

The first reading emphasizes the humility of Jesus, the Son of David and the Servant of the Lord. Jesus is the one who sets his face like flint, determined to undo the curse of Adam. Jesus will give his back to the scourge and not raise his arms to shield his face from the vicious blows of the Passion.

Throughout Jesus' passion, Psalm 22 is his prayer. It is thirty-one verses long and moves from a questioning cry, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?" (22:1), to a song of praise, "In the midst of the congregation I will praise you" (22:22). It is a psalm that looks forward to the day when all the nations shall turn to the Lord and worship before him. "For dominion belongs to the Lord, and he rules over the nations" (22:27). It is the psalm that accompanies Jesus in his humble and obedient death on the Cross. It is the psalm that Jesus will pray as he is nailed to the Cross and watches the soldiers divide his garments and cast lots for his clothing (Psalm 22:18; Matthew 27:35).

The Cross, however, is not the last word. It is actually a new beginning. It is the beginning of a new, redeemed humanity. The Old Adam introduced sin and death into the world through his disobedience; the New Adam, Jesus Christ, introduces grace and life into the world through his obedience. The path to new life is that path marked out for us by Jesus: humble self-emptying and self-giving, filial obedience to God's word, daily acceptance of the Cross, death to sin, unwavering hope and trust in the Lord, rising to new life in Christ, glorification of the Father. If we die with Christ, we shall rise with him to glory (2 Timothy 2:11).


21 posted on 04/12/2014 8:35:24 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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Arlington Catholic Herald

GOSPEL COMMENTARY

Christ’s suffering

Fr. Jerry J. Pokorsky

Somewhere, a prominent historian once observed that the death of Christ on the cross was “mercifully quick.” The comment haunts. Though there seems to be a hint of blasphemy in the remark, it is true that the length of time Jesus endured His passion doesn’t come close to the length of time Maximilian Kolbe, for example, suffered in Auschwitz. For that matter, terminally ill cancer patients often endure severe and chronic pain for weeks and months. What do these comparisons suggest as we reflect on the Passion of Christ on Palm Sunday and Holy Week?

Consider first the various forms of suffering. When a person cuts a finger slicing potatoes, the initial pain may be negligible despite the severity of the wound, although the throbs may begin in short order. At other times one may suffer very little physical pain, but endure intense anguish in mind and spirit.

A person diagnosed with a serious illness requiring surgery may find himself consumed with worry, fearing a medical procedure that promises a cure even though anesthesia will eliminate any physical suffering during surgery.

Then, too, the prospect of a slow and painful recovery can cause him more inner turmoil than the actual experience of rehabilitation. Pain of soul in anticipation of suffering is usually far worse than physical pain.

There is another curious form of suffering that is more observably related to building personal character. It is the willful acceptance of suffering that, in effect, tests our desire and ability to succeed. The athlete, the scholar, the businessman and politician — indeed those seeking excellence and success — know this type of suffering. The prospect of failure is more painful than the pain of stretched muscles, pounding hearts and mental exhaustion.

Although the sufferings of Christ during His Passion can be compared to such “normal” forms of human suffering, His sufferings are of a completely different order.

Hints of this new order of suffering can be found in the Gospel of St. John: “This is why the Father loves me, because I lay down my life in order to take it up again. No one takes it from me, but I lay it down on my own. I have power to lay it down, and power to take it up again. This command I have received from my Father” (Jn 10:17-18). An extraordinary and mysterious revelation.

The suffering of Christ was not passive; it was an active and a positive choice. In choosing to bear the weight of all of our sins — all the evil committed from man’s beginning to the end of time — the inner suffering of Christ becomes unimaginable. Suffering is the result and sign of sin — our own sins, the sins of others, and in a most mysterious way, the result of original sin. If the death of Christ was comparatively “quick,” it could hardly be described as “mercifully” so, for our many sins are merciless. In choosing to suffer, Christ did not choose evil, nor did He sin. All suffering is a mystery and is the experience of evil. Hence, the suffering of Christ — and all human suffering — is, a deeply disturbing sign of evil. This helps us begin to understand St. Paul when he writes, “For our sake He made Him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in Him we might become the righteousness of God” (2 Cor 5:21).

From the depths of our souls mired in sin, we are given the dignity to choose the Passion of Christ in freedom and with courage. For “whoever does not take up his cross and follow after me is not worthy of me” (Mt 10:38). There can never be compromises with evil, and suffering forces us to choose. Such suffering might tempt us to blaspheme, to “curse God and die” (as Job’s wife proposed). Or it can — as it must — lead us, with God’s grace, into the heart of the mysterious Passion of Christ.

St. Paul speaks from the spiritual heights of this holy endeavor: “Now I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and in my flesh I am filling up what is lacking in the afflictions of Christ on behalf of His body, which is the church … .” (Col 1:24). Later he adds, using the metaphor of a champion, “For I am already being poured out like a libation, and the time of my departure is at hand. I have competed well; I have finished the race; I have kept the faith. From now on the crown of righteousness awaits me….” (2 Tim 4:6-8).

How dare we make these words our own. The thought of suffering is repellent, and most of us fail in the simplest of our Lenten resolutions. We complain. We know the great difficulty of accepting the sufferings of everyday life, even before we voluntarily bring upon ourselves largely symbolic Lenten mortification. We might easily give in to discouragement if not for Christ Himself in His overflowing mercy and generosity. In Gethsemane, Jesus excuses us: “The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak” (Mt 26:41).

Despite our weakness, with willing spirits the mortifications of Lent and our meditation on the Passion of Christ reinforce our resolve to continue the arduous earthly pilgrimage; to freely accept — without sinful resentment and despair — the unavoidable sufferings of life. If we so choose, with God’s grace we can, in our imperfect way, join Christ on the Cross. We too, in the sufferings of our body, are given the privilege of making up for “what is lacking in the afflictions of Christ.” In Christ, our suffering ceases to be an unholy sign of evil. The suffering of the martyrs in union with Christ on the Cross — including our own suffering — is transformed into a saving sacrament of His love.

Fr. Pokorsky is pastor of St. Michael Church in Annandale.

Find out more

For a profound insight on the Passion of Christ, see Blessed John Henry Newman, “Discourse 16. Mental Sufferings of Our Lord in His Passion,” at bit.ly/Ofd9mB.


22 posted on 04/12/2014 8:43:12 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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The Work of God

Year A  -  Passion (Palm Sunday)

Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord

Matthew 21:1-11

1 When they had come near Jerusalem and had reached Bethphage, at the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent two disciples,
2 saying to them, "Go into the village ahead of you, and immediately you will find a donkey tied, and a colt with her; untie them and bring them to me.
3 If anyone says anything to you, just say this, 'The Lord needs them.' And he will send them immediately."
4 This took place to fulfill what had been spoken through the prophet, saying,
5 "Tell the daughter of Zion, Look, your king is coming to you, humble, and mounted on a donkey, and on a colt, the foal of a donkey."
6 The disciples went and did as Jesus had directed them;
7 they brought the donkey and the colt, and put their cloaks on them, and he sat on them.
8 A very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road, and others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road.
9 The crowds that went ahead of him and that followed were shouting, "Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest heaven!"
10 When he entered Jerusalem, the whole city was in turmoil, asking, "Who is this?"
11 The crowds were saying, "This is the prophet Jesus from Nazareth in Galilee." (NRSV)

Inspiration of the Holy Spirit - From the Sacred Heart of Jesus

The moment had come to make my final entry into Jerusalem, a city where I had performed so many miracles, where many humble people had listened to my word and had converted, a place where there was also a lot of jealously for my teachings, where my enemies were preparing to kill me.

This would be my final entry into that place where I was destined to die for the salvation of all humanity. Large crowds prepared for my entry, some adorned the way by covering the road with their cloaks, while others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road to give me a worthy welcome as the great prophet who came in the name of the Lord.

They were shouting at the top of their voices, "Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest heaven!" They were genuine in their praising, they appreciated the gift of God sending his Son to the world to be their redeemer, although many in the crowd were simply overcome by hysteria and being of a weak mind would be the ones who later on would follow the voice of their religious leaders and would turn against me demanding my crucifixion.

I was the King of Kings but they did not know it, I was humbly riding a donkey, but my dignity was always high as the Son of God, they were acclaiming rightly the presence of their King.

It was very sad to observe the weakness of the human mind at work. At this time they were there with me, rejoicing and praising God, but soon they would betray me and hand me over to the hands of my executioners.

As I received the appreciation of the faithful of that day, I had in my mind the appreciation of all generations, the praise of the humble and of all the genuine souls who come to me with sincerity.

I despise hypocrisy because I can see very clearly a heart tainted by pride, but I also feel very pleased with those who accept me as the Son of God and their Redeemer.

I am prepared to forgive the weaknesses of all human beings, when they come to me with humility and contrition.

Author: Joseph of Jesus and Mary


23 posted on 04/12/2014 8:46:42 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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Archdiocese of Washington

See What the End Shall Be – A Homily for Palm Sunday

By: Msgr. Charles Pope

The Passion which we read in today’s liturgy is too long to comment on in detail. We are only able to take a portion and examine it.

It may be of some value to examine the “middle range” of problems and personalities. The usual villains such as the Temple leaders, Judas, and the recruited crowd which shouted “Crucify him!” are fairly obvious in displaying their sinfulness and are unambiguously wicked. But there are others who participate in the Passion accounts whose sinfulness, struggles and neglect are more subtle, but still real. It is perhaps in these figures that we can learn a great deal about ourselves who, like them, may not overtly shout “crucify,” but who are often not as unambiguously holy and heroic as the persecutors are unambiguously wicked and bold.

As these behaviors are noted, we must understand that WE do these things. For the Passion accounts are not merely portraits of people long gone, they are portraits of you and me. We do these things.

So, lets look at this middle range group in three stages.

I. The Perception that is Partial – Near the beginning of today’s passion account the apostles, who are st the Last Supper with Jesus are reminded of what the next days will hold. Jesus says,

This night all of you will have your faith in me shaken, for it is written: ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be dispersed;’ but after I have been raised up, I shall go before you to Galilee.

Note that the apostles are reminded of these facts since Jesus has said them before on a few occasions. For example:

  1. From that time on Jesus began to explain to his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things at the hands of the elders, chief priests and teachers of the law, and that he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life. (Matt 16:21)
  2. When they came together in Galilee, he said to them, “The Son of Man is going to be betrayed into the hands of men.They will kill him, and on the third day he will be raised to life.” And the disciples were filled with grief. (Matt 17:22-23)
  3. We are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be betrayed to the chief priests and the teachers of the law. They will condemn him to death and will turn him over to the Gentiles to be mocked and flogged and crucified. On the third day he will be raised to life!” (Matt 20:19)

Thus we see that the Lord has consistently tried to teach and prepare them for the difficulties ahead. He has told them exactly what is going to happen and how it will end, NOT in death, but rising to new life. But though he has told them over and over, they still do not understand or see. Thus he predicts that their faith in in will be shaken.

Their perception is partial. They will see only the negative and forget that he has promised to rise. Since they cannot see beyond the apparent defeat of the moment they will retreat into fear and not boldly and confidently accompany him to his passion and glorification (for his passion IS is lifting up, his glorification). Instead they will flee. He has shown the “what the end shall be.” But they cannot see or accept it. Thus fear overwhelms them and draw back into a sinful fear and disassociation from Jesus. Only a few, Mary his Mother, John, Magdalene, and a few other women would see him through to the end.

But as for the rest they see only what is gory and awful and miss what is glory and awesome. Their perception is quite partial and their blindness comes, paradoxically, from not hearing or listening to what Jesus has been telling them all along.

We too can easily suffer from a blindness caused by poor hearing. For the Lord has often told us, that if we trust, our struggles will end in glory and new life. But, blind and forgetful we give way to our fears and fail to boldly walk the way of Christ’s passion. We draw back and disassociate ourselves from Jesus and exhibit some of the same tendencies and problems we will now observe in the people of that day.

So lets examine some of the problems that emerge from the Partial perception and forgetful fear of many of the disciples and others.

II. The Problems Presented - The problems that emerge are at least five. They are unhealthy and sinful patterns that emerge from the fear generated in not trusting Jesus vision and refusing to see it. We can consider them one by one. Please understand that the word “we” used here is short hand and does not mean that every single person does this. Rather, it means that collectively we have these tendencies. But no need to take everything here personally.

A. They Become Drowsy - One of the common human techniques for dealing with stress and the hardships of life is to just go numb and drowsy. We can just doze off into a moral sleep. Being vigilant to threats posed to our souls by sin, or the harm caused by injustice, (whether to ourselves or others) is just too stressful. So we just tune out. We stop noting or really even caring about critically important matters. We anesthetize ourselves with things like creature comforts, meaningless distractions, alcohol or drugs. We go into a kind of moral sleep and we begin to lack a prayerful vigilance. Prayer and spirituality pose too many uncomfortable questions. So we just tune out and day dream about meaningless things like what a certain Hollywood star is doing, or what the latest sports stats are.

In the passions accounts, Peter, James and John are personally asked by the Lord to pray with him. But they doze. Perhaps it is the wine. Surely it is the flesh (for the Lord speaks of it). But unwilling or unable to deal with the stress the Lord is clearly under they just tune out, go numb, and drowse away. Grave evil is at the very door. But they sleep on. The Lord warns them to stay awake, lest they give way to temptation. But still they sleep. Some one they know and love is in grave danger, but it is too much, so they just tune out, much as we tune out at the overwhelming suffering of Christ in the poor and needy. We just stop noticing. It’s too painful, so we tune out.

The Lord had often warned them to be vigilant, sober and alert (Mk 13:34, Matt 25:13, Mk 13:37; Matt 24:42; Luke 21:36, inter al). Other scriptures would later pick up the theme (Romans 13:11; 1 Peter 5:8; 1 Thess 5:6, inter al). For drowsiness is a significant and serious spiritual problem.

Sadly God described us well when he remarked to Isaiah: Israel’s watchmen are blind, they all lack knowledge; they are all mute dogs, they cannot bark; they lie around and dream, they love to sleep. (Is 56:10)

We do this, not only because we might be lazy, but also because we fear. And one strategy is to try and not notice, to go numb, to tune out. But, despite the sleepiness of the disciples, the wicked are still awake, and the threat does not go away by a drowsy inattentiveness to it. Thus we ought to be confident and sober. Life’s challenges are nothing to fear, for the Lord has told us we have already won, if we trust him. But the disciples have forgotten Jesus promise to rise after three days. And so, often, have we. So they, and we just give way to stress and tune out.

B. They Seek to Destroy - It is said in the text when Peter finally does come awake that he lashes out with a sword and wounds Malchus, the servant of the High priest. The Lord rebukes Peter and reminds him of the vision: Put your sword away! Shall I not drink the cup the Father has given me? (John 18:11). He goes on to heal Malchus who, tradition says later became a follower.

We too, in our fear can often lash out and even seek to destroy our opponents. We usually act in this way because of fear. But if we are already certain of our victory, as the Lord has promised, why do we fear and why do we need to ruthlessly suppress our opponents and enemies. It is one thing to speak the truth in love, boldly and confidently. But too often we aggressively lash out and seek to win a debate. In so doing we may lose a soul. The Lord healed Malchus and saw in him a future disciple. The Lord saw what the end shall be. Peter did not, and in fear, lashed out with an aggression that did not bespeak a confidence in final victory.

It is true that we are required to confront evil, resist injustice and speak to a confuse world with clarity. But above all we are to love those whom we address. There is little place for fear in our conversation with the world. The truth will out, the truth will prevail. We may not win every encounter. But we do not have to, all we have to do is plant seeds. God will water them and others may well harvest them. But in Christ we have already won. And this confidence should give us a serenity.

But Peter has forgotten Jesus promise to rise after three days. And so, often, have we. So Peter, and we just give way to fear and lash out, or attack and have a need to win, when we already have won.

C. They Deny - Peter, confronted with the fearful prospect of being condemned with Jesus denies that he knows him or is one of his followers. He disassociates himself from Christ. We too, confronted with the possibility of far lesser things like ridicule, will often deny a connection with the Lord or with the Church.

Someone might say of one of the more controversial passages of scripture (such as prohibitions on divorces, fornication, homosexual activity, commands to tithe, etc), “Oh, you don’t really believe that, do you?” And it’s too easy to give way to fear and either say “no” or to qualify our belief. Why suffer ridicule, endure further questioning, or experience the unpleasantry of debate? So we just disassociate, compromise, or qualify our faith to avoid the stress.We even congratulate ourselves for being tolerant, etc. when we do it.

Jesus says, If anyone is ashamed of me and my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will be ashamed of him when he comes in his Father’s glory with the holy angels. (Mat 16:21). But too easily we ARE ashamed. And so, like Peter, we engage in some form of denial. Peter was afraid because he has forgotten to “see what the end shall be.” He has forgotten that Jesus will rise after three days. So too do we often forget that. So we lack confidence and give way to fear, and we deny, so as to avoid suffering with Jesus.

D. They Dodge – Simply put, when Jesus is arrested, all the disciples except John split. They “get the heck out of Dodge.” They are nowhere to be found. After Jesus arrest, it is said that Peter, prior to his own denials had followed the Lord, “at a distance” (Mk 14:54) but as soon as trouble rose, he scrammed.

And we too can run. Sometimes it’s persecutions from the world. But sometimes its just our own self-generated fear that following the Lord is too hard, and involves too many sacrifices we are just not willing to make. Maybe it will endanger our money since the Lord insists that we tithe and be generous to the poor. Maybe it will endanger our playboy lifestyle since the Lord insists on chastity and respect. Maybe we are doing something we have no business doing, that is unjust, excessive or sinful. But, rather than face our fears, whether from within or without, we just high-tail it out.

The disciples forgot that Jesus has shown them what the end shall be. In three days he would win the victory. But, this forgotten, their fears emerged and they ran. We too, must see what the end shall be to resist and confront our many fears.

E. They Deflect - Now in this case our example is Pontius Pilate, not one of the disciples. But the fact is that Pilate was summoned to faith, just like anyone else. Are you a King? he asked Jesus. And Jesus responds by putting Pilate on trial: Are you saying this on your own, or have others been telling you about me.” The fact is, Pilate has a choice to make. Either he will accept what Jesus is saying as true, or he will give way to fear and commit a terrible sin of injustice. Now the text all make it clear that Pilate knew Jesus was innocent. But, because he feared the crowds he handed Jesus over.

Now, note PILATE did this. The crowds tempted him through fear, but HE did the condemning. Yet note that he tries to deflect his choice. The text says, he took water and washed his hands in front of the crowd. “I am innocent of this man’s blood,” he said. “It is your responsibility!” (Mat 16:21). Well, actually Pilate it is also YOUR responsibility. You had a choice and you made. Your own career and hide were more important that justice. And, though you wanted to do what was right and were sympathetic with Jesus, merely wanting to do what is right is not enough.

So too for us. We also will favor our career or hide over what is right. And in so doing we will often blame others for what we freely choose. “I am not responsible, my mother dropped me on my head when I was two” ….etc.

In effect we are often willing to say, “Look Jesus, I love you. You get my Sundays, and my tithe and, generally I obey you. But you have to understand, I have a career, I need to make money for my family. If I really stand up for what is right, I might not make it in this world. You understand, don’t you?…I know the company is doing some things that are unjust, I know the world needs a clearer witness from me….and I’ll do all that, after I retire. But for now…..well, you know. It’s really may boss whose to blame. It’s this old hell bound sin soaked world that’s to blame. Not me!” And we wash our hands and excuse our silence and inaction in the face of injustice and sin.

And all this is done in fear. We forget what the end shall be and get focused on the fearful present. We lack the vision Jesus is trying to give us that in three days we will rise with him. But we stay blind to that and only see the threat of now.

III. The Path that is Prescribed – OK, by now you ought to know the path that is prescribed: See what the end shall be! In three days we rise! Why are we afraid. Jesus has already won the victory. It is true, we get there through the cross. But, never forget what the end shall be! Today we read the Gospel of Friday, but wait till Sunday morning! I’ll rise!

We end where we began with this gospel: This night all of you will have your faith in me shaken, for it is written: ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be dispersed;’ but after I have been raised up, I shall go before you to Galilee.

Yes, after he has been raised, he goes before us into Galilee. And for us, Galilee is heaven. Whatever our sorrows, if we are faithful we will see Jesus in the Galilee of heaven. Never forget this vision. After three days we will rise with him and be reunited in Galilee.

So take courage, see what the end shall be! The end for those who are faithful is total victory. We don’t need to drowse, destroy, deny, dodge and deflect. We’ve already won. All we need to do is hold out.

An old Gospel songs says, I promise the Lord that I would hold out! He said he’s meet me in Galilee! So hold out, Galilee is not far, in three days we rise with him.

This Homily was recorded in mp3 format here: Palm Sunday Sermon


24 posted on 04/12/2014 8:57:55 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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Sunday Gospel Reflections

Passion Sunday
Reading I: Isaiah 50:4-7 II: Philippians 2:6-11


Gospel
Matthew 26:14-27:66
Interesting Details
One Main Point

Jesus suffers and dies.


Reflections

  1. Follow Christ and the disciples. Am I committing myself more like Christ, or drifting further away like the disciples?

25 posted on 04/12/2014 9:02:34 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All
Sunday, April 13, 2014
Palm Sunday of the Lord's Passion
At the Procession with Palms:
First Reading:
Psalm:
Second Reading:
Gospel:
Matthew 21:1-11
Isaiah 50:4-7
Psalm 22:8-9, 17-20, 23-24
Philippians 2:6-11
Matthew 26:14 - Matthew 27:66 or Matthew 27:11-54

Blessed are those who have not seen and have believed. There is here a particular reference to ourselves; we hold in our hearts one we have not seen in the flesh. We are included in these words, but only if we follow up our faith with good works. The true believer practices what he believes. But of those who pay only lip service to faith, Paul has this to say: They profess to know God, but they deny him in their works. Therefore James says: Faith without works is dead.

-- St.Gregory the Great


26 posted on 04/12/2014 9:04:12 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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Just A Minute Just A Minute (Listen)
Some of EWTN's most popular hosts and guests in a collection of one minute inspirational messages. A different message each time you click.

27 posted on 04/12/2014 9:05:34 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All



The Angelus 

The Angel of the Lord declared to Mary: 
And she conceived of the Holy Spirit. 

Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee; blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.
Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen. 

Behold the handmaid of the Lord: Be it done unto me according to Thy word. 

Hail Mary . . . 

And the Word was made Flesh: And dwelt among us. 

Hail Mary . . . 


Pray for us, O Holy Mother of God, that we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ. 

Let us pray: 

Pour forth, we beseech Thee, O Lord, Thy grace into our hearts; that we, to whom the incarnation of Christ, Thy Son, was made known by the message of an angel, may by His Passion and Cross be brought to the glory of His Resurrection, through the same Christ Our Lord.

Amen. 


28 posted on 04/12/2014 9:06:25 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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Palm Sunday and Holy Week

Passiontide and Holy Week

Passiontide

Christ became, for our sake, obedient unto death,
even the death of the Cross.
Philippians 2:8

Contents:
The Celebration of Passiontide
Passion Sunday
- Blessed palms and Palm procession
Holy Week - Confession and Easter Duty
The Triduum - Tenebrae

See also Paschalis Sollemnitatis - Vatican Letter on Preparations for Holy Week and Easter - Congregation for Divine Worship
---------
Confession - Penance
---------
Holy Thursday, Good Friday and Holy Saturday


PASSIONTIDE is the last two weeks of Lent, when the readings and prayers of the liturgy focus on the Passion of Our Lord. The word "passion", in the Christian sense, does not mean an intense emotion; it refers to the historical events of Jesus' suffering and death.

Although for several centuries the Fifth Sunday of Lent was known as Passion Sunday, after the Second Vatican Council this name was restored to the Sunday at beginning of Holy Week , formerly called Palm Sunday. As a penitential season of the Church, Passiontide is evidently even more ancient than Lent.

Devotions and Prayers for Passiontide

Among the traditional non-liturgical devotions of Passiontide are saying the Stations of the Cross, praying the Rosary, meditating on the five Sorrowful Mysteries, and saying the five prayers in honor of Christ's five wounds.

The Sorrowful Mysteries are: 1. The Agony in the Garden; 2. The Scourging at the Pillar; 3. The Crowning with Thorns; 4. The Carrying of the Cross; 5. The Crucifixion and Death of Our Lord on the Cross.

There are many booklets containing meditations on the Rosary. Father Romano Guardini's The Rosary (Sophia Institute Press) is excellent, and The Handbook of Prayers (Midwest Theological Forum) contains the Rosary and many other prayers (see links page to contact these publishers). Pope John Paul II's meditations in The Light of Christ is a good resource for this and other devotions.

It is fitting, during this season, that we remember Mary and her inexpressible grief at the suffering and death of her Son.

Another ancient devotion for this season was The Seven Sorrows [Dolors] of Mary. Christian believers appealed to Mary, the Mother of Sorrows who publicly shared in her Son's suffering on the road to Calvary, taking all things upon herself ­ concern, affliction and sorrow.

This devotion listed the Seven Sorrows of Mary as: 1. The prophecy of Simeon, 2. The flight to Egypt, 3. The loss of the Child Jesus in the temple, 4. His way of the Cross, 5. His Crucifixion, 6. The piercing of His heart on Calvary, and 7. His burial in the tomb.

The famous hymn associated with this devotion is the Stabat Mater Dolorosa (Stands the Sorrowful Mother) which was originally written for private devotion in the late 13th century and traditionally attributed to the Franciscan, Jacopone da Todi. The words in English and Latin are in the music section of the Lent-Easter Family source book.

Both Latin and English words to the Stabat Mater are on this site, and both words and music are in The Adoremus Hymnal, nos.400 and 401. (For information about The Adoremus Hymnal see the Adoremus website, www.adoremus.org, or contact Ignatius Press - see links page.)

All of the events of Our Lord's Passion have been the subjects of works of great Christian art. A good activity with children would be to look at and talk about some of these beautiful works, either in books or, if you're fortunate enough to live near one, an art museum.

These words of St. Paul to the Philippians [2:8] might be recited during the two weeks before Easter, along with the Act of Hope, at morning, bedtime or mealtime prayers:

Christ became, for our sake, obedient unto death, even the death of the Cross.

Act of Hope

O my God, knowing thy almighty power, and thy infinite goodness and mercy,
I hope in thee that, by the merits of the Passion and Death of our Saviour Jesus Christ,
thou wilt grant me eternal life, which thou hast promised to all such as shall do the works of a good Christian;
and these I resolve to do, with the help of thy Grace.
Amen +

Passion (Palm) Sunday 

Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini. Hosanna in excelcis!

Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest!

Holy Week, the most solemn and intense period of worship in the Christian faith, begins with Passion Sunday, the Sunday before Easter. In spite of the spiritual gravity of Holy Week, it begins with joy; for on this Sunday, the Church celebrates Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem which foretells the victory of His Resurrection and His return to earth in glory; and with the first reading of the Passion in the liturgies of Holy Week, the Church begins her commemorative pilgrimage with her Lord on His way to Calvary.

Liturgical commemoration of the Passion actually begins during the fifth week of Lent, when Masses are focused on the power of the Cross and the Kingship of Christ. Until the liturgical reforms just before the Second Vatican Council restored important liturgical elements of the early Church which had gradually disappeared (the Easter Vigil, for example), the Fifth Sunday of Lent was called Passion Sunday, and the Sunday beginning Holy Week was called Palm Sunday. Earliest accounts describing the beginning of Holy Week speak of Passion Sunday.

Blessed Palms

The blessing and distribution of palms takes place on Passion Sunday, and altar decorations are palm branches rather than flowers. The palms are solemnly blessed by the priest, and each worshipper holds the blessed palm during the singing of the ancient hymn, Gloria Laus ("All Glory, Laud and Honor") and during reading of the Passion.

These solemnly blessed palms are sacramentals, or signs of Christ's grace which help Christians in the practice of the faith, and, as they are associated with Christ's triumph, the palms symbolize victory over spiritual danger and death. For this reason, palms are associated with martyrdom, and often appear in paintings and sculpture of those who were martyred for the faith. This also explains the old custom of burning a palm in the stove in time of danger (from a threatening storm, for example).

As the blessed palms are sacramentals, then, Catholics keep them in their homes, customarily placing them behind the crucifix. The ashes used on Ash Wednesday come from the burning of blessed palms.

This Sunday was also sometimes called the Pasch of Flowers in European countries, because throughout the Middle Ages flowers were blessed on this day along with palms and olive branches. (The State of Florida is so named because Ponce de Leon landed there on Pasqua Florida Sunday.) The words "pasch" and "paschal" come from the Hebrew word "pesach'" meaning "passage" or "passover."

The Passion Sunday liturgy, incorporating both the blessing of the palms and commemoration of Jesus' entry into Jerusalem to the joyous Hosannas of the people, and the reading of the Passion Gospel, combines two contrasting elements .The two parts are linked by the traditional procession which follows the blessing and distribution of the palms and which leads into the Sacrifice of the Mass; hence symbolically reproducing the historical event of Our Lord's royal entry into Jerusalem which signifies the actual meeting of the Church with Christ; moreover, His entry foretells the entry of the faithful into the eternal Jerusalem, the Kingdom of Heaven.

Palm Procession

According to the account of a fifth-century Spanish pilgrim to the Holy Land, Passion Sunday Mass was celebrated in Jerusalem at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. After this the people were invited to meet again in the afternoon at the Mount of Olives, in the Church of Eleona (the grotto of the Our Father). They then proceeded to the Church of the Ascension for a service consisting of hymns and antiphons, readings and prayers, where at five o'clock in the afternoon the Gospel of the palms was read and the procession set out for the city. The people responded to the antiphons with the acclamation, "Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord," as we say even today.

All these pilgrims carried palms, and with their little children in their arms they escorted the bishop (who represented the Savior) to the Church of the Resurrection where the processsion ended with Vespers (evening prayer).

This palm procession was introduced in the West first in France and then in Italy. In the Middle Ages the custom began of carving a wooden statue of Christ seated on a donkey which was then placed on a cart, the center of the procession. These statues were called Palm Donkeys or Palmesels, and some are preserved in museums.

In medieval Rome the papal procession set out from the papal residence at the Lateran, then the official headquarters of the Popes as the Vatican is now. The palms were blessed by a cardinal and some were distributed by acolytes at the ancient Church of St. Sylvester nearby. The Pope alsodistributed them himself in the Hall of Leo IV at the Lateran.

Holy Week

At the Name of Jesus, every knee should bend
for the Lord became obedient unto death, even to the death of the cross.
Philippians 2:10,8

HOLY WEEK has been held in great reverence since the very early years of the Church. No other Christian observance has interested the world so much as Holy Week. For the rituals of the Church during these few days of each year, so complex and so laden with meaning, emphatically and prophetically proclaim to the entire world the liberating and redeeming and perpetual truth of the Gospel the Good News that Christ has died, Christ is risen and Christ will come again.

As early as the fourth century, St. John Chrysostom referred to Holy Week as The Great Week, "Not that it has more days in it than other weeks, or that its days are made up of more hours than other days; but we call it great, because of the great mysteries which are then celebrated" [Homily 30, on Genesis]. In other Christian cultures we find the week before Easter referred to by several names such as the Painful Week (Hebdomada Poenosa) because of the sufferings of the Christ and of the fatigue and physical sacrifice required of the faithful in observing them.

Although in our time and nation the Church's only required food fast is to restrict meals (fast) and to abstain from meat (abstinence) on Good Friday, we learn from medieval Church documents that Christians observed a strict fast from Monday of Holy Week to the cock-crow of Easter Day. A very strict fast was usually observed from Thursday evening to Easter morning.

History also tells us that early Christian rulers issued decrees forbidding not only festive activities but also work in trade, business, and the courts. Holy Week, it was decreed, was to be spent in contemplation and meditation and the faithful were be free from worldly concerns as much as possible. (Clearly this was before anyone had the idea of "separation of Church and State.") 

Confession and the Easter Duty

The discipline of fasting from food is not the only nor even the primary way in which we must prepare our entire selves ­ body and soul ­ to receive the benefits of our Savior's redeeming sacrifice. Physical fasting is not enough.

St. Paul warns us that "you cannot belong to Christ Jesus unless you crucify all your self-indulgent passions and desires" [Galations 5:24]. We are powerless to do this alone. We must have God's help. In order to receive Christ and in order to prepare ourselves for our responsibility for His mission on earth, we must be drawn ever closer to Him in prayer and action. But sin separates us from Him. We must be convinced of our sins, repent, receive forgiveness and be reconciled to God.

Through His Grace we must try to become holy, "perfect, even as your Father in Heaven is perfect." This is why the Church calls all her people, especially at this time of year, to the Sacrament of Penance, to perform their Easter Duty. At least once each year during the Easter season Catholics are required to confess sins, receive absolution and receive Communion in order to remain truly members of the the Church.

This is what the Fathers of the Second Vatican Council, like the early Fathers of the Church, tried to teach us with the emphasis on personal awareness of how we have offended God and need His forgiveness. As Pope John Paul II said "The awareness of sin, in which the person knows before whom and towards whom he is guilty, is an indispensable pre-condition for obtaining the objective value of forgiveness. This is because He against whom the sin is committed and who is therefore offended is also the Father who has the power to fogive it." And this is what the Church invites us no, implores us to do during Holy Week.

Related pages on this site: Act of Contrition -- Confession-Penance -- Fast and Abstinence

The Triduum

In the Triduum, or Three Days, Holy Thursday, Good Friday and Holy Saturday ,the Church gives us a singularly dramatic, intense and richly symbolic expression of the very heart of Christian belief. Even in our unspiritual time and culture, the Triduum and Easter reaffirm the essence of the Church's central beliefs in the strongest possible way a way which penetrates the deepest recesses of the human heart, and calls forth a response from all, young and old, rich and poor, and in every state of life.

Through the Church's continued observance of many ancient liturgical traditions, and also the restoration of the ancient Easter Vigil, the liturgical expression of these core truths of the faith during Holy Week is without parallel. Although the penitential season is now less severe than in times past, and some inspiring symbols and devotions were lost in the confusion of rapid and sometimes erroneous liturgical changes after the Second Vatican Council, for the believing Catholic the days of Holy Week make it possible even for us, who are so easily distracted by the world and its enticements, to concentrate with our entire being on the Events which assured us of God's inestimable love, and which made possible our Salvation.

By participating in the liturgy of the Church and by increasing our own observance of these holy days in our homes, we can deepen our understanding of these Events in the history of Salvation.

Tenebræ

The Latin word Tenebræ means "darkness." Tenebræ is very ancient service of prayers in the Church which takes place during the darkness of night. Many parishes are now reviving this extraordinarily moving service which consists of three sets of Psalms and verses from the Lamentations of Jeremiah chanted on each of three nights of Holy Week: Wednesday, Thursday and Friday. (Originally this was a service of Matins said in monasteries before dawn on Holy Thursday, Good Friday and Holy Saturday; but it customarily takes place the evenings before.)

The service begins with the nave of the church in darkness, except for a candelabrum on a stand in the sanctuary, usually containing fifteen candles arranged in an inverted `v', called a `Tenebræ hearse.' As each lamentation, introduced with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet, is chanted one of the candles is extinguished until only one, representing the Light of Christ remains. Then this is extinguished, leaving the church in darkness. The ministers and cantor leave the sanctuary, and a loud noise like a thunderclap (representing the earthquake during the Crucifixion) is heard; after which a single candle representing the Light of Christ is brought in, placed on the altar and the people leave in silence.

This is a very impressive service, and we hope you are able to attend with your children at least once during the Triduum. If your parish does not have Tenebræ it is worth trying to find a place that does.

If you have young children you might consider using the adaptation of this service in this book, Stations of the Cross. It is by no means as powerful as real Tenebræ, celebrated in church, but it does retain the symbolism of Christ as our Light, and it may be a workable substitute if your children are little or if the real service is not available where you live. (See Stations of the Cross.


29 posted on 04/13/2014 7:02:15 AM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All
See What the End Shall Be – A Homily for Palm Sunday
Two popes, two Palm Sundays (a visual contrast)
Into the Harbour of the Sacred Passion
Pope Francis, humble like a donkey in all faithfulness on this Palm Sunday (Yikes!)

Pope [Francis]: Homily for Palm Sunday Mass [full text]
Pope, Just Back From Trip, Celebrates Palm Sunday (with good news from Cuba)
Are You Ready for Palm Sunday? [Ecumenical]
A week with the Lord [Reflections on Passion Sunday and Holy Week]
Celebration of Palm Sunday Of The Passion Of Our Lord; Homily Of His Holiness Benedict XVI
Palm Sunday
HOSANNA (Palm) SUNDAY - Shanini Sunday
In Agony Until the End of the World
Being Catholic: Sacred Things, Palm Branches
Pope Says Youth Sound Have 'Innocent Hands and Pure Hearts' at Palm Sunday Mass

Passion (Palm) Sunday
Pope Opens Holy Week With Palm Sunday Mass
Traditions Related to Palm Sunday
HOMILIES PREACHED BY FATHER ALTIER ON PALM SUNDAY FROM 2001-2005.
Baghdad Christians celebrate Palm Sunday without fear
HOSANNA SUNDAY
Holy Week Starts Today - Hosanna to the King of Kings!
Palm Sunday (In Art)
Palm Sunday (Artistic Representations)
RELIGIOUS HISTORY: On Palm Sunday, the path to Golgotha

30 posted on 04/13/2014 7:05:40 AM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All
St. Martin I, Pope & Martyr

Saint Martin I, Pope & Martyr
Optional Memorial
April 13th


unknown artist

History:

St Martin I was elected Pope at Rome, July 21, 649. For his defense of Christ as true God and true Man, he was exiled by the Byzantine Emperor Constans II to Crimera where he died.

Source: Daily Roman Missal, Edited by Rev. James Socías, Midwest Theological Forum, Chicago, Illinois ©2003

 

Collect:
Grant, almighty God,
that we may withstand the trials of this world
with invincible firmness of purpose,
just as you did not allow your Martyr Pope Saint Martin the First
to be daunted by threats of broken by suffering,
Through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son,
who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
one God, for ever and ever. +Amen.

First Reading: 2 Timothy 2:8-13;3:10-12
Remember Jesus Christ, risen from the dead, descended from David, as preached in my gospel, the gospel for which I am suffering and wearing fetters like a criminal. But the word of God is not fettered. Therefore I endure everything for the sake of the elect, that they also may obtain salvation in Christ Jesus with its eternal glory. The saying is sure: If we have died with Him, we shall also live with Him; if we endure, we shall also reign with Him; if we deny Him, He also will deny us; if we are faithless, He remains faithful -- for He cannot deny Himself.

Now you have observed my teaching, my conduct, my aim in life, my faith, my patience, my love, my steadfastness, my persecutions, my sufferings, what befell me at Antioch, at Iconium, and at Lystra, what persecutions I endured; yet from them all the Lord rescued me. Indeed all who desire to live a godly life in Christ Jesus will be persecuted.

Gospel Reading: John 5:18-21
"If the world hates you, know that it has hated Me before it hated you. If you were of the world, the world would love its own; but because you are not of the world, but I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you. Remember the word that I said to you, 'A servant is not greater than His master.' If they persecuted Me, they will persecute you; if they kept My word, they will keep yours also. But all this they will do to you on My account, because they do not know Him who sent Me.


31 posted on 04/13/2014 7:13:41 AM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: Salvation
A Saint's Day is superseded by the Sunday liturgy.

Pope St. Martin's exile and martyrdom commemorated April 13
SAINT MARTIN I, Pope and Martyr, (†655)

32 posted on 04/13/2014 7:20:33 AM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All
Information: St. Martin I

Feast Day: April 11

Born: Todi, Tuscany, Italy

Died: 655 at Cherson, Crimea

33 posted on 04/13/2014 7:23:24 AM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All
Interactive Saints for Kids

St. Martin

Feast Day: April 13
Born: (around) 600 :: Died: 655

St. Martin was born at Todi, Tuscany, in Italy. He grew up with a very good education and became a priest in Rome who was also holy.

In the year 649 he became pope. During that time people began arguing over the truths about Jesus and Pope Martin called a meeting of bishops. This meeting was named the Council of the Lateran. It clearly explained some of the beliefs and truths of the Catholic faith. Pope Martin knew the Council's explanations were true and it was his duty as pope to teach people the truth.

However, some powerful Christians were not pleased about it. One such person was Emperor Constans II of Constantinople. He sent his soldiers to Rome to capture Martin and bring him to Constantinople. The soldiers kidnapped the pope.

They took him right out of the Lateran Cathedral and smuggled him onto a ship. Pope Martin got sick, but they continued their journey. In October, 653, he was put in jail in Constantinople for three months. He was given only a little food and water each day. He wasn't even allowed to wash himself.

Pope Martin was put on trial and condemned to death. But then he was sent back to the same prison for three more months. Patriarch Paul of Constantinople pleaded for the pope's life. So instead of death, the pope was exiled and sent away from Italy. Pope Martin was put on a ship that took him across the Black Sea. In April, 654, it landed on the Russian peninsula called the Crimea.

Pope Martin was shocked at suffering he was put through by those who were in charge of him. He wrote his own life story of those sad days. The pope said that he felt very sad to be forgotten by his relatives and members of the Church in Rome.

He knew they were afraid of the emperor. But at least, he said, they could have sent supplies of corn, oil and other basic needs. But they did not. They abandoned the pope because of fear.

The pope's exile lasted two years. He died around 656. Because of his terrible sufferings, he was proclaimed a martyr. He is the last of the popes so far to be considered a martyr.


34 posted on 04/13/2014 7:28:28 AM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: Salvation

“When you are attending Mass and other religious services, be very reverent when you stand up, kneel, and sit. Perform each action with great devotion. Be modest in your gaze, and do not turn your head this way and that to see who is coming or going. Out of reverence for that holy place, do not laugh or look around to see who is nearby. Try not to talk to anyone unless charity or a strict need requires it.... In short, behave in such a way that all the bystanders are edified and, because of you, are moved to glorify and love the heavenly Father.”
St Padre Pio (letter to Anitta Rodote, July, 25, 1915)


35 posted on 04/13/2014 7:41:51 AM PDT by NKP_Vet ("It is foolish and wrong to mourn the men who died;we should thank God that such men lived" ~ Patton)
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To: NKP_Vet

Fantastic quote.


36 posted on 04/13/2014 8:18:37 AM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: NKP_Vet

Fantastic quote.


37 posted on 04/13/2014 8:19:29 AM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: Salvation
Matthew
  English: Douay-Rheims Latin: Vulgata Clementina Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
  Matthew 21
1 AND when they drew nigh to Jerusalem, and were come to Bethphage, unto mount Olivet, then Jesus sent two disciples, Et cum appropinquassent Jerosolymis, et venissent Bethphage ad montem Oliveti : tunc Jesus misit duos discipulos, και οτε ηγγισαν εις ιεροσολυμα και ηλθον εις βηθσφαγη προς το ορος των ελαιων τοτε ο ιησους απεστειλεν δυο μαθητας
2 Saying to them: Go ye into the village that is over against you, and immediately you shall find an ass tied, and a colt with her: loose them and bring them to me. dicens eis : Ite in castellum, quod contra vos est, et statim invenietis asinam alligatam, et pullum cum ea : solvite, et adducite mihi : λεγων αυτοις πορευθητε εις την κωμην την απεναντι υμων και ευθεως ευρησετε ονον δεδεμενην και πωλον μετ αυτης λυσαντες αγαγετε μοι
3 And if any man shall say anything to you, say ye, that the Lord hath need of them: and forthwith he will let them go. et si quis vobis aliquid dixerit, dicite quia Dominus his opus habet : et confestim dimittet eos. και εαν τις υμιν ειπη τι ερειτε οτι ο κυριος αυτων χρειαν εχει ευθεως δε αποστελλει αυτους
4 Now all this was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying: Hoc autem totum factum est, ut adimpleretur quod dictum est per prophetam dicentem : τουτο δε ολον γεγονεν ινα πληρωθη το ρηθεν δια του προφητου λεγοντος
5 Tell ye the daughter of Sion: Behold thy king cometh to thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the foal of her that is used to the yoke. Dicite filiæ Sion : Ecce rex tuus venit tibi mansuetus, sedens super asinam, et pullum filium subjugalis. ειπατε τη θυγατρι σιων ιδου ο βασιλευς σου ερχεται σοι πραυς και επιβεβηκως επι ονον και πωλον υιον υποζυγιου
6 And the disciples going, did as Jesus commanded them. Euntes autem discipuli fecerunt sicut præcepit illis Jesus. πορευθεντες δε οι μαθηται και ποιησαντες καθως προσεταξεν αυτοις ο ιησους
7 And they brought the ass and the colt, and laid their garments upon them, and made him sit thereon. Et adduxerunt asinam, et pullum : et imposuerunt super eos vestimenta sua, et eum desuper sedere fecerunt. ηγαγον την ονον και τον πωλον και επεθηκαν επανω αυτων τα ιματια αυτων και επεκαθισεν επανω αυτων
8 And a very great multitude spread their garments in the way: and others cut boughs from the trees, and strewed them in the way: Plurima autem turba straverunt vestimenta sua in via : alii autem cædebant ramos de arboribus, et sternebant in via : ο δε πλειστος οχλος εστρωσαν εαυτων τα ιματια εν τη οδω αλλοι δε εκοπτον κλαδους απο των δενδρων και εστρωννυον εν τη οδω
9 And the multitudes that went before and that followed, cried, saying: Hosanna to the son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord: Hosanna in the highest. turbæ autem, quæ præcedebant, et quæ sequebantur, clamabant, dicentes : Hosanna filio David : benedictus, qui venit in nomine Domini : hosanna in altissimis. οι δε οχλοι οι προαγοντες και οι ακολουθουντες εκραζον λεγοντες ωσαννα τω υιω δαυιδ ευλογημενος ο ερχομενος εν ονοματι κυριου ωσαννα εν τοις υψιστοις
10 And when he was come into Jerusalem, the whole city was moved, saying: Who is this? Et cum intrasset Jerosolymam, commota est universa civitas, dicens : Quis est hic ? και εισελθοντος αυτου εις ιεροσολυμα εσεισθη πασα η πολις λεγουσα τις εστιν ουτος
11 And the people said: This is Jesus the prophet, from Nazareth of Galilee. Populi autem dicebant : Hic est Jesus propheta a Nazareth Galilææ. οι δε οχλοι ελεγον ουτος εστιν ιησους ο προφητης ο απο ναζαρετ της γαλιλαιας

38 posted on 04/13/2014 10:17:54 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex
1. And when they drew nigh to Jerusalem, and were come to Bethphage, to the mount of Olives, then sent Jesus two disciples,
2. Saying to them, Go into the village over against you, and straightway you shall find an ass tied, and a colt with her: loose them, and bring them to me.
3. And if any man say ought to you, you shall say, The Lord has need of them; and straightway he will send them.
4. And this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying,
5. Tell you the daughter of Sion, Behold, your King comes to you, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass.
6. And the disciples went, and did as Jesus commanded them,
7. And brought the ass, and the colt, and put on them their clothes, and they set him thereon.
8. And a very great multitude spread their garments in the way; others cut down branches from the trees, and strewed them in the way.
9. And the multitudes that went before, and that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna to the Son of David: Blessed is he that comes in the name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest.

REMIG; The Evangelist related above that the Lord departed from Galilee, and began to go up to Jerusalem. Being now occupied with telling what He did by the way, he proceeds in his purpose, saying, And when they drew nigh to Jerusalem, and were come to Bethphage. Bethphage was a small village of the priests, situated on the declivity of Mount Olivet, one mile distant from Jerusalem. For the priests who ministered in the temple their apportioned time, when their office of ministration was discharged, withdrew to this village to abide; as also did they who were to take their place. Because it was commanded by their Law that none should travel on the Sabbath more than a mile.

ORIGEN; Whence Bethphage is interpreted, The house of the Shoulder; for the shoulder was the priest's portion in the Law. It follows, Then Jesus sent two of his disciples.

PSEUDO-CHRYS; He said not to His disciples, Say, Thy Lord, or Your Lord, has need of them; that they may understand, that He is Lord alone, not of the beasts only, but of all men; for even sinners are by the law of nature His, though by their own will they are the Devil's.

CHRYS; And think not this a little thing which was now done, for who was it that wrought with the owners of the beasts that they refused not, but yielded them? By this also He instructs His disciples that He could have restrained the Jews, but would not; and further teaches them that they should grant whatever is asked of them; for if they who knew not Christ, now granted this, much more it becomes His disciples to give to all. For that which is said, But will straightway let them go,

PSEUDO-CHRYS; it is to be understood, that after He had entered into Jerusalem, the beast was returned by Christ to its owner.

GLOSS; Or, The owner of the beasts will straightway send them to be engaged for Christ's service. Hereto is added the testimony of the Prophet, that it may be shown that the Lord fulfilled all things which were written of Him, but that the Scribes and Pharisees, blinded by envy, would not understand the things that they read; All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Prophet; to wit, Zacharias.

PSEUDO-CHRYS; For the Prophet knowing the malice of the Jews, that they would speak against Christ when He went up to the Temple, gave them this sign beforehand, whereby they might know their King, Say you to the daughter of Sion.

RABAN; In history, Daughter of Sion is the name given to the city of Jerusalem, which stands on mount Sion. But mystically, it is the Church of the faithful pertaining to the Jerusalem which is above.

PSEUDO-CHRYS; Behold, is a word used in pointing out any thing; look, that is, not with the bodily eye, but with the spiritual understanding, at the works of His power. Also He often said, Behold, that He might show that He of whom He spoke before He was born was even then your King. When then you shall see Him, say not, We have no King but Caesar. He comes to you, if you will apprehend Him, that He may save you; if you will not apprehend Him, He comes against you; Meek, so that He is not to be feared for His power, but loved for His meekness; wherefore He sits not on a golden car, refulgent in costly purple, nor is mounted on a mettled steed, rejoicing in strife and battle, but upon a she-ass, that loves peace and quiet.

AUG; In this quotation from the Prophet, there is some variety in the different Gospels. Matthew quotes it as if the Prophet had expressly mentioned the she-ass; but it is not so quoted by John, nor in the Church-copies of the translation in common use. This seems to me to be accounted for by the account, that Matthew wrote his Gospel in the Hebrew language. And it is clear that the translation called the LXX, has some things different from what are found in the Hebrew, by those who know that tongue, and who have rendered the same books out of the Hebrew. If the reason of this discrepancy be asked, I consider nothing more likely than that the LXX interpreted with the selfsame spirit with which the original was written, which is confirmed by that wonderful agreement among them of which we are told.

By thus varying the expression, while they did not depart from the meaning of that God whose words they were, they convey to us the very same thing as we gather from this agreement, with slight variety, among the Evangelists. This shows us that it is no lie, when one relates any thing with such diversities in detail, as that he does not depart from his intention with whom he ought to agree. To know this is useful in morals in avoiding lies; and for faith itself, that we should not suppose that the truth is secured in sacred sounds, as though God imparted to us not the matter only, but the words in which the matter is conveyed. Rather the matter is in such sort conveyed in words, that we ought not to want words at all, if it were possible that the matter could be known by us without words, as God and His Angels know it.

It follows, But the disciples went and did as Jesus commanded them, and brought the ass, and the colt. The other Evangelists say nothing of the ass. And if Matthew had not mentioned the colt, as they do not mention the ass, the reader ought not to have been surprised. How much less then should it move him, when one has so mentioned the ass which the others have omitted, as not to forget the colt which they have mentioned.

For there is no discrepancy where both circumstances may have occurred, though one only related one; and another; how much less then where one mentions both, though another mentions only one? It follows, And they put on them their clothes, and set him thereon.

JEROME; But it seems that the Lord could not in so short a distance have sat upon both animals; seeing then that the history has either an impossibility or a meanness, we are sent to higher things, that is, to the figurative sense.

REMIG; Notwithstanding, it was possible that the Lord might have sat upon both animals.

CHRYS; To me it seems that He was mounted upon the ass, not only because of the mystery, but to give us a lesson of wisdom, teaching us therein that it needs not to be mounted on horses, but that it is sufficient to employ an ass, and be content with that which is necessary. But inquire of the Jews, what King has entered Jerusalem mounted upon an ass? They can name none other, but this one only.

JEROME; The multitudes that came out of Jericho, and followed the Savior, cast down their garments, and strewed the way with branches of trees; and therefore it follows, But the multitudes spread their garments in the way; that is, beneath the feet of the ass, that it should not stumble against a stone, nor tread upon a thorn, nor fall into a ditch. Others cut down branches from the trees, and strewed them in the way; from the fruit-trees, that is, with which mount Olivet was clothed. And when all that could be done was done, they added also the tribute of the tongue, as it follows, And the multitudes that went before, and that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna to the Son of David.

I shall shortly examine what is the meaning of this word Hosanna. In the hundred and seventeenth Psalm, which is clearly written of the Savior's coming, we read this among other things; Save me now, O Lord; O Lord, send now prosperity. Blessed are you that are to come in the name of the Lord. For that which the LXX give, Save now, O Lord; we read in the Hebrew, 'Anna, adonai osianna', which Symmachus renders more plainly, I pray you, O Lord, save, I pray you. Let none think that it is a word made up of two words, one Greek: and one Hebrew, for it is pure Hebrew.

REMIG; And it is confounded of one perfect and one imperfect word. For 'Hosi' signifies 'save'; 'anna' is an interjection used in entreating.

JEROME; For it signifies that the coming of Christ is the salvation of the world, whence it follows, Blessed is he that comes in the name of the Lord. Which same thing the Savior in the Gospel confirms, I am come in my Father's name.

REMIG; Because, namely, in all His good actions, He sought not His own but His Father's glory.

GLOSS; And the meaning is, Blessed, that is, Glorious, is He that comes, that is, is incarnate; in the name of the Lord; that is, of the Father, by glorifying Him. Again they repeat, Hosanna, that is, Save, I pray you, and define whither they would be saved, in the highest, that is in the heavenly, not in the earthly places.

JEROME; Or by that which is added, Hosanna, that is, Salvation, in the highest, it is clearly shown that the coming of Christ is not the salvation of man only, but of the whole world, joining earthly things to things heavenly

ORIGEN; Or when they say, Hosanna to the Son of David; Blessed is He that comes in the name of the Lord, it is the dispensation of Christ's humanity that they set forth; but His restoration to the holy places when they say, Hosanna in the highest.

PSEUDO-CHRYS; Hosanna, some interpret 'glory', some 'redemption'; and glory is His due, and redemption belongs to Him who has redeemed all men.

HILARY; The words of their song of praise, express His power of redemption; in calling Him the Son of David, they acknowledge His hereditary title to the kingdom.

PSEUDO-CHRYS; Never before had the Lord employed the services of beasts, nor surrounded Himself with the ornaments of green boughs, till now when He is going up to Jerusalem to suffer. He moved them that beheld to do that which they had before desired to do; so it was opportunity that was now given them, not their purpose that was changed.

JEROME; Mystically; The Lord draws near to Jerusalem departing from Jericho, and taking great multitudes with Him, because great and laden with great wares, that is, the salvation of believers that has been entrusted to Him, He seeks to enter the city of peace, the place of the beholding of God. And He comes to Bethphage, that is, to The house of the jawbones; He bare also the type of confession; and halted on Mount Olivet, where is the light of knowledge, and the repose from toils and pains. By the village over against the Apostles is denoted this world; for that was against the Apostles, and was not willing to receive the light of their teaching.

REMIG; The Lord therefore sent His disciples from mount Olivet to the village, when He guided the preachers forth from the primitive Church into the world. He sent two, because there were two orders of preachers, as the Apostle shows, saying, He that wrought in Peter to the Apostleship of circumcision, the same was mighty in me towards the Gentiles; or, because the precepts of charity are two; or, because there are two testaments; or, because there is letter and spirit.

JEROME; Or, because there is theory and practice, that is, knowledge and works. By the ass which had been under the yoke, and was broken, the synagogue is understood. By the ass's colt wild and unbroken, the Gentile people; for the Jewish nation is towards God the mother of the Gentiles.

RABAN; Whence Matthew, who wrote his Gospel to the Jews, is the only one who mentions that the ass was brought to the Lord, to show that this same Hebrew nation, if it repent, need not despair of salvation.

PSEUDO-CHRYS; Men are likened to animals, from some resemblance they bear in their not recognizing the Son of God. And this animal is unclean, and beyond all other brutes incapable of reasoning, a stupid, helpless, ignoble drudge. Such were men before the coming of Christ, unclean with divers passions; unreasoning, that is, lacking the reason of the Word; stupid, in their disregard of God; weak in soul; ignoble, because forgetting their heavenly birth they became slaves of their passions, and of the demons; drudges, because they toiled under the load of error laid upon them by the demons, or the Pharisees. The ass was tied, that is, bound in the chain of diabolic error, so that it had not liberty to go whither it would; for before we do any sin we have free will to follow, or not, the will of the Devil; but if once by sinning we have bound ourselves to do his works, we are no longer able to escape by our own strength, but, like a vessel that has lost its rudder is tossed at the mercy of the storm, so man, when by sin he has forfeited the aid of Divine grace, no longer acts as he wills, but as the Devil wills. And if God, by the mighty arm of His mercy, do not loose him, he will abide till death in the chain of his sins. Therefore He said to His disciples, Loose them, that is, by your teaching and miracles, for all the Jews and Gentiles were loosed by the Apostles; and bring them to me, that is, convert them to My glory.

ORIGEN; Whence also, when He ascended into heaven, He gave command to His disciples that they should loose sinners, for which also He gave them the Holy Spirit. But being loosed, and making progress, and being nourished by the Divinity of the Word, they are held worthy to be sent back to the place whence they were taken, but no more to their former labors, but to preach to them the Son of God, and this is what He signifies when He says, And straightway He will send them.

HILARY; Or by the ass and the colt is shown the twofold calling from among the Gentiles. For the Samaritans did serve after a certain fashion of obedience, and they are signified by the ass; but the other Gentiles wild and unbroken are signified by the colt. Therefore two are sent to loose them that are bound by the chains of error; Samaria believed through Philip, and Cornelius as the first-fruits of the Gentiles was brought by Peter to Christ.

REMIG; But as it was then said to the Apostles, If any man say ought to you, say you, The Lord has need of them; so now it is commanded to the preachers, that though any opposition be made to them, they should not slack to preach.

JEROME; The Apostles' clothes which are laid upon the beasts may be understood either as the teaching of virtues, or discernment of Scriptures, or verities of ecclesiastical dogmas, with which, unless the soul be furnished and instructed, it deserves not to have the Lord take His seat there.

REMIG; The Lord sitting upon the ass goes towards Jerusalem, because presiding over the Holy Church, or the faithful soul, He both guides it in this life, and after this life leads it to the view of the heavenly country. But the Apostles and other teachers set their garments upon the ass, when they gave to the Gentiles the glory which they had received from Christ. The multitudes spread their garments in the way, when they of the circumcision who believed, despised the glory which they had by the Law. They cut down branches from the trees, because out of the Prophets they had heard of the green Branch as an emblem of Christ. Or, the multitudes who spread their garments in the way, are the martyrs who gave to martyrdom for Christ their bodies, which are the clothing of their minds. Or, they are signified, who subdue their bodies by abstinence. They who cut down the branches of the trees, are they who seek out the sayings and examples of the holy fathers for their own or their children's salvation.

JEROME; When He says, The multitudes that went before and that followed, He shows that both people, those who before the Gospel, and those who after the Gospel, believed in the Lord, praise Jesus with the harmonious voice of confession.

PSEUDO-CHRYS; Those prophesying spoke of Christ who was to come; these speak in praise of the coming of Christ already fulfilled.

10. And when he was come into Jerusalem, all the city was moved, saying, Who is this?
11. And the multitude said, This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee.

JEROME; When Jesus entered with the multitudes, the whole city of Jerusalem was moved, wondering at the crowds, and not knowing the power.

PSEUDO-CHRYS; With good reason were they moved at sight of a thing so to be wondered at. Man was praised as God, but it was the God that was praised in the man. But, I suppose, that neither they who praised knew what they praised, but the Spirit that suddenly inspired them poured forth the words of truth.

ORIGEN; Moreover, when Jesus entered the true Jerusalem, they cried out, wondering at His heavenly virtues, and said, Who is this King of glory?

JEROME; While others were in doubt or inquiring, the worthless multitude confessed Him; But the people said, This is Jesus the Prophet from Nazareth in Galilee. They begin with the lesser that they may come to the greater. They hail Him as that Prophet whom Moses had said should come like to himself, which is rightly written in Greek with the testimony of the article, From Nazareth of Galilee, for there He had been brought up, that the flower of the field might be nourished with the flower of all excellencies.

RABAN; But it is to be noted, that this entry of His into Jerusalem was five days before the passover. For John relates, that six days before the Passover He came to Bethany, and on the morrow sitting on the ass entered Jerusalem. In this observe the correspondence between the Old and New Testaments, not only in things but in seasons. For on the tenth day of the first month, the lamb that was to be sacrificed for the passover was to be taken into the house, because on the same day of the same month, that is, five days before the passover, the Lord was to enter the city in which He was to suffer.

Catena Aurea Matthew 21
39 posted on 04/13/2014 10:18:24 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex


Entry of Christ into Jerusalem

Master of San Baudelio de Berlanga

ca. 1125
fresco mounted on canvas
70 3/4 x 121 in
Indianapolis Museum of Art

40 posted on 04/13/2014 10:20:41 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: Salvation
Matthew
  English: Douay-Rheims Latin: Vulgata Clementina Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
  Matthew 26
14 Then went one of the twelve, who was called Judas Iscariot, to the chief priests, Tunc abiit unus de duodecim, qui dicebatur Judas Iscariotes, ad principes sacerdotum : τοτε πορευθεις εις των δωδεκα ο λεγομενος ιουδας ισκαριωτης προς τους αρχιερεις
15 And said to them: What will you give me, and I will deliver him unto you? But they appointed him thirty pieces of silver. et ait illis : Quid vultis mihi dare, et ego vobis eum tradam ? At illi constituerunt ei triginta argenteos. ειπεν τι θελετε μοι δουναι καγω υμιν παραδωσω αυτον οι δε εστησαν αυτω τριακοντα αργυρια
16 And from thenceforth he sought opportunity to betray him. Et exinde quærebat opportunitatem ut eum traderet. και απο τοτε εζητει ευκαιριαν ινα αυτον παραδω
17 And on the first day of the Azymes, the disciples came to Jesus, saying: Where wilt thou that we prepare for thee to eat the pasch? Prima autem die azymorum accesserunt discipuli ad Jesum, dicentes : Ubi vis paremus tibi comedere Pascha ? τη δε πρωτη των αζυμων προσηλθον οι μαθηται τω ιησου λεγοντες αυτω που θελεις ετοιμασομεν σοι φαγειν το πασχα
18 But Jesus said: Go ye into the city to a certain man, and say to him: the master saith, My time is near at hand, with thee I make the pasch with my disciples. At Jesus dixit : Ite in civitatem ad quemdam, et dicite ei : Magister dicit : Tempus meum prope est, apud te facio Pascha cum discipulis meis. ο δε ειπεν υπαγετε εις την πολιν προς τον δεινα και ειπατε αυτω ο διδασκαλος λεγει ο καιρος μου εγγυς εστιν προς σε ποιω το πασχα μετα των μαθητων μου
19 And the disciples did as Jesus appointed to them, and they prepared the pasch. Et fecerunt discipuli sicut constituit illis Jesus, et paraverunt Pascha. και εποιησαν οι μαθηται ως συνεταξεν αυτοις ο ιησους και ητοιμασαν το πασχα
20 But when it was evening, he sat down with his twelve disciples. Vespere autem facto, discumbebat cum duodecim discipulis suis. οψιας δε γενομενης ανεκειτο μετα των δωδεκα
21 And whilst they were eating, he said: Amen I say to you, that one of you is about to betray me. Et edentibus illis, dixit : Amen dico vobis, quia unus vestrum me traditurus est. και εσθιοντων αυτων ειπεν αμην λεγω υμιν οτι εις εξ υμων παραδωσει με
22 And they being very much troubled, began every one to say: Is it I, Lord? Et contristati valde, cœperunt singuli dicere : Numquid ego sum Domine ? και λυπουμενοι σφοδρα ηρξαντο λεγειν αυτω εκαστος αυτων μητι εγω ειμι κυριε
23 But he answering, said: He that dippeth his hand with me in the dish, he shall betray me. At ipse respondens, ait : Qui intingit mecum manum in paropside, hic me tradet. ο δε αποκριθεις ειπεν ο εμβαψας μετ εμου εν τω τρυβλιω την χειρα ουτος με παραδωσει
24 The Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of him: but woe to that man by whom the Son of man shall be betrayed: it were better for him, if that man had not been born. Filius quidem hominis vadit, sicut scriptum est de illo : væ autem homini illi, per quem Filius hominis tradetur ! bonum erat ei, si natus non fuisset homo ille. ο μεν υιος του ανθρωπου υπαγει καθως γεγραπται περι αυτου ουαι δε τω ανθρωπω εκεινω δι ου ο υιος του ανθρωπου παραδιδοται καλον ην αυτω ει ουκ εγεννηθη ο ανθρωπος εκεινος
25 And Judas that betrayed him, answering, said: Is it I, Rabbi? He saith to him: Thou hast said it. Respondens autem Judas, qui tradidit eum, dixit : Numquid ego sum Rabbi ? Ait illi : Tu dixisti. αποκριθεις δε ιουδας ο παραδιδους αυτον ειπεν μητι εγω ειμι ραββι λεγει αυτω συ ειπας
26 And whilst they were at supper, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and broke: and gave to his disciples, and said: Take ye, and eat. This is my body. Cœnantibus autem eis, accepit Jesus panem, et benedixit, ac fregit, deditque discipulis suis, et ait : Accipite, et comedite : hoc est corpus meum. εσθιοντων δε αυτων λαβων ο ιησους τον αρτον και ευχαριστησας εκλασεν και εδιδου τοις μαθηταις και ειπεν λαβετε φαγετε τουτο εστιν το σωμα μου
27 And taking the chalice, he gave thanks, and gave to them, saying: Drink ye all of this. Et accipiens calicem, gratias egit : et dedit illis, dicens : Bibite ex hoc omnes. και λαβων το ποτηριον και ευχαριστησας εδωκεν αυτοις λεγων πιετε εξ αυτου παντες
28 For this is my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins. Hic est enim sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum. τουτο γαρ εστιν το αιμα μου το της καινης διαθηκης το περι πολλων εκχυνομενον εις αφεσιν αμαρτιων
29 And I say to you, I will not drink from henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I shall drink it with you new in the kingdom of my Father. Dico autem vobis : non bibam amodo de hoc genimine vitis usque in diem illum, cum illud bibam vobiscum novum in regno Patris mei. λεγω δε υμιν οτι ου μη πιω απ αρτι εκ τουτου του γεννηματος της αμπελου εως της ημερας εκεινης οταν αυτο πινω μεθ υμων καινον εν τη βασιλεια του πατρος μου
30 And a hymn being said, they went out unto mount Olivet. Et hymno dicto, exierunt in montem Oliveti. και υμνησαντες εξηλθον εις το ορος των ελαιων
31 Then Jesus said to them: All you shall be scandalized in me this night. For it is written: I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be dispersed. Tunc dicit illis Jesus : Omnes vos scandalum patiemini in me in ista nocte. Scriptum est enim : Percutiam pastorem, et dispergentur oves gregis. τοτε λεγει αυτοις ο ιησους παντες υμεις σκανδαλισθησεσθε εν εμοι εν τη νυκτι ταυτη γεγραπται γαρ παταξω τον ποιμενα και διασκορπισθησεται τα προβατα της ποιμνης
32 But after I shall be risen again, I will go before you into Galilee. Postquam autem resurrexero, præcedam vos in Galilæam. μετα δε το εγερθηναι με προαξω υμας εις την γαλιλαιαν
33 And Peter answering, said to him: Although all shall be scandalized in thee, I will never be scandalized. Respondens autem Petrus, ait illi : Et si omnes scandalizati fuerint in te, ego numquam scandalizabor. αποκριθεις δε ο πετρος ειπεν αυτω ει παντες σκανδαλισθησονται εν σοι εγω [δε] ουδεποτε σκανδαλισθησομαι
34 Jesus said to him: Amen I say to thee, that in this night before the cock crow, thou wilt deny me thrice. Ait illi Jesus : Amen dico tibi, quia in hac nocte, antequam gallus cantet, ter me negabis. εφη αυτω ο ιησους αμην λεγω σοι οτι εν ταυτη τη νυκτι πριν αλεκτορα φωνησαι τρις απαρνηση με
35 Peter saith to him: Yea, though I should die with thee, I will not deny thee. And in like manner said all the disciples. Ait illi Petrus : Etiamsi oportuerit me mori tecum, non te negabo. Similiter et omnes discipuli dixerunt. λεγει αυτω ο πετρος καν δεη με συν σοι αποθανειν ου μη σε απαρνησωμαι ομοιως δε και παντες οι μαθηται ειπον
36 Then Jesus came with them into a country place which is called Gethsemani; and he said to his disciples: Sit you here, till I go yonder and pray. Tunc venit Jesus cum illis in villam, quæ dicitur Gethsemani, et dixit discipulis suis : Sedete hic donec vadam illuc, et orem. τοτε ερχεται μετ αυτων ο ιησους εις χωριον λεγομενον γεθσημανη και λεγει τοις μαθηταις καθισατε αυτου εως ου απελθων προσευξωμαι εκει
37 And taking with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, he began to grow sorrowful and to be sad. Et assumpto Petro, et duobus filiis Zebedæi, cœpit contristari et mœstus esse. και παραλαβων τον πετρον και τους δυο υιους ζεβεδαιου ηρξατο λυπεισθαι και αδημονειν
38 Then he saith to them: My soul is sorrowful even unto death: stay you here, and watch with me. Tunc ait illis : Tristis est anima mea usque ad mortem : sustinete hic, et vigilate mecum. τοτε λεγει αυτοις ο ιησους περιλυπος εστιν η ψυχη μου εως θανατου μεινατε ωδε και γρηγορειτε μετ εμου
39 And going a little further, he fell upon his face, praying, and saying: My Father, if it be possible, let this chalice pass from me. Nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt. Et progressus pusillum, procidit in faciem suam, orans, et dicens : Pater mi, si possibile est, transeat a me calix iste : verumtamen non sicut ego volo, sed sicut tu. και προσελθων μικρον επεσεν επι προσωπον αυτου προσευχομενος και λεγων πατερ μου ει δυνατον εστιν παρελθετω απ εμου το ποτηριον τουτο πλην ουχ ως εγω θελω αλλ ως συ
40 And he cometh to his disciples, and findeth them asleep, and he saith to Peter: What? Could you not watch one hour with me? Et venit ad discipulos suos, et invenit eos dormientes, et dicit Petro : Sic non potuistis una hora vigilare mecum ? και ερχεται προς τους μαθητας και ευρισκει αυτους καθευδοντας και λεγει τω πετρω ουτως ουκ ισχυσατε μιαν ωραν γρηγορησαι μετ εμου
41 Watch ye, and pray that ye enter not into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh weak. Vigilate, et orate ut non intretis in tentationem. Spiritus quidem promptus est, caro autem infirma. γρηγορειτε και προσευχεσθε ινα μη εισελθητε εις πειρασμον το μεν πνευμα προθυμον η δε σαρξ ασθενης
42 Again the second time, he went and prayed, saying: My Father, if this chalice may not pass away, but I must drink it, thy will be done. Iterum secundo abiit, et oravit, dicens : Pater mi, si non potest hic calix transire nisi bibam illum, fiat voluntas tua. παλιν εκ δευτερου απελθων προσηυξατο λεγων πατερ μου ει ου δυναται τουτο το ποτηριον παρελθειν απ εμου εαν μη αυτο πιω γενηθητω το θελημα σου
43 And he cometh again and findeth them sleeping: for their eyes were heavy. Et venit iterum, et invenit eos dormientes : erant enim oculi eorum gravati. και ελθων ευρισκει αυτους παλιν καθευδοντας ησαν γαρ αυτων οι οφθαλμοι βεβαρημενοι
44 And leaving them, he went again: and he prayed the third time, saying the selfsame word. Et relictis illis, iterum abiit, et oravit tertio, eumdem sermonem dicens. και αφεις αυτους απελθων παλιν προσηυξατο εκ τριτου τον αυτον λογον ειπων
45 Then he cometh to his disciples, and saith to them: Sleep ye now and take your rest; behold the hour is at hand, and the Son of man shall be betrayed into the hands of sinners. Tunc venit ad discipulos suos, et dicit illis : Dormite jam, et requiescite : ecce appropinquavit hora, et Filius hominis tradetur in manus peccatorum. τοτε ερχεται προς τους μαθητας αυτου και λεγει αυτοις καθευδετε το λοιπον και αναπαυεσθε ιδου ηγγικεν η ωρα και ο υιος του ανθρωπου παραδιδοται εις χειρας αμαρτωλων
46 Rise, let us go: behold he is at hand that will betray me. Surgite, eamus : ecce appropinquavit qui me tradet. εγειρεσθε αγωμεν ιδου ηγγικεν ο παραδιδους με
47 As he yet spoke, behold Judas, one of the twelve, came, and with him a great multitude with swords and clubs, sent from the chief priests and the ancients of the people. Adhuc eo loquente, ecce Judas unus de duodecim venit, et cum eo turba multa cum gladiis et fustibus, missi a principibus sacerdotum, et senioribus populi. και ετι αυτου λαλουντος ιδου ιουδας εις των δωδεκα ηλθεν και μετ αυτου οχλος πολυς μετα μαχαιρων και ξυλων απο των αρχιερεων και πρεσβυτερων του λαου
48 And he that betrayed him, gave them a sign, saying: Whomsoever I shall kiss, that is he, hold him fast. Qui autem tradidit eum, dedit illis signum, dicens : Quemcumque osculatus fuero, ipse est, tenete eum. ο δε παραδιδους αυτον εδωκεν αυτοις σημειον λεγων ον αν φιλησω αυτος εστιν κρατησατε αυτον
49 And forthwith coming to Jesus, he said: Hail, Rabbi. And he kissed him. Et confestim accedens ad Jesum, dixit : Ave Rabbi. Et osculatus est eum. και ευθεως προσελθων τω ιησου ειπεν χαιρε ραββι και κατεφιλησεν αυτον
50 And Jesus said to him: Friend, whereto art thou come? Then they came up, and laid hands on Jesus, and held him. Dixitque illi Jesus : Amice, ad quid venisti ? Tunc accesserunt, et manus injecerunt in Jesum, et tenuerunt eum. ο δε ιησους ειπεν αυτω εταιρε εφ ω παρει τοτε προσελθοντες επεβαλον τας χειρας επι τον ιησουν και εκρατησαν αυτον
51 And behold one of them that were with Jesus, stretching forth his hand, drew out his sword: and striking the servant of the high priest, cut off his ear. Et ecce unus ex his qui erant cum Jesu, extendens manum, exemit gladium suum, et percutiens servum principis sacerdotum amputavit auriculam ejus. και ιδου εις των μετα ιησου εκτεινας την χειρα απεσπασεν την μαχαιραν αυτου και παταξας τον δουλον του αρχιερεως αφειλεν αυτου το ωτιον
52 Then Jesus saith to him: Put up again thy sword into its place: for all that take the sword shall perish with the sword. Tunc ait illi Jesus : Converte gladium tuum in locum suum : omnes enim, qui acceperint gladium, gladio peribunt. τοτε λεγει αυτω ο ιησους αποστρεψον σου την μαχαιραν εις τον τοπον αυτης παντες γαρ οι λαβοντες μαχαιραν εν μαχαιρα αποθανουνται
53 Thinkest thou that I cannot ask my Father, and he will give me presently more than twelve legions of angels? An putas, quia non possum rogare patrem meum, et exhibebit mihi modo plusquam duodecim legiones angelorum ? η δοκεις οτι ου δυναμαι αρτι παρακαλεσαι τον πατερα μου και παραστησει μοι πλειους η δωδεκα λεγεωνας αγγελων
54 How then shall the scriptures be fulfilled, that so it must be done? Quomodo ergo implebuntur Scripturæ, quia sic oportet fieri ? πως ουν πληρωθωσιν αι γραφαι οτι ουτως δει γενεσθαι
55 In that same hour Jesus said to the multitudes: You are come out as it were to a robber with swords and clubs to apprehend me. I sat daily with you, teaching in the temple, and you laid not hands on me. In illa hora dixit Jesus turbis : Tamquam ad latronem existis cum gladiis et fustibus comprehendere me : quotidie apud vos sedebam docens in templo, et non me tenuistis. εν εκεινη τη ωρα ειπεν ο ιησους τοις οχλοις ως επι ληστην εξηλθετε μετα μαχαιρων και ξυλων συλλαβειν με καθ ημεραν προς υμας εκαθεζομην διδασκων εν τω ιερω και ουκ εκρατησατε με
56 Now all this was done, that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled. Then the disciples all leaving him, fled. Hoc autem totum factum est, ut adimplerentur Scripturæ prophetarum. Tunc discipuli omnes, relicto eo, fugerunt. τουτο δε ολον γεγονεν ινα πληρωθωσιν αι γραφαι των προφητων τοτε οι μαθηται παντες αφεντες αυτον εφυγον
57 But they holding Jesus led him to Caiphas the high priest, where the scribes and the ancients were assembled. At illi tenentes Jesum, duxerunt ad Caipham principem sacerdotum, ubi scribæ et seniores convenerant. οι δε κρατησαντες τον ιησουν απηγαγον προς καιαφαν τον αρχιερεα οπου οι γραμματεις και οι πρεσβυτεροι συνηχθησαν
58 And Peter followed him afar off, even to the court of the high priest. And going in, he sat with the servants, that he might see the end. Petrus autem sequebatur eum a longe, usque in atrium principis sacerdotum. Et ingressus intro, sedebat cum ministris, ut videret finem. ο δε πετρος ηκολουθει αυτω απο μακροθεν εως της αυλης του αρχιερεως και εισελθων εσω εκαθητο μετα των υπηρετων ιδειν το τελος
59 And the chief priests and the whole council sought false witness against Jesus, that they might put him to death: Principes autem sacerdotum, et omne concilium, quærebant falsum testimonium contra Jesum, ut eum morti traderent : οι δε αρχιερεις και οι πρεσβυτεροι και το συνεδριον ολον εζητουν ψευδομαρτυριαν κατα του ιησου οπως θανατωσωσιν αυτον
60 And they found not, whereas many false witnesses had come in. And last of all there came two false witnesses: et non invenerunt, cum multi falsi testes accessissent. Novissime autem venerunt duo falsi testes, και ουχ ευρον και πολλων ψευδομαρτυρων προσελθοντων ουχ ευρον
61 And they said: This man said, I am able to destroy the temple of God, and after three days to rebuild it. et dixerunt : Hic dixit : Possum destruere templum Dei, et post triduum reædificare illud. υστερον δε προσελθοντες δυο ψευδομαρτυρες ειπον ουτος εφη δυναμαι καταλυσαι τον ναον του θεου και δια τριων ημερων οικοδομησαι αυτον
62 And the high priest rising up, said to him: Answerest thou nothing to the things which these witness against thee? Et surgens princeps sacerdotum, ait illi : Nihil respondes ad ea, quæ isti adversum te testificantur ? και αναστας ο αρχιερευς ειπεν αυτω ουδεν αποκρινη τι ουτοι σου καταμαρτυρουσιν
63 But Jesus held his peace. And the high priest said to him: I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us if thou be the Christ the Son of God. Jesus autem tacebat. Et princeps sacerdotum ait illi : Adjuro te per Deum vivum, ut dicas nobis si tu es Christus Filius Dei. ο δε ιησους εσιωπα και αποκριθεις ο αρχιερευς ειπεν αυτω εξορκιζω σε κατα του θεου του ζωντος ινα ημιν ειπης ει συ ει ο χριστος ο υιος του θεου
64 Jesus saith to him: Thou hast said it. Nevertheless I say to you, hereafter you shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of the power of God, and coming in the clouds of heaven. Dicit illi Jesus : Tu dixisti. Verumtamen dico vobis, amodo videbitis Filium hominis sedentem a dextris virtutis Dei, et venientem in nubibus cæli. λεγει αυτω ο ιησους συ ειπας πλην λεγω υμιν απ αρτι οψεσθε τον υιον του ανθρωπου καθημενον εκ δεξιων της δυναμεως και ερχομενον επι των νεφελων του ουρανου
65 Then the high priests rent his garments, saying: He hath blasphemed; what further need have we of witnesses? Behold, now you have heard the blasphemy: Tunc princeps sacerdotum scidit vestimenta sua, dicens : Blasphemavit : quid adhuc egemus testibus ? ecce nunc audistis blasphemiam : τοτε ο αρχιερευς διερρηξεν τα ιματια αυτου λεγων οτι εβλασφημησεν τι ετι χρειαν εχομεν μαρτυρων ιδε νυν ηκουσατε την βλασφημιαν αυτου
66 What think you? But they answering, said: He is guilty of death. quid vobis videtur ? At illi respondentes dixerunt : Reus est mortis. τι υμιν δοκει οι δε αποκριθεντες ειπον ενοχος θανατου εστιν
67 Then did they spit in his face, and buffeted him: and others struck his face with the palms of their hands, Tunc exspuerunt in faciem ejus, et colaphis eum ceciderunt, alii autem palmas in faciem ejus dederunt, τοτε ενεπτυσαν εις το προσωπον αυτου και εκολαφισαν αυτον οι δε ερραπισαν
68 Saying: Prophesy unto us, O Christ, who is he that struck thee? dicentes : Prophetiza nobis Christe, quis est qui te percussit ? λεγοντες προφητευσον ημιν χριστε τις εστιν ο παισας σε
69 But Peter sat without in the court: and there came to him a servant maid, saying: Thou also wast with Jesus the Galilean. Petrus vero sedebat foris in atrio : et accessit ad eum una ancilla, dicens : Et tu cum Jesu Galilæo eras. ο δε πετρος εξω εκαθητο εν τη αυλη και προσηλθεν αυτω μια παιδισκη λεγουσα και συ ησθα μετα ιησου του γαλιλαιου
70 But he denied before them all, saying: I know not what thou sayest. At ille negavit coram omnibus, dicens : Nescio quid dicis. ο δε ηρνησατο εμπροσθεν αυτων παντων λεγων ουκ οιδα τι λεγεις
71 And as he went out of the gate, another maid saw him, and she saith to them that were there: This man also was with Jesus of Nazareth. Exeunte autem illo januam, vidit eum alia ancilla, et ait his qui erant ibi : Et hic erat cum Jesu Nazareno. εξελθοντα δε αυτον εις τον πυλωνα ειδεν αυτον αλλη και λεγει αυτοις εκει και ουτος ην μετα ιησου του ναζωραιου
72 And again he denied with an oath, I know not the man. Et iterum negavit cum juramento : Quia non novi hominem. και παλιν ηρνησατο μεθ ορκου οτι ουκ οιδα τον ανθρωπον
73 And after a little while they came that stood by, and said to Peter: Surely thou also art one of them; for even thy speech doth discover thee. Et post pusillum accesserunt qui stabant, et dixerunt Petro : Vere et tu ex illis es : nam et loquela tua manifestum te facit. μετα μικρον δε προσελθοντες οι εστωτες ειπον τω πετρω αληθως και συ εξ αυτων ει και γαρ η λαλια σου δηλον σε ποιει
74 Then he began to curse and to swear that he knew not the man. And immediately the cock crew. Tunc cœpit detestari et jurare quia non novisset hominem. Et continuo gallus cantavit. τοτε ηρξατο καταθεματιζειν και ομνυειν οτι ουκ οιδα τον ανθρωπον και ευθεως αλεκτωρ εφωνησεν
75 And Peter remembered the word of Jesus which he had said: Before the cock crow, thou wilt deny me thrice. And going forth, he wept bitterly. Et recordatus est Petrus verbi Jesu, quod dixerat : Priusquam gallus cantet, ter me negabis. Et egressus foras, flevit amare. και εμνησθη ο πετρος του ρηματος του ιησου ειρηκοτος αυτω οτι πριν αλεκτορα φωνησαι τρις απαρνηση με και εξελθων εξω εκλαυσεν πικρως
  Matthew 27
1 AND when morning was come, all the chief priests and ancients of the people took counsel against Jesus, that they might put him to death. Mane autem facto, consilium inierunt omnes principes sacerdotum et seniores populi adversus Jesum, ut eum morti traderent. πρωιας δε γενομενης συμβουλιον ελαβον παντες οι αρχιερεις και οι πρεσβυτεροι του λαου κατα του ιησου ωστε θανατωσαι αυτον
2 And they brought him bound, and delivered him to Pontius Pilate the governor. Et vinctum adduxerunt eum, et tradiderunt Pontio Pilato præsidi. και δησαντες αυτον απηγαγον και παρεδωκαν αυτον ποντιω πιλατω τω ηγεμονι
3 Then Judas, who betrayed him, seeing that he was condemned, repenting himself, brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and ancients, Tunc videns Judas, qui eum tradidit, quod damnatus esset, pœnitentia ductus, retulit triginta argenteos principibus sacerdotum, et senioribus, τοτε ιδων ιουδας ο παραδιδους αυτον οτι κατεκριθη μεταμεληθεις απεστρεψεν τα τριακοντα αργυρια τοις αρχιερευσιν και τοις πρεσβυτεροις
4 Saying: I have sinned in betraying innocent blood. But they said: What is that to us? look thou to it. dicens : Peccavi, tradens sanguinem justum. At illi dixerunt : Quid ad nos ? tu videris. λεγων ημαρτον παραδους αιμα αθωον οι δε ειπον τι προς ημας συ οψει
5 And casting down the pieces of silver in the temple, he departed: and went and hanged himself with an halter. Et projectis argenteis in templo, recessit : et abiens laqueo se suspendit. και ριψας τα αργυρια εν τω ναω ανεχωρησεν και απελθων απηγξατο
6 But the chief priests having taken the pieces of silver, said: It is not lawful to put them into the corbona, because it is the price of blood. Principes autem sacerdotum, acceptis argenteis, dixerunt : Non licet eos mittere in corbonam : quia pretium sanguinis est. οι δε αρχιερεις λαβοντες τα αργυρια ειπον ουκ εξεστιν βαλειν αυτα εις τον κορβαναν επει τιμη αιματος εστιν
7 And after they had consulted together, they bought with them the potter's field, to be a burying place for strangers. Consilio autem inito, emerunt ex illis agrum figuli, in sepulturam peregrinorum. συμβουλιον δε λαβοντες ηγορασαν εξ αυτων τον αγρον του κεραμεως εις ταφην τοις ξενοις
8 For this cause the field was called Haceldama, that is, The field of blood, even to this day. Propter hoc vocatus est ager ille, Haceldama, hoc est, Ager sanguinis, usque in hodiernum diem. διο εκληθη ο αγρος εκεινος αγρος αιματος εως της σημερον
9 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremias the prophet, saying: And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was prized, whom they prized of the children of Israel. Tunc impletum est quod dictum est per Jeremiam prophetam, dicentem : Et acceperunt triginta argenteos pretium appretiati, quem appretiaverunt a filiis Israël : τοτε επληρωθη το ρηθεν δια ιερεμιου του προφητου λεγοντος και ελαβον τα τριακοντα αργυρια την τιμην του τετιμημενου ον ετιμησαντο απο υιων ισραηλ
10 And they gave them unto the potter's field, as the Lord appointed to me. et dederunt eos in agrum figuli, sicut constituit mihi Dominus. και εδωκαν αυτα εις τον αγρον του κεραμεως καθα συνεταξεν μοι κυριος
11 And Jesus stood before the governor, and the governor asked him, saying: Art thou the king of the Jews? Jesus saith to him: Thou sayest it. Jesus autem stetit ante præsidem, et interrogavit eum præses, dicens : Tu es rex Judæorum ? Dicit illi Jesus : Tu dicis. ο δε ιησους εστη εμπροσθεν του ηγεμονος και επηρωτησεν αυτον ο ηγεμων λεγων συ ει ο βασιλευς των ιουδαιων ο δε ιησους εφη αυτω συ λεγεις
12 And when he was accused by the chief priests and ancients, he answered nothing. Et cum accusaretur a principibus sacerdotum et senioribus, nihil respondit. και εν τω κατηγορεισθαι αυτον υπο των αρχιερεων και των πρεσβυτερων ουδεν απεκρινατο
13 Then Pilate saith to him: Dost not thou hear how great testimonies they allege against thee? Tunc dicit illi Pilatus : Non audis quanta adversum te dicunt testimonia ? τοτε λεγει αυτω ο πιλατος ουκ ακουεις ποσα σου καταμαρτυρουσιν
14 And he answered him to never a word; so that the governor wondered exceedingly. Et non respondit ei ad ullum verbum, ita ut miraretur præses vehementer. και ουκ απεκριθη αυτω προς ουδε εν ρημα ωστε θαυμαζειν τον ηγεμονα λιαν
15 Now upon the solemn day the governor was accustomed to release to the people one prisoner, whom they would. Per diem autem solemnem consueverat præses populi dimittere unum vinctum, quem voluissent : κατα δε εορτην ειωθει ο ηγεμων απολυειν ενα τω οχλω δεσμιον ον ηθελον
16 And he had then a notorious prisoner, that was called Barabbas. habebat autem tunc vinctum insignem, qui dicebatur Barrabas. ειχον δε τοτε δεσμιον επισημον λεγομενον βαραββαν
17 They therefore being gathered together, Pilate said: Whom will you that I release to you, Barabbas, or Jesus that is called Christ? Congregatis ergo illis, dixit Pilatus : Quem vultis dimittam vobis : Barabbam, an Jesum, qui dicitur Christus ? συνηγμενων ουν αυτων ειπεν αυτοις ο πιλατος τινα θελετε απολυσω υμιν βαραββαν η ιησουν τον λεγομενον χριστον
18 For he knew that for envy they had delivered him. Sciebat enim quod per invidiam tradidissent eum. ηδει γαρ οτι δια φθονον παρεδωκαν αυτον
19 And as he was sitting in the place of judgment, his wife sent to him, saying: Have thou nothing to do with that just man; for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him. Sedente autem illo pro tribunali, misit ad eum uxor ejus, dicens : Nihil tibi, et justo illi : multa enim passa sum hodie per visum propter eum. καθημενου δε αυτου επι του βηματος απεστειλεν προς αυτον η γυνη αυτου λεγουσα μηδεν σοι και τω δικαιω εκεινω πολλα γαρ επαθον σημερον κατ οναρ δι αυτον
20 But the chief priests and ancients persuaded the people, that they should ask Barabbas, and make Jesus away. Principes autem sacerdotum et seniores persuaserunt populis ut peterent Barabbam, Jesum vero perderent. οι δε αρχιερεις και οι πρεσβυτεροι επεισαν τους οχλους ινα αιτησωνται τον βαραββαν τον δε ιησουν απολεσωσιν
21 And the governor answering, said to them: Whether will you of the two to be released unto you? But they said, Barabbas. Respondens autem præses, ait illis : Quem vultis vobis de duobus dimitti ? At illi dixerunt : Barabbam. αποκριθεις δε ο ηγεμων ειπεν αυτοις τινα θελετε απο των δυο απολυσω υμιν οι δε ειπον βαραββαν
22 Pilate saith to them: What shall I do then with Jesus that is called Christ? They say all: Let him be crucified. Dicit illis Pilatus : Quid igitur faciam de Jesu, qui dicitur Christus ? λεγει αυτοις ο πιλατος τι ουν ποιησω ιησουν τον λεγομενον χριστον λεγουσιν αυτω παντες σταυρωθητω
23 The governor said to them: Why, what evil hath he done? But they cried out the more, saying: Let him be crucified. Dicunt omnes : Crucifigatur. Ait illis præses : Quid enim mali fecit ? At illi magis clamabant dicentes : Crucifigatur. ο δε ηγεμων εφη τι γαρ κακον εποιησεν οι δε περισσως εκραζον λεγοντες σταυρωθητω
24 And Pilate seeing that he prevailed nothing, but that rather a tumult was made; taking water washed his hands before the people, saying: I am innocent of the blood of this just man; look you to it. Videns autem Pilatus quia nihil proficeret, sed magis tumultus fieret : accepta aqua, lavit manus coram populo, dicens : Innocens ego sum a sanguine justi hujus : vos videritis. ιδων δε ο πιλατος οτι ουδεν ωφελει αλλα μαλλον θορυβος γινεται λαβων υδωρ απενιψατο τας χειρας απεναντι του οχλου λεγων αθωος ειμι απο του αιματος του δικαιου τουτου υμεις οψεσθε
25 And the whole people answering, said: His blood be upon us and our children. Et respondens universus populus, dixit : Sanguis ejus super nos, et super filios nostros. και αποκριθεις πας ο λαος ειπεν το αιμα αυτου εφ ημας και επι τα τεκνα ημων
26 Then he released to them Barabbas, and having scourged Jesus, delivered him unto them to be crucified. Tunc dimisit illis Barabbam : Jesum autem flagellatum tradidit eis ut crucifigeretur. τοτε απελυσεν αυτοις τον βαραββαν τον δε ιησουν φραγελλωσας παρεδωκεν ινα σταυρωθη
27 Then the soldiers of the governor taking Jesus into the hall, gathered together unto him the whole band; Tunc milites præsidis suscipientes Jesum in prætorium, congregaverunt ad eum universam cohortem : τοτε οι στρατιωται του ηγεμονος παραλαβοντες τον ιησουν εις το πραιτωριον συνηγαγον επ αυτον ολην την σπειραν
28 And stripping him, they put a scarlet cloak about him. et exeuntes eum, chlamydem coccineam circumdederunt ei, και εκδυσαντες αυτον περιεθηκαν αυτω χλαμυδα κοκκινην
29 And platting a crown of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand. And bowing the knee before him, they mocked him, saying: Hail, king of the Jews. et plectentes coronam de spinis, posuerunt super caput ejus, et arundinem in dextera ejus. Et genu flexo ante eum, illudebant ei, dicentes : Ave rex Judæorum. και πλεξαντες στεφανον εξ ακανθων επεθηκαν επι την κεφαλην αυτου και καλαμον επι την δεξιαν αυτου και γονυπετησαντες εμπροσθεν αυτου ενεπαιζον αυτω λεγοντες χαιρε ο βασιλευς των ιουδαιων
30 And spitting upon him, they took the reed, and struck his head. Et exspuentes in eum, acceperunt arundinem, et percutiebant caput ejus. και εμπτυσαντες εις αυτον ελαβον τον καλαμον και ετυπτον εις την κεφαλην αυτου
31 And after they had mocked him, they took off the cloak from him, and put on him his own garments, and led him away to crucify him. Et postquam illuserunt ei, exuerunt eum chlamyde, et induerunt eum vestimentis ejus, et duxerunt eum ut crucifigerent. και οτε ενεπαιξαν αυτω εξεδυσαν αυτον την χλαμυδα και ενεδυσαν αυτον τα ιματια αυτου και απηγαγον αυτον εις το σταυρωσαι
32 And going out, they found a man of Cyrene, named Simon: him they forced to take up his cross. Exeuntes autem invenerunt hominem Cyrenæum, nomine Simonem : hunc angariaverunt ut tolleret crucem ejus. εξερχομενοι δε ευρον ανθρωπον κυρηναιον ονοματι σιμωνα τουτον ηγγαρευσαν ινα αρη τον σταυρον αυτου
33 And they came to the place that is called Golgotha, which is the place of Calvary. Et venerunt in locum qui dicitur Golgotha, quod est Calvariæ locus. και ελθοντες εις τοπον λεγομενον γολγοθα ο εστιν λεγομενος κρανιου τοπος
34 And they gave him wine to drink mingled with gall. And when he had tasted, he would not drink. Et dederunt ei vinum bibere cum felle mistum. Et cum gustasset, noluit bibere. εδωκαν αυτω πιειν οξος μετα χολης μεμιγμενον και γευσαμενος ουκ ηθελεν πιειν
35 And after they had crucified him, they divided his garments, casting lots; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying: They divided my garments among them; and upon my vesture they cast lots. Postquam autem crucifixerunt eum, diviserunt vestimenta ejus, sortem mittentes : ut impleretur quod dictum est per prophetam dicentem : Diviserunt sibi vestimenta mea, et super vestem meam miserunt sortem. σταυρωσαντες δε αυτον διεμερισαντο τα ιματια αυτου βαλλοντες κληρον
36 And they sat and watched him. Et sedentes servabant eum. και καθημενοι ετηρουν αυτον εκει
37 And they put over his head his cause written: THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS. Et imposuerunt super caput ejus causam ipsius scriptam : Hic est Jesus rex Judæorum. και επεθηκαν επανω της κεφαλης αυτου την αιτιαν αυτου γεγραμμενην ουτος εστιν ιησους ο βασιλευς των ιουδαιων
38 Then were crucified with him two thieves: one on the right hand, and one on the left. Tunc crucifixi sunt cum eo duo latrones : unus a dextris, et unus a sinistris. τοτε σταυρουνται συν αυτω δυο λησται εις εκ δεξιων και εις εξ ευωνυμων
39 And they that passed by, blasphemed him, wagging their heads, Prætereuntes autem blasphemabant eum moventes capita sua, οι δε παραπορευομενοι εβλασφημουν αυτον κινουντες τας κεφαλας αυτων
40 And saying: Vah, thou that destroyest the temple of God, and in three days dost rebuild it: save thy own self: if thou be the Son of God, come down from the cross. et dicentes : Vah qui destruis templum Dei, et in triduo illud reædificas : salva temetipsum : si Filius Dei es, descende de cruce. και λεγοντες ο καταλυων τον ναον και εν τρισιν ημεραις οικοδομων σωσον σεαυτον ει υιος ει του θεου καταβηθι απο του σταυρου
41 In like manner also the chief priests, with the scribes and ancients, mocking, said: Similiter et principes sacerdotum illudentes cum scribis et senioribus dicebant : ομοιως δε και οι αρχιερεις εμπαιζοντες μετα των γραμματεων και πρεσβυτερων και φαρισαιων ελεγον
42 He saved others; himself he cannot save. If he be the king of Israel, let him now come down from the cross, and we will believe him. Alios salvos fecit, seipsum non potest salvum facere : si rex Israël est, descendat nunc de cruce, et credimus ei : αλλους εσωσεν εαυτον ου δυναται σωσαι ει βασιλευς ισραηλ εστιν καταβατω νυν απο του σταυρου και πιστευσομεν επ αυτω
43 He trusted in God; let him now deliver him if he will have him; for he said: I am the Son of God. confidit in Deo : liberet nunc, si vult eum : dixit enim : Quia Filius Dei sum. πεποιθεν επι τον θεον ρυσασθω νυν αυτον ει θελει αυτον ειπεν γαρ οτι θεου ειμι υιος
44 And the selfsame thing the thieves also, that were crucified with him, reproached him with. Idipsum autem et latrones, qui crucifixi erant cum eo, improperabant ei. το δ αυτο και οι λησται οι συσταυρωθεντες αυτω ωνειδιζον αυτον
45 Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over the whole earth, until the ninth hour. A sexta autem hora tenebræ factæ sunt super universam terram usque ad horam nonam. απο δε εκτης ωρας σκοτος εγενετο επι πασαν την γην εως ωρας ενατης
46 And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying: Eli, Eli, lamma sabacthani? that is, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? Et circa horam nonam clamavit Jesus voce magna, dicens : Eli, Eli, lamma sabacthani ? hoc est : Deus meus, Deus meus, ut quid dereliquisti me ? περι δε την ενατην ωραν ανεβοησεν ο ιησους φωνη μεγαλη λεγων ηλι ηλι λιμα σαβαχθανι τουτ εστιν θεε μου θεε μου ινα τι με εγκατελιπες
47 And some that stood there and heard, said: This man calleth Elias. Quidam autem illic stantes, et audientes, dicebant : Eliam vocat iste. τινες δε των εκει εστωτων ακουσαντες ελεγον οτι ηλιαν φωνει ουτος
48 And immediately one of them running took a sponge, and filled it with vinegar; and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink. Et continuo currens unus ex eis, acceptam spongiam implevit aceto, et imposuit arundini, et dabat ei bibere. και ευθεως δραμων εις εξ αυτων και λαβων σπογγον πλησας τε οξους και περιθεις καλαμω εποτιζεν αυτον
49 And the others said: Let be, let us see whether Elias will come to deliver him. Ceteri vero dicebant : Sine, videamus an veniat Elias liberans eum. οι δε λοιποι ελεγον αφες ιδωμεν ει ερχεται ηλιας σωσων αυτον
50 And Jesus again crying with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost. Jesus autem iterum clamans voce magna, emisit spiritum. ο δε ιησους παλιν κραξας φωνη μεγαλη αφηκεν το πνευμα
51 And behold the veil of the temple was rent in two from the top even to the bottom, and the earth quaked, and the rocks were rent. Et ecce velum templi scissum est in duas partes a summo usque deorsum : et terra mota est, et petræ scissæ sunt, και ιδου το καταπετασμα του ναου εσχισθη εις δυο απο ανωθεν εως κατω και η γη εσεισθη και αι πετραι εσχισθησαν
52 And the graves were opened: and many bodies of the saints that had slept arose, et monumenta aperta sunt : et multa corpora sanctorum, qui dormierant, surrexerunt. και τα μνημεια ανεωχθησαν και πολλα σωματα των κεκοιμημενων αγιων ηγερθη
53 And coming out of the tombs after his resurrection, came into the holy city, and appeared to many. Et exeuntes de monumentis post resurrectionem ejus, venerunt in sanctam civitatem, et apparuerunt multis. και εξελθοντες εκ των μνημειων μετα την εγερσιν αυτου εισηλθον εις την αγιαν πολιν και ενεφανισθησαν πολλοις
54 Now the centurion and they that were with him watching Jesus, having seen the earthquake, and the things that were done, were sore afraid, saying: Indeed this was the Son of God. Centurio autem, et qui cum eo erant, custodientes Jesum, viso terræmotu, et his quæ fiebant, timuerunt valde, dicentes : Vere Filius Dei erat iste. ο δε εκατονταρχος και οι μετ αυτου τηρουντες τον ιησουν ιδοντες τον σεισμον και τα γενομενα εφοβηθησαν σφοδρα λεγοντες αληθως θεου υιος ην ουτος
55 And there were there many women afar off, who had followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering unto him: Erant autem ibi mulieres multæ a longe, quæ secutæ erant Jesum a Galilæa, ministrantes ei : ησαν δε εκει γυναικες πολλαι απο μακροθεν θεωρουσαι αιτινες ηκολουθησαν τω ιησου απο της γαλιλαιας διακονουσαι αυτω
56 Among whom was Mary Magdalen, and Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee. inter quas erat Maria Magdalene, et Maria Jacobi, et Joseph mater, et mater filiorum Zebedæi. εν αις ην μαρια η μαγδαληνη και μαρια η του ιακωβου και ιωση μητηρ και η μητηρ των υιων ζεβεδαιου
57 And when it was evening, there came a certain rich man of Arimathea, named Joseph, who also himself was a disciple of Jesus. Cum autem sero factum esset, venit quidam homo dives ab Arimathæa, nomine Joseph, qui et ipse discipulus erat Jesu : οψιας δε γενομενης ηλθεν ανθρωπος πλουσιος απο αριμαθαιας τουνομα ιωσηφ ος και αυτος εμαθητευσεν τω ιησου
58 He went to Pilate, and asked the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded that the body should be delivered. hic accessit ad Pilatum, et petiit corpus Jesu. Tunc Pilatus jussit reddi corpus. ουτος προσελθων τω πιλατω ητησατο το σωμα του ιησου τοτε ο πιλατος εκελευσεν αποδοθηναι το σωμα
59 And Joseph taking the body, wrapped it up in a clean linen cloth. Et accepto corpore, Joseph involvit illud in sindone munda, και λαβων το σωμα ο ιωσηφ ενετυλιξεν αυτο σινδονι καθαρα
60 And laid it in his own new monument, which he had hewed out in a rock. And he rolled a great stone to the door of the monument, and went his way. et posuit illud in monumento suo novo, quod exciderat in petra. Et advolvit saxum magnum ad ostium monumenti, et abiit. και εθηκεν αυτο εν τω καινω αυτου μνημειω ο ελατομησεν εν τη πετρα και προσκυλισας λιθον μεγαν τη θυρα του μνημειου απηλθεν
61 And there was there Mary Magdalen, and the other Mary sitting over against the sepulchre. Erant autem ibi Maria Magdalene, et altera Maria, sedentes contra sepulchrum. ην δε εκει μαρια η μαγδαληνη και η αλλη μαρια καθημεναι απεναντι του ταφου
62 And the next day, which followed the day of preparation, the chief priests and the Pharisees came together to Pilate, Altera autem die, quæ est post Parasceven, convenerunt principes sacerdotum et pharisæi ad Pilatum, τη δε επαυριον ητις εστιν μετα την παρασκευην συνηχθησαν οι αρχιερεις και οι φαρισαιοι προς πιλατον
63 Saying: Sir, we have remembered, that that seducer said, while he was yet alive: After three days I will rise again. dicentes : Domine, recordati sumus, quia seductor ille dixit adhuc vivens : Post tres dies resurgam. λεγοντες κυριε εμνησθημεν οτι εκεινος ο πλανος ειπεν ετι ζων μετα τρεις ημερας εγειρομαι
64 Command therefore the sepulchre to be guarded until the third day: lest perhaps his disciples come and steal him away, and say to the people: He is risen from the dead; and the last error shall be worse than the first. Jube ergo custodiri sepulchrum usque in diem tertium : ne forte veniant discipuli ejus, et furentur eum, et dicant plebi : Surrexit a mortuis : et erit novissimus error pejor priore. κελευσον ουν ασφαλισθηναι τον ταφον εως της τριτης ημερας μηποτε ελθοντες οι μαθηται αυτου νυκτος κλεψωσιν αυτον και ειπωσιν τω λαω ηγερθη απο των νεκρων και εσται η εσχατη πλανη χειρων της πρωτης
65 Pilate saith to them: You have a guard; go, guard it as you know. Ait illis Pilatus : Habetis custodiam, ite, custodite sicut scitis. εφη δε αυτοις ο πιλατος εχετε κουστωδιαν υπαγετε ασφαλισασθε ως οιδατε
66 And they departing, made the sepulchre sure, sealing the stone, and setting guards. Illi autem abeuntes, munierunt sepulchrum, signantes lapidem, cum custodibus. οι δε πορευθεντες ησφαλισαντο τον ταφον σφραγισαντες τον λιθον μετα της κουστωδιας

41 posted on 04/13/2014 10:30:09 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex
14. Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went to the Chief Priests,
15. And said to them, What will you give me, and I will deliver him to you? And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver.
16. And from that time he sought opportunity to betray him.

GLOSS. Having described the occasion of his treachery, the Evangelist proceeds to recount the manner of it.

CHRYS. Then, when, that is, he heard that this Gospel should be preached every where; for that made him afraid, as it was indeed a mark of unspeakable power.

AUG. The order of the narrative is this. The Lord says, You know that after two days will be the feast of the Passover;. . . then assembled together the Chief Priests and Scribes;. . . then went one of the twelve. Thus the narrative of what took place at Bethany is inserted by way of digression, respecting an earlier time between that, Lest there be an uproar, and, Then one of the twelve.

ORIGEN; Went, against that one high priest, who was made a Priest for ever, to many high priests, to sell for a price Him who sought to redeem the whole world.

RABAN. Went, he says, because he was neither compelled, nor invited, but of his own free will formed the wicked design.

CHRYS. One of the twelve, as much as to say, of that first band who are elected for preeminent merit.

GLOSS. He adds his distinctive appellation, Scarioth, for there was another' Judas.

REMIG. So called from the village Scariotha, from which he came.

LEO; He did not out of any fear forsake Christ, but through lust of money cast Him off; for in comparison; of the love of money all our affections are feeble; the soul athirst for gain fears not to die for a very little; there is no trace of righteousness in that heart in which covetousness has once taken up its abode. The traitor Judas, intoxicated with this bane, in his thirst for lucre was so foolishly hardened, as to sell his Lord and Master.

JEROME; The wretched Judas would fain replace, by the sale of his Master, that loss which he supposed he had incurred by the ointment. And he does not demand any fixed sum, lest his treachery should seem a gainful thing, but as though delivering up a worthless slave, he left it to those who bought, to determine how much they would give.

ORIGEN; The same do all who take any material or worldly things to cast out of their thoughts the Savior and the word of truth which was in them. And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver, as many pieces as the Savior had dwelt years in the world.

JEROME; Joseph was not sold as many, following the LXX, think for twenty pieces of gold, but as the Hebrew text has for twenty pieces of silver, for it could not be that the servant should be more valuable than his Master.

AUG. That the Lord was sold for thirty pieces of silver by Judas, denotes the unrighteous Jews, who pursuing things carnal and temporal, which belong to the five bodily senses, refuse to have Christ; and forasmuch as they did this in the sixth age of the world, their receiving five times six as the price of the Lord is thus signified; and because the Lord's words are silver, but they understood even the Law carnally, they had, as it were, stamped on silver the image of that worldly dominion which they held to when they renounced the Lord.

ORIGEN; The opportunity which Judas sought is further explained by Luke, how he might betray him in the absence of the multitude; when the populace was not with Him but He was withdrawn with His disciples. And this he did, delivering Him up after supper, when He was withdrawn to the garden of Gethsemane. And from that time forward, such has been the season sought for by those that would betray the word of God in time of persecution, when the multitude of believers is not around the word of truth.

17. Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying to him, Where will you that we prepare for you to eat the Passover?
18. And he said, Go into the city to such a man, and say to him, The Master says, My time is at hand; I will keep the Passover at your house with my disciples.
19. And the disciples did as Jesus had appointed them; and they made ready the Passover.

GLOSS. The Evangelist having gone through the events preliminary to the Passion, namely, the announcement of it, the counsel of the Chief Priests, and the covenant for His betrayal, prosecutes the history in the order of events, saying, On the first day of unleavened bread.

JEROME; The first day of unleavened bread is the fourteenth day of the first month, when the lamb is killed, the moon is at full, and leaven is put away.

REMIG. And observe that with the Jews, the Passover is celebrated on the first day, and the following seven are called the days of unleavened bread; but here the first day of unleavened bread means the day of the Passover.

CHRYS. Or, by the first day, he means the day before the days of unleavened bread. For the Jews always reckoned the day from the evening; and this day of which he speaks was that on the evening of which they were to kill the Passover, namely, the fifth day of the weeks.

REMIG. But perhaps some one will say, If that typical lamb bore a type of this the true lamb, how did not Christ suffer on the night on which this was always killed? It is to be noted, that on this night, He committed to His disciples the mysteries of His flesh and blood to be celebrated, and then also being seized and bound by the Jews, He hallowed the commencement of His sacrifice, i.e. His Passion. The disciples came to him, among these no doubt was the traitor Judas.

CHRYS. Hence it is evident that He had neither house nor lodging. Nor, I conclude, had the disciples any, for they would surely have invited Him thither.

AUG. Go into the city to such a man, Him whom Mark and Luke call the good-man of the house, or the master of the house. And when Matthew says, to such a man, he is to be understood to say this as from himself for brevity's sake; for every one knows that no man speaks thus, Go you to such a man. And Matthew adds these words, to such a man, not that the Lord used the very expression, but to convey to us that the disciples were not sent to any one in the city, but to some certain person.

CHRYS. Or, we may say that this, to such a man, shows that He sent them to some person unknown to them, teaching them thereby that He was able to avoid His Passion. For He who prevailed with this man to entertain Him, how could He not have prevailed with those who crucified Him, had He chosen not to suffer? Indeed, I marvel not only that he entertained Him, being a stranger, but that he did it in contempt of the hatred of the multitude.

HILARY; Or, Matthew does not name the man in whose house Christ would celebrate the Passover, because the Christian name was not yet held in honor by the believers.

RABAN. Or, he omits the name, that all who would fain celebrate the true Passover, and receive Christ within the dwelling place of their own minds, should understand that the opportunity is afforded them

JEROME; In this also the New Scripture observes the practice of the Old, in which we frequently read, 'He said unto him,' and 'In this or that place,' without any name of person or place.

CHRYS. My time is at hand, this He said, both by so manifold announcements of His Passion, fortifying His disciples against the event, and at the same time showing that He undertook it voluntarily. I will keep the Passover at your house, wherein we see, that to the very last day He was not disobedient to the Law. With my disciples, He adds, that there might be sufficient preparation made, and that he to whom He sent might not think that He desired to be concealed.

ORIGEN; Some one may argue, that because Jesus kept the Passover with Jewish observances, we ought to do the same as followers of Christ, not remembering that Jesus was made under the Law, though not that He should leave under the Law those who were under it, but should lead them out of it; how much less fitting then is it, that those who before were without the Law, should afterwards enter in? We celebrate spiritually the things which were carnally celebrated in the Law, keeping the Passover in the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth, according to the will of the Lamb, who said, Except you eat my flesh and drink my blood, you shall not have life in you.

20. Now when the even was come, he sat down with the twelve.
21. And as they did eat, he said, Verily I say to you, that one of you shall betray me.
22. And they were exceeding sorrowful, and began every one of them to say to him, Lord, is it I?
23. And he answered and said, He that dips his hand with me in the dish, the same shall betray me.
24. The Son of man goes as it is written of him: but woe to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! it had been good for that man if he had not been born.
25. Then Judas, which betrayed him, answered and said, Master, is it I? He said to him, You have said.

; The Lord had above foretold His Passion, He now foretell who is to be the traitor; thus giving him place of repentance, when he should see that his thoughts and the secret designs of his heart were known.

REMIG. With the twelve, it is said, for Judas was personally among them, though he had ceased to be so in merit.

JEROME; Judas acts in every thing to remove all suspicion of his treachery.

REMIG. And it is beautifully said, When evening was come, because it was in the evening that the Lamb was wont to be slain.

RABAN. For this reason also, because in Christ's Passion, wherein the true sun hastened to his setting, eternal refreshment was made ready for all believers.

CHRYS. The Evangelist relates how as they sat at meat, Jesus declares Judas' treachery, that the wickedness of the betrayer may be more apparent from the season and the circumstances.

LEO; He shows that the conscience of His betrayer was known to Him, not meeting his wickedness with a harsh and open rebuke, that penitence might find a readier way to one who had not been disgraced by public dismissal.

ORIGEN; Or, He spoke generally, to prove the nature of each of their hearts, and to evince the wickedness of Judas, who would not believe in One who knew his heart. I suppose that at first he supposed that the thing was hid from Him, deeming Him man, which was of unbelief; but when he saw that his heart was known, he embraced the concealment offered by this general way of speaking, which was shamelessness. This also shows the goodness of the disciples, that they believed Christ's words more than their own consciences, they began each to say, Lord, is it I? For they knew by what Jesus had taught them that human nature is readily turned to evil, and is in continual struggle with the rulers of the darkness of this world; whence they ask as in fear, for by reason of our weakness the future is an object of dread to us. When the Lord saw the disciples thus alarmed for themselves, He pointed out the traitor by the mark of the prophetic declaration, He that has eaten bread with me has wantonly overthrown me.

JEROME; O wonderful endurance of the Lord, He had said before, One of you shall betray me. The traitor perseveres in his wickedness; He designates him more particularly, yet not by name. For Judas, while the rest were sorrowful, and withdrew their hands and bid away the food from their mouths, with the same hardihood and recklessness which led him to betray Him reached forth his hand into the dish with his Master, passing off his audacity as a good conscience.

CHRYS. I rather think that Christ did this out of regard for him, and to bring him to a better mind.

RABAN. What Matthew calls 'paropsis,' Mark calls 'catinus.' The 'paropsis' is a square dish for meat, 'catinus,' an earthen vessel for containing fluids; this then might be a square earthen vessel.

ORIGEN; Such is the wont of men of exceeding wickedness, to plot against those of whose bread and salt they have partaken, and especially those who have no enmity against them. But if we take it of the spiritual table, and the spiritual food, we shall see the more abundant and overthrowing measure of this man's wickedness, who called to mind neither his Master's love in providing carnal goods, nor His teaching in things spiritual. Such are all in the Church who lay snares for their brethren whom they continually meet at the same table of Christ's Body.

JEROME; Judas, not withheld by either the first or second warning, perseveres in his treachery; the Lord's long-suffering nourishes his audacity. Now then his punishment is foretold, that denunciations of wrath may correct where good feeling has no power.

REMIG. It belongs to human nature to come and go, Divine nature remains ever the same. So because His human nature could suffer and die, therefore of the Son of Man it is well said that he goes. He says plainly, As it is written of him, for all that He suffered had been foretold by the Prophets.

CHRYS. This He said to comfort His disciples, that they might not think that it was through weakness that He suffered; and at the same time for the correction of His betrayer. And notwithstanding His Passion had been foretold, Judas is still guilty; and not his betrayal wrought our salvation, but God's providence, which used the sins of others to our profit.

ORIGEN; He said not, By whom the Son of Man is betrayed, but through whom, pointing out another, to wit, the Devil, as the author of His betrayal, Judas as the minister. But woe also to all betrayers of Christ! and such is every one who betrays a disciple of Christ.

REMIG. Woe also to all who draw near to Christ's table with an evil and defiled conscience! who though they do not deliver Christ to the Jews to be crucified, deliver Him to their own sinful members to be taken. He adds, to give more emphasis, Good were it for that man if he had never been born.

JEROME; We are not to infer from this that man has a being before birth; for it cannot be well with any man till he has a being; it simply implies that it is better not to be, than to be in evil.

AUG. And if it be contended that there is a life before this life, that will prove that not only not for Judas, but for none other is it good to have been born. Can it mean, that it were better for him not to have been born to the Devil, namely, for sin? Or does it mean that it had been good for him not to have been born to Christ at his calling, that he should now become apostate?

ORIGEN; After all the Apostles had asked, and after Christ had spoken of him, Judas at length inquired of himself, with the crafty design of concealing his treacherous purpose by asking the same question as the rest; for real sorrow brooks not suspense.

JEROME; His question feigns either great respect, or a hypocritical incredulousness. The rest who were not to betray Him, said only Lord; the actual traitor addresses Him as Master, as though it were some excuse that he denied Him as Lord, and betrayed a Master only.

ORIGEN; Or, out of sycophancy he calls Him Master, while he holds Him unworthy of the title.

CHRYS. Though the Lord could have said, Have you covenanted to receive silver, and dare to ask Me this? But Jesus, most merciful, said nothing of all this, therein laying down for us rules and landmarks of endurance of evil. He said to him, you have said.

REMIG. Which may be understood thus; You say it, and you say what is true; or, You have said this, not I; leaving him room for repentance so long as his villainy was not publicly exposed.

RABAN. This might have been so said by Judas, and answered by the Lord as not to be overheard by the rest.

26. And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and broke it, and gave it to the disciples and said, Take, eat; this is my body.

JEROME; When the typical Passover was concluded, and He had partaken of the Lamb with His Apostles, He comes to the true paschal sacrament; that, as Melchisedech, Priest of the most high God, had done in foreshadowing Christ, offering bread and wine, He also should offer the present verity of His Body and Blood.

AUG. And as they were eating, whereby it is clearly seen that at their first partaking of the Lord's Body and Blood, the disciples did not partake fasting. But are we therefore to except against the practice of the whole Church, of receiving fasting; It has seemed good to the Holy Ghost, that for the better honor of so great a Sacrament, the Lord's Body should enter the Christian's mouth before other food. For to commend more mightily the depth of this mystery, the Savior chose this as the last thing He would imprint on the hearts and memory of His disciples, from whom He was to depart to His Passion. But He did not direct in what order it should thenceforth be taken, that He might reserve that for the Apostles by whom He would regulate His Church.

GLOSS. Christ delivered to us His Flesh and Blood under another kind, and ordained them to be thenceforth so received, that faith might have its merit, which is of things that are not seen.

AMBROSE; And that we might not be shocked by the sight of blood, while it at the same time wrought the price of our redemption.

AUG. The Lord committed His Body and Blood to substances which are formed a homogeneous compound out of many. Bread is made of many grains, wine is produced out of many berries. Herein the Lord Jesus Christ signified us, and hallowed in His own table the mystery of our peace and unity.

REMIG. Fittingly also did He offer fruit of the earth, to show thereby that He came to take away the curse wherewith the earth was cursed for the sin of the first man. Also He bade be offered the produce of the earth, and the things for which men chiefly toil, that there might be no difficulty in procuring them, and that men might offer sacrifice to God of the work of their hands.

AMBROSE; Hence learn that the Christian mysteries were before the Jewish. Melchisedech offered bread and; wine, being in all things like the Son of God, to Whom it is said, You are a Priest for ever after the order of Melchisedech; and of Whom it is here said, Jesus took bread.

GLOSS. This we must understand to be wheat bread, for the Lord compared Himself to a grain of wheat, saying, Except a corn fall into the ground &c. Such bread also is suitable for the Sacrament, because it is in common use; bread of other kinds being only made when this fails. But forasmuch as Christ up to the very last day, to use the words of Chrysostom as above, showed that He did nothing contrary to the Law, and the Law commanded that unleavened bread should be eaten in the evening when the Passover was slain, and that all leavened should be put away, it is manifest that the bread which the Lord c took and gave to His disciples was unleavened.

GREG. It has given trouble to divers persons, that in the Church some offer unleavened and others leavened bread. The Roman Church offers unleavened, because the Lord took flesh without any pollution; other Churches offer leavened bread, because the Word of the Father took flesh upon Him, and is Very God, and Very Man; and so the leaven is mingled with the flour. But whether we e receive leavened or unleavened, we are made one body of the Lord our Savior.

AMBROSE; This bread before the sacramentary words, is the bread in common use; after consecration it is made of bread Christ's flesh. And what are the words, or whose are the phrases of consecration, save those of the Lord Jesus? For if His word had power to make those things begin to be which were not, how much rather will it not be efficacious to cause them to remain what they are, while they are at the same time changed into somewhat else. For if the heavenly word has been effectual in other matters is it ineffectual in heavenly sacraments? Therefore of the bread is made the Body of Christ, and the wine is made blood by the consecration of the heavenly word. Do you inquire after the manner? Learn. The course of nature is, that a man is not born but of man and woman, but by God's will Christ was born of the Holy Spirit and a Virgin.

PASCHASIUS; As then real flesh was created by the Holy Spirit without sexual union, so by the same Holy Spirit the substance of bread and wine are consecrated into the Body and Blood of Christ. And because this consecration is made by the Lord's word, it is added, He blessed it.

REMIG. Hereby He showed also that He together with the Father and the Holy Spirit has filled human nature with the grace of His divine power, and enriched it with the boon of immortality. And to show that His Body was not subject to passion but of His own will, it is added, And broke.

LANFRANC; When the host is broken, when the blood is poured from the cup into the mouth of the faithful, what else is denoted but the offering of the Lord's Body on the cross, and the shedding of His Blood out of His side?

DIONYSIUS; In this is also shown, that the one and uncompounded Word of God came to us compounded and visible by taking human in nature upon Him, and drawing to Himself our society, made us partakers of the spiritual goods which He distributed, as it follows, And gave to his disciples.

LEO; Not excluding the traitor even from this mystery, that it might be made manifest that Judas was provoked by no wrong, but that he had been foreknown in voluntary impiety.

AUG. Peter and Judas received of the same bread, but Peter to life, Judas to death.

CHRYS. And this John shows when he says, After the sop, Satan entered into him. For his sin was aggravated in that he came near to these mysteries with such a heart, and that having come to them, he was made better neither by fear, kindness, nor honor. Christ hindered him not, though He knew all things, that you may learn that He omits nothing which serves for correction.

REMIG. In so doing He left an example to the Church, that it should sever no one from its fellowship, or from the communion of the Body and Blood of the Lord, but for some notorious and public crime.

HILARY; Or, The Passover was concluded by the taking the cup and breaking the bread without Judas, for he was unworthy the communion of eternal sacraments. And that he had left them we learn from thence, that he returns with a multitude.

AUG. And said, Take, eat; The Lord invites His servants to set before them Himself for food. But who would dare to eat his Lord; This food when eaten refreshes, but fails not; He lives after being eaten, Who rose again after being put to death. Neither when we eat Him do we divide His substance; but thus it is in this Sacrament. The faithful know how they feed on Christ's flesh, each man receives a part for himself. He is divided into parts in the Sacrament, yet He remains whole; He is all in heaven, He is all in your heart. They are called Sacraments, because in them what is seen is one thing, what is understood is another, what is seen has a material form, what is understood has spiritual fruit.

ID. Let us not eat Christ's flesh only in the Sacrament, for that do many wicked men, but let us eat to spiritual participation, that we may abide as members in the Lord's body, that we may be quickened by His Spirit.

AMBROSE; Before consecration, it is bread; after Christ's words, This is my body, have been pronounced, it is Christ's Body.

27. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink you all of it;
28. For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.
29. But I say to you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom.

REMIG. The Lord having given His disciples His Body under the element of bread, well gives the cup of His Blood to them likewise; showing what joy He has in our salvation, seeing He even shed His Blood for us.

CHRYS. He gave thanks to instruct us after what manner we ought to celebrate this mystery, and showed also thereby that He came not to His Passion against His will. Also He taught us to bear whatever we suffer with thanksgiving, and infused into us good hopes. For if the type of this sacrifice, to wit, the offering of the paschal lamb, became the deliverance of the people from Egyptian bondage, much more shall the reality thereof be the deliverance of the world. And gave it to them, saying, Drink you all of it. That they should not be distressed at hearing this, He first drank His own blood to lead them without fear to the communion of these mysteries.

JEROME; Thus then the Lord Jesus Hi was at once guest and feast, the eater and the things eaten.

CHRYS. This is my blood of the new testament; that is, the new promise, covenant, law; for this blood was promised from of old, and this guarantees the new covenant; for as the Old Testament had the blood of sheep and goats, so the New has the Lord's Blood.

REMIG. For thus it is read, Behold the blood of the covenant which the Lord has made with you.

CHRYS. And in calling it blood, He foreshadows His Passion, My blood. . . which shall be shed for many. Also the purpose for which He died, adding, For the remission of sins; as much as to say, The blood of the lamb was shed in Egypt for the salvation of the first born of the Israelites, this My Blood is shed for the remission of sins.

REMIG. And it is to be noted, that He says not, For a few, nor, For all, but, For many; because He came not to redeem a single nation, but many out of all nations.

CHRYS. Thus saying, He shows that His Passion is a mystery of the salvation of men, by which also He comforts His disciples. And as Moses said, This shall be an ordinance to you for ever, so Christ speaks as Luke relates, Do this in remembrance of me.

REMIG. And He taught us to offer not bread only, but wine also, to show that they who hungered and thirsted after righteousness were to be refreshed by these mysteries.

GLOSS. As the refreshment of the body is wrought by means of meat and drink, so under the form of meat and drink the Lord has provided for us spiritual refreshment. And it was suitable that for the showing forth the Lord's Passion this Sacrament should be instituted under both kinds. For in His Passion He shed His Blood, and so His Blood was separated from His Body. It is necessary therefore, that for representation of His Passion, bread and wine should be separately set forth, which are the Sacrament of the Body and Blood. But it should be known, that under both kinds the whole of Christ is contained; under the bread is contained the Blood, together with the Body; under the wine, the Body together with the Blood.

AMBROSIAST. And for this reason also do we celebrate under both kinds, because that which we receive avails for the preservation of both body and soul.

CYPRIAN; The cup of the Lord is not water only, or wine only, but the two are mixed; so the Lord's Body cannot be either flour only, or water only, but the two are combined.

AMBROSE; If Melchisedech offered bread and wine, what means this mixing of water? Hear the reason. Moses struck the rock, and the rock gave forth abundance of water, but that rock was Christ; Also one of the soldiers with his spear pierced Christ's side, and out of His side flowed water and blood, the water to cleanse, the blood to redeem.

REMIG. For it should be known, that as John speaks, The many waters are nations and people. And because we ought always to abide in Christ and Christ in us, wine mixed with water is offered, to show that the head and the members, that is, Christ and the Church, are one body; or to show that neither did Christ suffer without a love for our redemption, nor we can be saved without His Passion.

CHRYS. And having spoken of His Passion and Cross, He proceeds to speak of His resurrection, I say to you, I will not drink henceforth, &c. By the kingdom He means His resurrection. And He speaks this of His resurrection, because He would then drink with the Apostles, that none might suppose His resurrection a fantasy. Thus when they would convince any of His resurrection, they said, We did eat and drink with Him after He rose from the dead. This tells them that they shall see Him after He is risen, and that He will be again with them. That He says, New, is plainly to be understood, after a new manner, He no longer having a passible body, or needing food. For after His resurrection He did not eat as needing food, but to evidence the reality of the resurrection. And forasmuch as there are some heretics who use water instead of wine in the sacred mysteries, He shows in these words, that when He now gave them these holy mysteries, He gave them wine, and drank the like after He was risen; for He says, Of this fruit of the vine, but the vine produces wine, and not water.

JEROME; Or otherwise; From carnal things the Lord passes to spiritual. Holy Scripture speaks of the people of Israel as of a vine brought up out of Egypt; of this vine it is then that the Lord says He will drink no more except in His Father's kingdom. His Father's kingdom I suppose to mean the faith of the believers. When then the Jews shall receive His Father's kingdom, then the Lord will drink of their vine. Observe that He says, Of my Father, not, Of God, for to name the Father is to name the Son. As much as to say, When they shall have believed on God the Father, and He has brought them to the Son.

REMIG. Or otherwise; I will not drink of the fruit of this vine, i.e. I will no longer take pleasure in the carnal oblations of the Synagogue, among which the immolation of the Paschal lamb held an eminent place. But the time of My resurrection is at hand, and the day in which exalted in the Father's kingdom, that is, raised in immortal glory, I shall drink it new with you, i.e. I shall rejoice as With a new joy in the salvation of that people then renewed by the water of baptism.

AUG. Or otherwise; When He says, I shall drink it new with you, He gives us to understand that this is old. Seeing then that He took body of the race of Adam, who is called the old man, and was to give up to death that Body in His Passion, (whence also He gave us His Blood in the sacrament of wine,) what else can we understand by the new wine than the immortality of renewed bodies. In saying, I will drink it with you, He promises to them likewise a resurrection of their bodies for the putting on of immortality. With you is not to be understood of time, but of a like renewal, as the Apostle speaks, that we are risen with Christ, the hope of the future bringing a present joy. That that which He shall drink new shall also be of this fruit of the vine, signifies that the very same bodies shall rise after the heavenly renewal, which shall now die after the earthly decay.

HILARY; It seems from this that Judas had not drunk with Him because He was not to drink hereafter in the kingdom; but He promises to all who partook at this time of this fruit of the vine that they should drink with Him hereafter.

GLOSS. But in support of the opinion of other saints, that Judas did receive the sacraments from Christ, it is to be said, that the words with you may refer to the greater part of them, and not necessarily to the whole.

30. And when they had sung a hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives.
31. Then said Jesus to them, All you shall be offended because of me this night; for it is written I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad.
32. But after I am risen again, I will go before you into Galilee.
33. Peter answered and said to him, Though all men shall be offended because of you, yet will I never be offended.
34. Jesus said to him, Verily I say to you, That this night, before the cock crow, you shall deny me thrice.
35. Peter said to him, Though I should die with you, yet will I not deny you. Likewise also said all the disciples.

When the disciples had eaten the bread of blessing, and drunk of the cup of thanksgiving, the Lord instructs them in return for these things to sing a hymn to the Father. And they go to the Mount of Olives, that they may pass from height to height, because the believer can do nothing in the valley.

BEDE; Beautifully after the disciples have been filled with the Sacraments of His Body and Blood, and commended to the Father in a hymn of pious intercession, does He lead them into the mount of Olives; thus by type teaching us how we ought, by the working of His Sacraments, and the aid of His intercession, mount up to the higher gifts of the virtues and the graces of the Holy Spirit, with which we are anointed in our hearts.

RABAN. This hymn may be that thanksgiving which in John, Our Lord offers up to the Father, when He lifted up His eyes and prayed for His disciples, and those who should believe through their word. This is that of which the Psalm speaks, The poor shall eat and be filled, they shall praise the Lord.

CHRYS. Let them hear this, who like swine with no thought but of eating rise from the table drunk, when they should have given thanks, and closed with a hymn. Let then hear who will not tarry for the final prayer in the sacred mysteries; for the last prayer of the mysteries represents that hymn. He gave thanks before He delivered the holy mysteries to the disciples, that we also might give thanks; He sung a hymn after He had delivered them, that we also should do the like.

JEROME; After this example of the Savior, whoever is filled and is drunken upon the bread and cup of Christ, may praise God and ascend the Mount of Olives, where is refreshment after toil, solace of grief, and knowledge of the true light.

HILARY; Hereby He shows that men confirmed by the powers of the Divine mysteries, are exalted to heavenly glory in a common joy and gladness.

ORIGEN ; Suitably also was the mount of mercy chosen whence to declare the offense of His disciples' weakness, by One even then prepared not to reject the disciples who forsook Him, but to receive them when they returned to Him.

He foretells what they should suffer, that they might not after it had befallen them despair of salvation; but doing penitence might be set free.

CHRYS. In this we see what the disciples were both before and after the cross. They who could not stand with Christ whilst He was crucified, became after the death of Christ harder than adamant. This flight and fear of the disciples is a demonstration of Christ's death against those who are infected with the heresy of Marcion. If He had been neither bound nor crucified, whence arose the terror of Peter and the rest?

JEROME; And He adds emphatically this night, because as they that are drunken are drunken by night so they that are scandalized are scandalized by night, and in the dark.

HILARY; The credit of this prediction is supported by the authority of old prophecy; It is written I will smite the shepherd and the sheep of the flock shall all be scattered abroad.

JEROME; This is found in Zacharias in words different; it is said to God in the person of the Prophet, Smite the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered abroad. The good Shepherd is smitten, that He may lay down His life for His sheep, and that of many flocks of divers errors should be made one flock, and one Shepherd.

He produces this prophecy to teach them to attend to the things that are written, and to show that His crucifixion was according to the counsel of God, and (as He does throughout) that He was not a stranger to the Old Testament, but that it prophesied of Him. But He did not suffer them to continue in sorrow, but announces glad tidings, saying, When I am risen again, I will go before you into Galilee. After His resurrection He does not appear to them immediately from heaven, nor depart into any far country, but in the very same nation in which He was crucified, almost in the very place, giving them thereby assurance, that He who was crucified was the same as He who rose again, thereby to cheer their cast-down countenances. He fixes upon Galilee, that, being delivered from fear of the Jews, they might believe what He spoke to them.

ORIGEN; Also He foretell this to them, that they who now were somewhat dispersed in consequence of the offense, should be after gathered together by Christ rising again, and going before them into Galilee of the Gentiles.

But Peter was carried so far by his zeal and affection for Christ, that he regarded neither the weakness of his flesh nor the truth of the Lord's words; as if what He spoke must not come to pass, Peter answered and said to him, Though all should be offended because of you, yet will I never be offended.

CHRYS. What say you, Peter? The Prophet says, The sheep shall be scattered abroad, and Christ has confirmed it, yet you say, Never. When He said, One of you shall betray me, you feared for yourself, although you were not conscious of such a thought; now when He openly affirms, All you shall be offended, you deny it. But because when he was relieved of the anxiety he had concerning the betrayal, he grew confident concerning the rest, he therefore says thus, I will never be offended.

JEROME; It is not willfulness, not falsehood, but the Apostle's faith, and ardent attachment towards the Lord his Savior.

REMIG. What the One affirms by His power of foreknowledge, the other denies through love; whence we may take a practical lesson, that in proportion as we are confident of the warmth of our faith, we should be in fear of the weakness of our flesh. Peter seems culpable, first, because he contradicted the Lord's words; secondly, because he set himself before the rest; and thirdly, because he attributed every thing to himself as though he had power to persevere strenuously. His fall then was permitted to heal this in him; not that he was driven to deny, but left to himself, and so convinced of the frailty of his human nature.

Whence the other disciples were offended in Jesus, but Peter was not only offended, but what is much more, was suffered to deny Him thrice.

AUG. Perplexity may be occasioned to some by the great difference, not in words only, but in substance, of the speeches in which Peter is forewarned by Our Lord, and which occasion his presumptuous declaration of dying with or for the Lord. Some would oblige us to understand that he thrice expressed his confidence, and the Lord thrice answered him that he would deny Him thrice before cock-crowing; as after His resurrection He thrice asked him if he loved Him, and as often gave him command to feed His sheep. For what in language or matter has Matthew like the expressions of Peter in either Luke or John? Mark indeed relates it in nearly the same words as Matthew, only marking more precisely in the Lord's words the manner in which it should fall in, Verily I say to you, that this day, in the night, before the cock crow twice, you shall deny me thrice. Whence some inattentive persons think that there is a discrepancy between Mark and the rest. For the sum of Peter's denials is three if the first then had been after the first cock-crowing, the other three Evangelists must be wrong when they make the Lord say that Peter should deny Him before the cock crow. But, on the other hand, if he had made all three denials before the cock began to crow, it would be superfluous in Mark to say, Before the cock crows twice. Forasmuch as this threefold denial was begun before the first cockcrow, the three Evangelists have marked, not when it was to be concluded, but how often it was to happen, and when to begin, that is, before cock-crow. Though indeed if we understand it of Peter's heart we may well say, that the whole denial was complete before the first cock-crow, seeing that before that his mind was seized with that great fear which wrought upon him to the third denial. Much less therefore ought it to disquiet us, how the three-fold denial in three distinct speeches was begun, but not finished before cockcrow. Just as though one should say, Before cock-crow you will write me a letter, in which you will revile me three times; if the letter were begun before any cock crow, but not finished till after the first, we should not therefore say that the prediction was false.

But you will ask, whether it were possible that Peter should not have been offended, when once the Savior had said, All you shall be offended in me. To which one will answer, what is foretold by Jesus must of necessity come to pass; and another will say, that He who at the prayer of Ninevites turned away the wrath He had denounced by Jonas, might also have averted Peter's offense at his entreaty. But his presumptuous confidence, prompted by zeal indeed but not a cautious zeal, became the cause not only of offense but of a thrice repeated denial. And since He confirmed it with the sanction of an oath, some one will say that it was not possible that he should not have denied Him. For Christ would have spoken falsely when he said, Verily I say to you, if Peter's assertion, I will not deny you, had been true. It seems to me that the other disciples having in view not that which was first said, All you shall be offended, but that which was said to Peter, Verily I say to you, &c. made a like promise with Peter because they were not comprehended in the prophecy of denial. Peter said to him, Though I should die with you, yet will I not deny you. Likewise also said all the disciples. Here again Peter knows not what he says; he could not die with Him who was to die for all mankind, who were all in sin, and had need of some one to die for them, not that they should die for others.

RABAN. Peter understood the Lord to have foretold that he should deny Him under terror of death, and therefore he declares that though death were imminent, nothing could shake him from his faith; and the other Apostles in like manner in the warmth of their zeal, valued not the infliction of death, but human presumption is vain without Divine aid.

CHRYS. I suppose also that Peter fell into these words through ambition and boastfulness. And they had disputed at supper which of them should be greatest, whence we see that the love of empty glory disturbed them much. And so to deliver him from such passions, Christ withdrew His aid from him. Moreover observe how after the resurrection, taught by his fall he speaks to Christ more humbly, and does not any more resist His words. All this his fall wrought for him; for before he had attributed all to himself, when he ought rather to have said, I will not deny You if You succor me with Your aid. But afterwards he shows that every thing is to be ascribed to God; Why look you so earnestly upon us, as though by our own power and holiness we had made this man to walk? Hence then we learn the great doctrine, that man's wish is not enough, unless he enjoys Divine support.

36. Then comes Jesus with them to a place called Gethsemane, and said to the disciples, Sit you here, while I go and pray yonder.
37. And he took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and began to be sorrowful and very heavy.
38. Then said he to them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even to death: tarry you here and watch with me.

REMIG. The Evangelist had said a little above, that when they had sung a hymn they went out to the mount of Olives; to point out the part of the mount to which they took their way, he now adds, Then came Jesus with them to a garden called Gethsemane.

RABAN. Luke says, To the mount of Olives, and John, Went forth over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, which is the same as this Gethsemane, and is a place where He prayed at the foot of mount Olivet, where is a garden, and a Church now built.

JEROME; Gethsemane is interpreted, 'The rich valley;' and there He bade His disciples sit a little while, and wait His return whilst He prayed alone for all.

ORIGEN; For it was not fitting that He should be seized in the place where He had sat and eaten the Passover with His disciples. Also He must first pray, and choose a place pure for prayer.

CHRYS. He says, Sit you here, while I go and pray yonder, because the disciples adhered inseparably to Christ; but it was His practice to pray apart from them, therein teaching us to study quiet and retirement for our prayers.

DAMASCENUS; But seeing that prayer is the sending up the understanding to God, or the asking of God things fitting, how did the Lord pray? For His understanding needed not to be lifted up to God, having been once united hypostatically to God the Word. Neither could He need to ask of God things fitting, for the One Christ is both God and Man. But giving in Himself a pattern to us, He taught us to ask of God, and to lift up our minds to Him. As He took on Him our passions, that by triumphing over them Himself, He might give us also the victory over them, so now He prays to open to us the way to that lifting up to God, to fulfill for us all righteousness, to reconcile His Father to us, to pay honor to Him as the First Cause, and to show that He is not against God.

RABAN. When the Lord prayed in the mountain, He taught us to make supplication for heavenly things; when He prays in the garden, He teaches us to study humility in our prayer. And beautifully, as He draws near His Passion, does He pray in the 'valley of fatness,' showing that through the valley of humility, and the richness of charity, He took upon Him death for our sakes. The practical instruction which we may also learn from this is, that we should not suffer our heart to dry up from the richness of charity.

REMIG. He had accepted the disciples' faith and the devotedness of their will, but He foresaw that they would be troubled and scattered abroad, and therefore bade them sit still in their places; for to sit belongs to one at ease, but they would be grievously troubled that they should have denied Him. In what fashion He went forward it describes, And taking with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, he began to be sorrowful and very heavy; the same to whom He had shown His glory in the mount.

HILARY; These words, He began to be sorrowful and very heavy, are interpreted by heretics that fear of death assailed the Son of God, being (as they allege) neither begotten from eternity, nor existing in the Father's infinite substance, but produced out of nothing by Him who created all things; and that hence He was liable to anguish of grief, and fear of death. And He who can fear death can also die; and He who can die, though He shall exist after death, yet is not eternal through Him who begot Him in past time. Had these faith to receive the Gospels, they would know that the Word was in the beginning God, and from the beginning with God, and that the eternity of Him who begets and Him who is begotten is one and the same. But if the assumption of flesh infected with its natural infirmity the virtue of that incorruptible substance, so that it became subject to pain, and shrinking from death, it would also become thereby liable to corruption, and thus its immortality being changed into fear, that which is in it is capable of at some time ceasing to be. But God ever is without measure of time, and such as He is, He continues to be eternally. Nothing then in God can die, nor can God have any fear springing out of Himself.

JEROME; But we say that passible man was so taken by God the Son, that His Deity remained impassible. Indeed the Son of God suffered, not by imputation but actually, all that Scripture testifies, in respect of that part of Him which could suffer, viz. in respect of the substance that He had taken on Him.

HILARY; I suppose that there are some who offer here no other cause of His fear than His passion and death. I ask those who think thus, whether it stands with reason that He should have feared to die, who banished from the Apostles all fear of death, and exhorted them to the glory of martyrdom? How can we suppose Him to have felt pain and grief in the sacrament of death, who rewards with life those who die for Him? And what pangs of death could He fear, who came to death of the free choice of His own power? And if His Passion was to do Him honor, how could the fear of His Passion make Him sorrowful?

ID. Since then we read that the Lord was sorrowful, let us discover the causes of His agony. He had forewarned them all that they would be offended, and Peter that he would thrice deny his Lord; and taking him and James and John, He began to be sorrowful. Therefore He was not sorrowful till He took them, but all His fear began after He had taken them; so that His agony was not for Himself, but for them whom He had taken.

JEROME; The Lord therefore sorrowed not from fear of suffering, for this cause He had come that He should suffer and had rebuked Peter for his fearfulness; but for the wretched Judas, for the offense of the rest of the Apostles, for the rejection and reprobation of the Jewish nation, and the overthrow of unhappy Jerusalem.

DAMAS. Or otherwise; All things which have not yet been brought into existence by their Maker have a natural desire of existence, and naturally shun non-existence. God the Word then, having been made Man, had this desire, through which He desired food, drink, and sleep, by which life is supported, and naturally used them, and contrariwise shunned the things that are destructive of life. Hence in the season of His Passion which He endured voluntarily, He had the natural fear and sorrow for death. For there is a natural fear wherewith the soul shrinks from separation from the body, by reason of that close sympathy implanted from the first by the Maker of all things.

JEROME; Our Lord therefore sorrowed to prove the reality of the Man which He had taken upon Him; but that passion might bear no sway in His mind, He began to be sorrowful by pro-passion; for it is one thing to be sorrowful, and another to be very sorrowful.

REMIG. By this place are overthrown the Manicheans, who said that He took an unreal body; and those also who said that He had not a real soul, but His Divinity in place of a soul.

AUG. We have the narratives of the Evangelists, by which we know that Christ was both born of the Blessed Virgin Mary, was seized by the Jews, scourged, crucified, put to death, and buried in a tomb, all which cannot be supposed to have taken place without a body, and not even the maddest will say that these things are to be understood figuratively, when they are told by men who wrote what they remembered to have happened. These then are witnesses that He had a body, as those affections which cannot be without mind prove Him to have had a mind, and which we read in the accounts of the same Evangelists, that Jesus wondered, was angry, was sorrowful.

ID. Since then these things are related in the Evangelists, they are not surely false, but as when He willed He became Man, so likewise when He willed He took into His human soul these passions for the sake of adding assurance to the dispensation. We indeed have these passions by reason of the weakness of our human nature; not so the Lord Jesus, whose weakness was of power.

DAMAS. Wherefore the passions of our nature were in Christ both by nature and beyond nature. By nature, because He left His flesh to suffer their things incidental to it; beyond nature, because these natural emotions did not in Him precede the will. For in Christ nothing befell of compulsion, but all was voluntary; with His will He hungered, with His will He feared, or was sorrowful Here His sorrow is declared, Then said he to them, My soul is sorrowful even to death.

AMBROSE; He is sorrowful, yet not Himself, but His soul; not His Wisdom, not His divine Substance, but His soul, for He took upon Him my soul, and my body.

JEROME; He is sorrowful not because of death, but to death, until He has set the Apostles free by His Passion. Let those who imagine Jesus to have taken an irrational soul, say how it is that He is thus sorrowful, and knows the season of His sorrow for though the brute animals have sorrow, yet they know neither the causes of it, nor the time for which it must endure

ORIGEN; Or otherwise; My soul is sorrowful even unto death; as much as to say, Sorrow is begun in me, but not to endure for ever, but only till the hour of death; that when I shall die for sin, I shall die also to all sorrow, whose beginnings only are in me. Tarry you here, and watch with me; as much as to say, The rest I bade sit yonder as weak, removing them from this struggle; but you I have brought hither as being stronger, that you may toil with me in watching and prayer. But abide you here, that every man may stay in his own rank and station; since all grace, however great, has its superior.

JEROME; Or the sleep which He would have them forego is not bodily rest, for which at this critical time there was no room, but mental torpor, the sleep of unbelief.

39. And he went a little farther, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as you will.
40. And he comes to the disciples, and finds them asleep, and said to Peter, What, could you not watch with me one hour?
41. Watch and pray, that you enter not into temptation: the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.
42. He went away again the second time, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if this cup may not pass away from me, except I drink it, your will be done.
43. And he came and found them asleep again: for their eyes were heavy.
44. And he left them, and went away again, and prayed the third time, saying the same words.

He took with Him the self-confident Peter, and the others' that they might see Him falling on His face and praying, and might learn not to think great things, but little things of themselves, and not to be hasty in promising, but careful in prayer. And therefore, He went forward a little, not to go far from them, but that He might be near them in His prayer. Also, He who had said above, Learn of me, for I am meek and lowly in heart, now commendably humbling Himself, falls on His face. But He shows His devotion in His prayer, and as beloved and well-pleasing to His Father, He adds, Not as I will, but as you will, teaching us that we should pray, not that our own will, but that God's will, should be done. And as He began to have fear and sorrow, He prays accordingly that the cup of His Passion may pass from Him, yet not as He wills, but as His Father wills; wills, that is, not according to His Divine and impassible Substance, but according to His human and weak nature. For in taking upon Him the nature of human flesh, He fulfilled all the properties thereof, that it might be seen that He had flesh not in appearance only, but in reality. The believer indeed must in the first instance be willing to incur pain, seeing it leads to death, and he is a man of flesh; but if it be God's will, he acquiesces because he is a believer. For as we ought not to be too confident that we may not seem to make a boast of our own strength; so neither ought we to be distrustful, lest we should seem to charge God our helper with weakness. It is to be observed that Mark and Luke write the same, but John does not introduce this prayer of Jesus', that this cup may pass from Him, because the first three are rather occupied about Him, according to His human nature, John according to His divine. Otherwise; Jesus makes this petition, because He sees what the Jews will suffer for requiring His death.

JEROME; Whence He says emphatically, This cup, that is, of this people of the Jews, who, if they shall put Me to death, can have no excuse for their ignorance, seeing they hive the Law and the Prophets, who speak of Me.

ORIGEN; Then again considering the benefit that would accrue to the whole world from His Passion, He says, But not as I will, but as you will; i.e. If it be possible for all these benefits which shall result from My Passion to be procured without it, let it pass from Me, and both the world be saved, and the Jews not be condemned in putting Me to death. But if the salvation of many cannot be procured without the destruction of a few, saving Your justice, let it not pass away. Scripture, in many places, speaks of passion as a cup that is drained; and it is drained by him, who in testimony suffers whatever is inflicted upon him. He sheds it, on the contrary, who denies in order to avoid suffering.

AUG. And that none might think that He limited His Father's power, He said not, If you can do it, but If it may be or, If it be possible; as much as to say, If you will. For whatever God wills can be done, as Luke expresses more plainly; for he says not, If it be possible, but If you will.

HILARY; Otherwise; He says not, Let this cup pass away from Me, for that would be the speech of one who feared it; but He prays that it may pass not so as that He should be passed over, but that when it has passed from Him, it may go to another. His whole fear then is for those who were to suffer, and therefore He prays for those who were to suffer after Him, saying, Let this cup pass from me, i.e. as it is drunk by Me, so let it be drunk by these, without mistrust, without sense of pain, without fear of death. He says, If it be possible, because flesh and blood shrink from these things, and it is hard for human bodies not to sink beneath their infliction. That He says, Not as I will, but as you will, He would fain indeed that they should not suffer, lest their faith should fail in their sufferings, if indeed we might attain to the glory of our joint inheritance with Him without the hardship of sharing in His Passion. He says, Not as I will, but as you will, because it is the Father's will that strength to drink of the cup should pass from Him to them, that the Devil might be vanquished not so much by Christ as by His disciples also.

AUG. Christ thus as man shows a certain private human will, in which He who is our head figures both His own will and ours when He says, Let it pass from me. For this was His human will choosing something as apart for Himself. But because as man He would be righteous and guide Himself by God's will, He adds, Nevertheless not as I will, but as you will; as much as to say to us, Man, behold yourself in Me, that you can will somewhat apart of thyself, and though God's will is other, this is permitted to human frailty.

LEO; This speech of the Head is the health of the whole body, this saying is instruction to the faithful, animates the confessor, crowns the martyr. For who could vanquish the hatred of the world, or the whirlwind of temptations, or the terrors of the persecutors, if Christ did not in all and for all say to the Father, Your will be done. Let all the sons of the Church then utter this prayer, that when the pressure of some mighty temptation lies upon them, they may embrace endurance of the suffering, disregarding its terrors.

And though Jesus went but a little forward, they could not watch one hour in His absence; let us therefore pray that Jesus may never depart even a little from us.

CHRYS. He finds them sleeping, both because it was a late hour of the night, and their eyes were heavy with sorrow.

HILARY; When then He returned to His disciples and found them sleeping, He rebukes Peter, Could you not watch one hour with me? He addresses Peter rather than the rest, because he had most loudly boasted that he would not be offended.

But as they had all said the same, He charges them all with weakness; they had chosen to die with Christ, and yet could not even watch with Him.

ORIGEN; Finding them thus sleeping, He rouses them with a word to hearken, and commands them to watch; Watch and pray, that you enter not into temptation; that first we should watch, and so watching pray. He watches who does good works, and is careful that He does not run into any dark doctrine, for so the prayer of the watchful is heard.

JEROME; It is impossible that the human mind should not be tempted, therefore He says not Watch and pray that you be not tempted, but that you enter not into temptation, that is, that temptation vanquish you not.

HILARY; And why He thus encouraged them to pray that they might not enter into temptation, He adds, For the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak; this He says not of Himself, but addresses them.

JEROME; This is against those rash persons who think that whatever they believe they can perform. The more confident we are of our zeal, the more mistrustful should we be of the frailty of the flesh.

ORIGEN; Here it should be inquired, whether as all men's flesh is weak, so all men's spirit is willing, or whether only that of the saints; and whether in unbelievers the spirit is not also dull, as the flesh is weak. In another sense the flesh of those only is weak whose spirit is willing, and who with their willing spirit do mortify the deeds of the flesh. These then He would have watch and pray that they should not enter into temptation, for the more spiritual any one may be, the more careful should he be that his goodness should not suffer a great fall.

REMIG. Otherwise; In these words He shows that He took real flesh of the Virgin, and had a real soul, saying that His spirit is willing to suffer, but His flesh weak in fearing the pain of Passion.

ORIGEN; There were, I conclude, two ways in which this cup of Passion might pass from the Lord. If He should drink it, it would pass away from Him, and afterwards from the whole race of mankind also; if He should not drink it, it would perhaps pass from Him, but from men it would not pass. He would fain therefore that it should so pass from Him as that He should not at all taste its bitterness, yet only if it were possible, saving the righteousness of God. If it were not possible, He was rather willing to drink it, that so it might pass from Him, and from the whole race of mankind rather than against His Father's will shun the drinking thereof.

That He prays for this a second and a third time, comes of the feelings belonging to human frailty, through which also He feared death, thus giving assurance that He was truly made man. For in Scripture when any thing is repeated a second and third time, that is the greatest proof of its truth and reality; as, for example, when Joseph says to Pharaoh, And for that you saw it twice, it is proof of the thing being established by God.

JEROME; Or otherwise; He prays a second time that if Nineveh, or the Gentile world, cannot be saved unless the gourd, i.e. the Jews, be withered, His Father's will may be done, which is not contrary to the Son's will, who Himself speaks by the Prophet, I am content to do your will, O God.

HILARY; Otherwise, He bare in His own body all the infirmities of us His disciples who should suffer, and nailed to His cross all wherein we are distressed; and therefore that cup cannot pass from Him, unless He drink it, because we cannot suffer, except by His passion.

Christ singly prays for all, as He singly suffers for all. Their eyes were heavy, i.e. an oppression and stupefaction came on as their denial drew near.

ORIGEN; And I suppose that the eyes of their body were not so much affected as the eyes of their mind, because the Spirit was not yet given them Wherefore He does not rebuke them, but goes again and prays, teaching us that we should not faint but should persevere in prayer, until we obtain what we have begun to ask.

He prayed the third time, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word might be established.

RABAN. Or, The Lord prayed thrice, to teach us to pray for pardon of sins past, defense against present evil, and provision against future perils, and that we should address every prayer to Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and that our spirit' soul, and body should be kept in safety.

AUG. Nor is that an absurd interpretation which makes Our Lord play thrice because of the threefold temptation of His Passion. To the temptation of curiosity is opposed the fear of death; for as the one is a yearning for the knowledge of things, so the other is the fear of losing such knowledge. To the desire of honor or applause is opposed the dread of disgrace and insult. To the desire of pleasure is opposed the fear of pain.

REMIG. Or, He prays thrice for the Apostles, and for Peter in particular, who was to deny Him thrice.

45. Then come he to his disciples, and says to them, Sleep on now, and take your rest: behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 46. Rise, let us be going: behold, he is at hand that does betray me.

HILARY; After His persevering prayer, after His departures and several returns, He takes away their fear, restores their confidence, and exhorts them to sleep on, and take their rest.

CHRYS. Indeed it fit them then to watch, but He said this to show that the prospect of coming evils was more than they would bear, that He had no need of their aid, and that it must needs be that He should be delivered up.

HILARY; Or, He bids them sleep on, and take their rest, because He now confidently awaited His Father's will concerning the disciples, concerning which He had said, Your will be done, and in obedience to which He drunk the cup that was to pass from Him to us, diverting upon Himself the weakness of our body, the terrors of dismay, and even the pains of death itself.

ORIGEN; Or, the sleep He now bids His disciples take is of a different sort from that which is related above to have befallen them. Then He found them sleeping, not taking repose, but because their eyes were heavy, but now they are not merely to sleep, but to take their rest, that this order may be rightly observed, namely, that we first watch with prayer that we enter not into temptation, and afterwards sleep and take our rest, when having found a place for the Lord, a tabernacle for the God of Jacob, we may go up into our bed, and give sleep to our eyes. It may be also that the soul, unable to sustain a continual energy by reason of its union with the flesh, may blamelessly admit some relaxation, which may be the moral interpretation of slumbers, and then again after due time be quickened to new energy.

HILARY; And whereas, when He returned and found them sleeping, He rebukes them the first time, the second time says nothing, the third time bids them take their rest; the interpretation of this is, that at the first after His resurrection, when He finds them dispersed, distrustful, and timorous, He rebukes them; the second time, when their eyes were heavy to look upon the liberty of the Gospel, He visited them, sending them the Spirit, the Paraclete; for, held back by attachment to the Law, they slumbered in respect of faith; but the third time, when He shall come in His glory, He shall restore them to quietness and confidence.

ORIGEN; When He had roused them from sleep, seeing in the Spirit Judas drawing near to betray Him, though the disciples could not yet see him, He says, Behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.

CHRYS. The words, the hour is at hand, point out that all that has been done was by Divine interference; and that, into the hands of sinners, show that this was the work of their wickedness, not that He was guilty of any crime.

ORIGEN; And even now Jesus is betrayed into the hands of sinners, when those who seem to believe in Jesus, continue to sin while they have Him in their hands. Also whenever a righteous man, who has Jesus in Him, is put into the power of sinners, Jesus is delivered into the hands of sinners.

JEROME; Having concluded His third prayer, and having obtained that the Apostles' terror should be corrected by subsequent penitence, He goes forth undaunted by the prospect of His own Passion to meet His pursuers, and offers Himself voluntarily to be sacrificed. Arise, let us be going; as much as to say, Let them not find you trembling, let us go forth willingly to death, that they may see us confident and rejoicing in suffering; Lo, he that shall betray me draws near.

ORIGEN; He says not, Draws near to you, for indeed the traitor was not near Him, but had removed himself far off through his sins.

AUG. This speech as Matthew has it seems self-contradictory. For how could He say, Sleep on, and take your rest, and immediately continue, Rise, let us be going. This contradiction some have endeavored to reconcile by supposing the words, Sleep on, and take your rest, to be an ironical rebuke, and not a permission; it might be rightly so taken if need were. But as Mark records it, when He had said, Sleep on, and take your rest, He added, it is enough, and then continued, The hour is come, behold, the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners; we clearly understand the Lord to have been silent some time after He had said, Sleep on, to allow of their doing so, and then after some interval to have roused them with, Behold, the hour is at hand. And as Mark fills up the sense with, it is enough, that is, you have had rest enough.

47. And while he yet spoke, lo, Judas, one of the twelve, came, and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the Chief Priests and elders of the people.
48. Now he that betrayed him gave them a sign, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he: hold him fast.
49. And forthwith he came to Jesus, and said, Hail, Master; and kissed him.
50. And Jesus said to him, Friend, wherefore are you come? Then came they, and laid hands on Jesus, and took him.

GLOSS. Having said above that the Lord offered Himself of His own accord to His pursuers, the Evangelist proceeds to relate how He was seized by them.

REMIG. One of the twelve, by association of name, not of desert. This shows the monstrous wickedness of the man who from the dignity of the Apostleship became the traitor. To show that it was out of envy that they seized Him, it is added, A great multitude sent by the Chief Priests and elders of the people.

ORIGEN; Some may say that a great multitude came, because of the great multitude of those who already believed, who, they feared, might rescue Him out of their hands; but I think there is another reason for this, and that is, that they who thought that He cast out demons through Beelzebub, supposed that by some magic He might escape the hands of those who sought to hold Him. Even now do many fight against Jesus with spiritual weapons, to wit, with divers and shifting dogmas concerning God. It deserves inquiry why, when He was as known by face to all who dwelt in Judea, he should have given them a sign, as though they were unacquainted with His person. But a tradition to this effect has come down to us, that not only had He two different forms, one under which He appeared to men, the other into which He was transfigured before His disciples in the mount, but also that He appeared to each man in such degree as the beholder was worthy; in like manner as we read of the manna, that it had a flavor adapted to every variety of use, and as the word of God shows not alike to all. They required therefore a sign by reason of this His transfiguration.

CHRYS. Or, because whenever they had hither attempted to seize Him, He had escaped them they knew not how; as also He might then have done had He been so minded.

RABAN. The Lord suffered the traitor's kiss, not to teach us to dissemble, but that He might not seem to shrink from His betrayal.

ORIGEN; If it be asked why Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss, according to some it was because He desired to keep up the reverence due to his Master, and did not dare to make an open assault upon Him; according to others, it was out of fear that if he came as an avowed enemy, he might be the cause of His escape, which he believed Jesus had it in His power to effect. But I think that all betrayers of truth love to assume the guise of truth, and to use the sign of a kiss. Like Judas also, all heretics call Jesus Rabbi, and receive from Him mild answer. And Jesus said to him, Friend, wherefore are you come? He says, Friend, upbraiding his hypocrisy; for in Scripture we never find this term of address used to any of the good, but as above, Friend, how came you in hither? and, Friend, I do you no wrong.

AUG. He says, Wherefore are you come? as much as to say, Your kiss is a snare for Me; I know wherefore you are come; you feign yourself My friend; being indeed My betrayer.

REMIG. Or, after Friend, for what you are come, that do, is understood. Then came they, and laid their hands on Jesus, and held him. Then, that is, when He suffered them, for often times they would have done it, but were not able.

PSEUDO-AUG. Exult, Christian, you have gained by this bargain of your enemies; what; Judas sold, and what the Jews bought, belongs to you.

51. And, behold, one of them which were with Jesus stretched out his hand, and drew his sword, and struck a servant of the High Priest's, and smote off his ear.
52. Then said Jesus to him, Put up again your sword into his place: for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword.
53. Think you that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels?
54. But how then shall the Scriptures be fulfilled, that thus it must be?

CHRYS. So Luke relates, the Lord had said to His disciples at supper, He that has a purse, let him take it, and likewise his scrip; and he that has no sword, let him sell his garment and buy one; and the disciples answered, Lo, here are two swords. It was natural that there should be swords there for the paschal lamb which they had been eating. Hearing then that the pursuers were coming to apprehend Christ, when they went out from supper they took these swords, as though to fight in defense of their Master against His pursuers.

JEROME; In another Gospel, Peter is represented as having done this, and with his usual hastiness; and that the servant's ant's name was Malchus, and that the ear was the right ear. In passing we may say, that Malchus, i.e. one who should have been king of the Jews, was made the slave of the ungodliness and the greediness of the Priests, and lost his right ear so that he might hear only the worthlessness of the letter in his left.

ORIGEN; For though they seem even now to hear the Law, yet is it only with the left ear that they hear the shadow of a tradition concerning the Law, and not the truth. The people of the Gentiles is signified by Peter; for by believing in Christ, they become the cause of cutting off the Jews' right ear.

RABAN. Or, Peter does not take away the sense of understanding from them that hear, but opens to the careless that which by a divine sentence was taken away from them; but this same right ear is restored to its original function in those who out of this nation believed.

HILARY; Otherwise; The ear of the High Priest's servant is cut off by the Apostle, that is, Christ's disciple cuts off the disobedient healing of a people which w were the slaves of the Priesthood, the ear which had refused to hear is cut off so that it is no longer capable of hearing.

LEO; The Lord of the zealous Apostle will not suffer his pious feeling to proceed further, Then says Jesus to him, Put up again your sword into his place. For it was contrary to the sacrament of our redemption that He, who had come to die for all, should refuse to be apprehended. He gives therefore license to their fury against Him, lest by putting off the triumph of His glorious Cross, the dominion of the Devil should be made longer, and the captivity of men more enduring.

RABAN. It was necessary also that the Author of grace should teach the faithful patience by His own example, and should rather train them to endure adversity with fortitude, than incite them to self-defense.

CHRYS. To move the disciple to this, He adds a threat, saying, All them that take the sword, shall perish by the sword.

AUG. That is, every one who uses the sword. And he uses the sword , who, without the command or sanction of any superior, or legitimate authority, arms himself against man's life. For truly the Lord had given commandment to His disciples to take the sword, but not to smite with the sword. Was it then at all unbecoming that Peter after this sin should become ruler of the Church, as Moses after smiting the Egyptian was made ruler and chief of the Synagogue? For both transgressed the rule not through hardened ferocity, but through a warmth of spirit capable of good; both through hatred of the injustice of others; both sinned through love, the one for his brother, the other for his Lord, though a carnal love.

HILARY; But all who use the sword do not perish by the sword; of those who have used the sword either judicially, or in self-defense against robbers, fever or accident carries off the greater part. Though if according to this every one who uses the sword shall perish by the sword, justly was the sword now drawn against those who were using the same for the promotion of crime.

JEROME; With what sword then shall he perish, that takes the sword? By that fiery sword which waves before the gate of paradise, and that sword of the Spirit which is described in the armor of God.

HILARY; The Lord then bids him return his sword into its sheath, because He would destroy them by no weapon of man, but by the sword, of His mouth.

REMIG. Otherwise; Every one who uses the sword to put man to death perishes first by the sword of his own wickedness.

CHRYS. He not only soothed His disciples, by this declaration of punishment against His enemies, but convinced them that it was voluntarily that He suffered, Think you that I cannot pray to my Father, &c. Because He had shown many qualities of human infirmity, He would have seemed to say what was incredible, if He had said that He had power to destroy them, therefore He says, Think you that I cannot now pray to my Father?

JEROME; That is to say, I need not the aid of the Apostles, though all the twelve should fight for me, seeing I could have twelve legions of the Angelic army. The complement of a legion among the ancients was six thousand men; twelve legions then are seventy-two thousand Angels, being as many as the divisions of the human race and language.

ORIGEN; This shows that the armies of heaven have divisions into legions like earthly armies, in the warfare of the Angels against the legions of the demons. This He said not as though He needed the aid of the Angels, but speaking in accordance with the supposition of Peter, who sought to give Him assistance. Truly the Angels have more need of the help of the Only-begotten Son of God, than He of theirs.

REMIG. We might also understand by the Angels the Roman armies, for with Titus and Vespasian all languages had risen, against Judea, and that was fulfilled, The whole world shall fight for him against those foolish men.

CHRYS. And He quiets their fears not thus only, but by reference to Scripture, How then shall the Scriptures be fulfilled that thus it must be?

JEROME; This speech shows a mind willing to suffer; vainly would the Prophets have prophesied truly, unless the Lord asserts their truth by His suffering.

55. In that same hour said Jesus to the multitudes, Are you come out as against a thief with swords and staves for to take me? I sat daily with you in the temple, and you laid no hold on me.
56. But all this was done, that the Scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled. Then all the disciples forsook him, and fled.
57. And they that had laid hold on Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the High Priest, where the Scribes and the elders were assembled.
58. But Peter followed him afar off to the High Priest's palace, and went in, and sat with the servants, to see the end.

ORIGEN; Having commanded Peter to put up his sword, which was an instance of patience, and having (as another Evangelist writes) healed the ear that was cut off, which was an instance of the greatest mercy, and of Divine power, it now follows, In that hour said Jesus to the multitudes, (to the end that if they could not remember His past goodness, they might at least confess His present,) Are you come out as against a thief with swords and staves for to take me?

REMIG. As much as to say, Robbers assault and study concealment; I have injured no one, but have healed many, and have ever taught in your synagogues.

JEROME; It is folly then to seek with swords and staves Him who offers Himself to your hands, and with a traitor to hunt out, as though lurking under cover of night, one who is daily teaching in the temple.

CHRYS. They did not lay hands on Him in the temple because they feared the multitude, therefore also the Lord went forth that He might give them place and opportunity to take Him. This then teaches them, that if He had not suffered them of His own free choice, they would never have had strength to take Him. Then the Evangelist assigns the reason why the Lord was willing to be taken, adding, All this was done that the Scriptures of the Prophets might be fulfilled.

JEROME; They pierced my hands and my feet; and in another place, He is led as a sheep to the slaughter; and, By the iniquities of my people was He led to death.

REMIG. For because all the Prophets had foretold Christ's Passion, he does not cite any particular place, but says generally that the prophecies of all the Prophets were being fulfilled.

CHRYS The disciples who had remained when the Lord was apprehended, fled when He spoke these things to the multitudes, Then all the disciples forsook Him and fled; for they then understood that He could not escape but rather gave Himself up voluntarily.

REMIG. In this act is shown the Apostles' frailty; in the first ardor of their faith they had promised to die with Him, but in their fear they forgot their promise and fled. The same we may see in those who undertake to do great things for the love of God, but fail to fulfill what they undertake; they ought not to despair, but to rise again with the Apostles, and recover themselves by penitence.

RABAN. Mystically, As Peter, who by tears washed away, the sin of his denial, figures the recovery of those who lapse in time of martyrdom; so the flight of the other disciples suggests the precaution of flight to such as feel themselves unfit to endure torments.

AUG. They that had laid hold on Jesus led Him away to Caiaphas the High Priest. But He was first taken to Annas, father-in-law to Caiaphas, as John relates. And He was taken bound, there being with that multitude a tribune and cohort as John also records.

JEROME; But Josephus writes, that this Caiaphas had purchased the priesthood of a single year, notwithstanding that Moses, at God's command, had directed that High Priests should succeed hereditarily, and that in the Priests likewise succession by birth should be followed up. No wonder then that an unrighteous High Priest should judge unrighteously.

RABAN. And the action suits his name; Caiaphas, i.e. 'contriving,' or, 'politic,' to execute his villainy; or 'vomiting from his mouth,' because of his audacity in uttering a lie, and bringing about the murder. They took Jesus thither, that they might do all advisedly; as it follows, Where the Scribes and the Elders were assembled.

ORIGEN; Where Caiaphas the High Priest is, there are assembled the Scribes, that is, the men of the letter, who preside over the letter that kills; and Elders, not in truth, but in the obsolete ancientness of the letter. It follows, Peter followed Him afar off, He would neither keep close to Him, nor altogether leave Him, but followed afar off.

CHRYS. Great was the zeal of Peter, who fled not when He saw the others fly, but remained, and entered in. For though John also went in, yet he was known to the Chief Priest. He followed afar off, because he was about to deny his Lord.

REMIG. For had he kept close to his Lord's side, he could never have denied Him. This also shows that Peter should follow his Lord's Passion, that is, imitate it.

AUG. And also that the Church should follow, i.e. imitate, the Lord's Passion, but with great difference. For the Church suffers for itself, but Christ for the Church.

JEROME; He went in, either out of the attachment of a disciple, or natural curiosity, seeking to know what sentence the High Priest would pass, whether death, or scourging.

59. Now the Chief Priests, and elders, and all the council, sought false witness against Jesus, to put him to death;
60. But found none: yes, though many false witnesses came, yet found they none. At the last came two false witnesses,
61. And said, This fellow said, I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days.
62. And the High Priest arose, and said to him, Answer you nothing? what is it which these witness against you?
63. But Jesus held his peace. And the High Priest answered and said to him, I adjure you by the living God, that you tell us whether you be the Christ, the Son of God.
64. Jesus said to him, You have said: nevertheless I say to you, Hereafter shall you see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.
65. Then the High Priest rent his clothes, saying, He has spoken blasphemy; what further need have we of witnesses? behold, now you have heard his blasphemy.
66. What think you? They answered and said, He is guilty of death.
67. Then did they spit in his face, and buffeted him; and others smote him with the palms of their hands,
68. Saying, Prophesy to us, you Christ, Who is he that smote you?

When the Chief Priests were thus assembled, this conventicle of ruffians sought to give their conspiracy the character of a legal trial. But it was entirely a scene of confusion and uproar, as what follows shows, Though many false witnesses came, yet found they none.

False witnesses have place when there is any good color for their testimony. But no pretext was found which could further their falsehoods against Jesus; notwithstanding there were many desirous to do a favor to the Chief Priests. This then is a great testimony in favor of Jesus, that He had lived and taught so irreproachably, that though they were many, and crafty, and wicked, they could find no semblance of fault in Him.

At last came two false witnesses. How are they false witnesses, when they repeat only what we read that the Lord spoke? A false witness is one who takes what is said in a different sense from that in which it was said. Now this the Lord had spoken of the temple of His Body, and they cavil at His expressions, and by a slight change and addition produce a plausible charge. The Lord's words were, Destroy this temple; this they make into, I can destroy the Temple of God. He said, Destroy not 'I will destroy,' because it is unlawful to lay hands on ourselves. Also they phrased it, And build it again, making it apply to the temple of the Jews; but the Lord had said, And I will raise it up again, thus clearly pointing out a living and breathing temple. For to build again, and to raise again, are two different things.

CHRYS. Why did they not bring forward now His breaking the Sabbath? Because He had so often confuted them on this point.

Headlong and uncontrolled rage, unable to find even a false accusation, moves the High Priest from his throne, the motion of his body showing the emotion of his mind. And the High Priest arose, and said to him, Answer you nothing to the things which these witness against You?

He said this with a design to draw from Him some indefensible answer which might be made a snare for Him. But Jesus held his peace, for defense had availed nothing when none would listen to it. For here was only a mockery of justice, it was in truth nothing more than the anarchy of a den of robbers.

ORIGEN; This place teaches us to contemn the clamors of slanderers and false witnesses, and not to consider those who speak unbeseeming things of us worthy of an answer; but then, above all, when it is greater to be manfully and resolutely silent, than to plead our cause in vain.

JEROME; For as God, He knew that whatever He said would be twisted into an accusation against Him. But at this His silence before false witnesses and ungodly Priests, the High Priest was exasperated, and summons Him to answer, that from any thing He says he may raise a charge against Him.

Under the Law, we do indeed find many instances of this adjuration; but I judge that a man who would live according to the Gospel should not adjure another; for if we are not permitted to swear, surely not to adjure. But he that regards Jesus commanding the demons, and giving His disciples power over them, will say, that to address the demons by the power given by the Savior, is not to adjure them. But the High Priest did sin in laying a snare for Jesus; imitating his father, who twice asked the Savior, If you be Christ the Son of God. Hence one might rightly say, that to doubt concerning the Son of God, whether Christ be He, is the work of the Devil. It was not fit that the Lord should answer the High Priest's adjuration as though under compulsion, wherefore He neither denied nor confessed Himself to be the Son of God. For he was not worthy to be the object of Christ's teaching, therefore He does not instruct him, but taking up his own words retorts them upon him. This sitting of the Son of Man seems to me to denote a certain regal security; by the power of God, Who is the only power, is He securely seated to Whom is given by His Father all power in heaven as in earth. And there will come a time when the enemies shall see this establishment. Indeed this has begun to be fulfilled from the earliest time of the dispensation; for the disciples saw Him rising from the dead, and thereby saw Him seated on the right hand of power. Or, In respect of that eternity of duration which is with God, from the beginning of the world to the end of it is but one day; it is therefore no wonder that the Savior here says, Shortly, signifying that there is but short time before the end come. He prophesies moreover, that they should not only see Him sitting at the right hand of power, but also coming in the clouds of heaven. These clouds are the Prophets and Apostles, whom He commands to rain when it is required, they are the clouds that pass not away, but bearing the image of the heavenly, are worthy to he the throne of God, as heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ.

The same fury which drew the High Priest from his seat, impels him now to rend his clothes; for so it was customary with the Jews to do whenever they heard any blasphemy, or any thing against God.

CHRYS. This He did to give weight to the accusation, and to confirm by deeds what He taught in words.

JEROME; And by this rending his garments, he shows that the Jews have lost the priestly glory, and that their High Priest's throne was vacant. For by rending his garment he rent the veil of the Law which covered him.

Then, after rending his garment, he did not give sentence of himself; but asked of others, saying, What think you? As was always done in undeniable cases of sin, and manifest blasphemy, and as by force driving them to a certain opinion, he anticipates the answer, What need we any further witnesses? Behold, now you have heard his blasphemy. What was this blasphemy? For before He had interpreted to them as they were gathered together that text, The Lord said to my Lord, Sit you on my right hand, and they had held their peace, and had not contradicted Him. How then do they call what He now says blasphemy? They answered and said, He is guilty of death, the same persons, at once accusers, examiners, and sentencers.

ORIGEN; How great their error! to pronounce the principle of all men's life to be guilty of death, and not to acknowledge by the testimony of the resurrection of so many, the Fount of life, from Whom life flows to all that rise again.

CHRYS. As hunters who have started their game, so they exhibit a wild and drunken exultation.

They spit in his face, and buffeted him, to fulfill the prophecy of Esaias, I gave my cheek to the smiters, and turned not away my face from shame and spitting.

Prophesy to us; is said in ridicule of His claim to be held as a Prophet by the people.

JEROME; But it would have been foolish to have answered them that smote Him, and to have declared the smiter, seeing that in their madness they seem to have struck; Him openly.

CHRYS. Observe how circumstantially the Evangelist recounts all those particulars even which seem most disgraceful, hiding or extenuating nothing, but thinking it the highest glory that the Lord of the earth should endure such things for us. This let us read continually, let us imprint in our minds, and in these things let us boast.

AUG. That, they did spit in his face, signifies those who reject His proffered grace. They likewise buffet Him who prefer their own honor to Him; and they smite Him on the face, who, blinded with unbelief, affirm that He is not yet come, disowning and rejecting His person.

69. Now Peter sat without in the palace: and a damsel came to him, saying, You also were with Jesus of Galilee.
70. But he denied before them all, saying, I know not what you say.
71. And when he was gone out into the porch, another maid saw him, and said to them that were there, This fellow was also with Jesus of Nazareth.
72. And again he denied with an oath, I do not know the man.
73. And after a while came to him they that stood by, and said to Peter, Surely you also are one of them; for your speech betrays you.
74. Then began he to curse and to swear, saying, I know not the man. And immediately the cock crew.
75. And Peter remembered the word of Jesus, which said to him, Before the cock crow, you shall deny me thrice. And he went out, and wept bitterly.

Among the other insults offered to our Lord was the threefold denial of Peter, which the several Evangelists relate in different order. Luke puts Peter's trial first, and the ill-usage of the Lord after that; Matthew and Mark reverse the order.

JEROME; Peter sat without, that he might see the event, and not excite suspicion by any approach to Jesus.

And he, who, when he saw his Master laid hands on, drew his sword and cut off the ear, now when he sees Him enduring such insults becomes a denier, and cannot withstand the taunts of a mean servant girl. A damsel came to him, saying, You also were with Jesus of Galilee.

RABAN. What means this, that a handmaid is the first to tax him, when men would be more likely to recognize him, except that this sex might seem to sin somewhat in the Lord's death, that they might be redeemed by His passion? He denied before them all, because he was afraid to reveal himself; that he said, I know not, shows that he was not yet willing to die for the Savior. LEO, For this reason it should seem he was permitted to waver, that the remedy of penitence might be exhibited in the head of the Church, and that none should dare to trust in his own strength, when even the blessed Peter could not escape the danger of frailty.

But not once, but twice and thrice did he deny within a short time.

AUG. We understand that having gone out after his first denial, the cock crowed the first time as Mark relates.

CHRYS. To show that the sound did not keep him from denial, nor bring his promise to mind.

AUG. The second denial was not outside the door, but after he had returned to the fire; for the second maid did not see him after he had gone out, but as he was going out; his getting up to go out drew her attention, and she said to them that were there, that is, to those that were standing round the fire in the hall, This fellow was with Jesus of Nazareth. He who had gone out, having heard this returned, that he might by denial vindicate himself. Or, as is more likely, he did not hear what was said of him as he went out, but it was after he came back that the maid, and the other man whom Luke mentions, said to him, And you also are one of them.

And again he denied with an oath, I do not know the man. I know that some out of a feeling of piety towards the Apostle Peter have interpreted this place to signify that Peter denied the Man and not the God, as though he meant, 'I do not know the Man, because I know the God.' But the intelligent reader will see that this is trifling, for if he denied not, the Lord spoke falsely when He said, You shall deny me thrice.

AMBROSE; I had rather that Peter deny, than that the Lord be made out false.

RABAN. In this denial of Peter we affirm that Christ is denied not only by him who denies that He is Christ, but who denies himself to be a Christian.

Let us now come to the third denial; And after a while came they that stood by, and said to Peter, Surely you also are one of them, (Luke's words are, About the space of one hour after,) for your speech betrays you.

JEROME; Not that Peter was of a different speech or nation, but a Hebrew as his accusers wore; but every province and every district has its peculiarities, and he could not disguise his native pronunciation. Observe how baneful are communications with evil men; they even drove Peter to deny the Lord whom he had before confessed to be the Son of God.

RABAN. Observe, that he said the first time, I know not what you say; the second time, He denied with an oath; the third time, He began to curse and to swear that he knew not the man. For to persevere in sinning increases sinfulness, and he who disregards light sins, falls into greater.

REMIG Spiritually; By Peter's denial before the cock crow, are denoted those who before Christ's resurrection did not believe Him to be God, being perplexed by His death. In his denial after the first cock-crow, are denoted those who are in error concerning both Christ's natures, His human and divine. By the first handmaid is signified desire; by the second, carnal delight; by them that stood by, the demons; for by them men are led to a denial of Christ.

ORIGEN; Or, By the first handmaid is understood the Synagogue of the Jews, which oft compelled the faithful to deny; by the second, the congregations of the Gentiles, who even persecuted the Christians; they that stood in the hall signify the ministers of divers heresies, who also compel men to deny the truth of Christ.

AUG. Also Peter thrice denied, because heretical error concerning Christ is limited to three kinds; they are in error respecting His divinity, His humanity, or both.

RABAN. After the third denial comes the cock-crow; by which we may understand a Doctor of the Church who with chiding rouses the slumbering, saying, Awake, your righteous, and sin not. Thus Holy Scripture uses to denote the merit of divers cases by fixed periods, as Peter sinned at midnight and repented at cock-crow.

In another Gospel we read, that after Peter's denial and the cock-crow, the Savior looked upon Peter, and by His look called forth those bitter tears; for it might not be that he on whom the Light of the world had looked should continue in the darkness of denial, wherefore, he went out, and wept bitterly. For he could not do penitence sitting in Caiaphas' hall, but went forth from the assembly of the wicked, that he might wash away in bitter tears the pollution of his timid denial.

LEO; Blessed tears, O holy Apostle, which had the virtue of holy Baptism in washing off the sin of your denial. The right hand of the Lord Jesus Christ was with you to hold you up before you were quite thrown down, and in the midst of your perilous fall, thou received strength to stand. The Rock quickly returned to its stability, recovering so great fortitude, that he who in Christ's passion had quailed, should endure his own subsequent suffering with fearlessness and constancy.

Catena Aurea Matthew 26
42 posted on 04/13/2014 10:31:47 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex


catena aurea matthew 27

1. When the morning was come, all the Chief Priests and elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death:
2. And when they had bound him, they led him away, and delivered him to Pontius Pilate the governor.
3. Then Judas, which had betrayed him, when he saw that he was condemned, repented himself, and brought again the thirty pieces of silver to the Chief Priests and elders,
4. Saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood. And they said, What is that to us? See you to that.
5. And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, and departed, and went and hanged himself.

AUG. The Evangelist had above brought down his history, of what was done to the Lord as far as early morning; he then turned back to relate Peter's denial, after which he returned to the morning to continue the course of events, When the morning was come, &c.

ORIGEN; They supposed that by His death they should crush His doctrine, and the belief in Him of those who believed Him to be the Son of God. With such purpose against Him they bound Jesus, Who looses them that are bound.

JEROME; Observe the evil zeal of the Chief Priests; they watched the whole night with a view to this murder. And they gave Him up to Pilate bound, for such was their practice to send bound to the judge any whom they had sentenced to death.

RABAN. Though it should be observed that they did not now first bind Him, but before, when they first laid hands upon Him in the garden, as John relates.

CHRYS. They did not put Him to death in secret, because they sought to destroy His reputation, and the wonder with which He was regarded by many. For this reason they were minded to put Him to death openly before all, and therefore they led Him to the governor.

JEROME; Judas, when he saw that the Lord was condemned to death, returned the money to the Priests, as though it had been in his power to change the minds of His persecutors.

ORIGEN. Let the propounders of those fables concerning intrinsically evil natures a answer me here, whence Judas came to the acknowledgment of his sin, I have sinned in that I have betrayed righteous blood, except through the good mind originally implanted in him, and that seed of virtue which is sown in every rational soul? But Judas did not cherish this, and so fell into this sin. But if ever any man was made of a nature that was to perish, Judas was yet more of such a nature. If indeed he had done this after Christ's resurrection, it might have been said, that the power of the resurrection brought him to repentance. But he repented when he saw Christ delivered up to Pilate, perhaps remembering the things Jesus had so often spoken of His resurrection.

Or, perhaps Satan who had entered into him continued with him till Jesus was given up to Pilate, and then, having accomplished his purpose, departed from him; whereupon he repented. But how could Judas know that He was condemned, for He had not yet been examined by Pilate? One may perhaps say, that he foreboded the event in his own mind from the very first, when he saw Him delivered up. Another may explain the words, when he saw that he was condemned, of Judas himself, that he then perceived his evil case, and saw that he himself was condemned. LEO; When he says, I have sinned, in that I have betrayed innocent blood, he persists in his wicked treachery, seeing that amid the last struggles of death he believed not Jesus to be the Son of God, but merely man of our rank; for had he not thus denied His omnipotence, he would have obtained His mercy.

CHRYS. Observe that he repents only when his sin is finished and complete; for so the Devil suffers not those who are not watchful to see the evil before they bring it to an end.

REMIG. But they said, What is that to us? that is to say, What is it to us that He is righteous? See you to if, i.e. to your own deed what will come of it. Though some would read these in one, What must we think of you, when you confess that the man whom yourself have betrayed is innocent?

ORIGEN; But when the Devil leaves any one, he watches his time for return, and having taken it, he leads him into a second sin, and then watches for opportunity for a third deceit. So the man who had married his father's wife afterwards repented him of this sin, but again the Devil resolved so to augment this very sorrow of repentance, that his sorrow being made too abundant might swallow up the sorrower. Something like this took place in Judas, who after his repentance did not preserve his own heart, but received that more abundant sorrow supplied to him by the Devil, who sought to swallow him up, as it follows, And he went out, and hanged himself.

But had he desired and looked for place and time for repentance, he would perhaps have found Him who has said, I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked. Or, perhaps, he desired to die before his Master on His way to death, and to meet Him with a disembodied spirit, that by confession and deprecation he might obtain mercy; and did not see that it is not fitting that a servant of God should dismiss himself from life, but should wait God's sentence.

RABAN. He hung himself, to show that he was hateful to both heaven and earth.

PSEUDO-AUG. Since thee Chief Priests were employed about the murder of the Lord from the morning to the ninth hour, how is this proved that before the crucifixion Judas returned them the money he had received, and said to them in the temple, I have sinned, in that I have betrayed innocent blood? Whereas it is manifest that the Chief Priests and Elders were never in the temple before the Lord's crucifixion, seeing that when He was hanging on the Cross they were there to insult Him. Nor indeed can this be proved hence, because it is related before the Lord's Passion, for many things which were manifestly done before, are related after, that, and the reverse.

It might have been done after the ninth hour, when Judas, seeing the Savior dead and the veil of the temple rent, the earthquake, the bursting of the rocks, and the elements terrified, was seized with fear and sorrow thereupon. But after the ninth hour the Chief Priests and Elders were occupied, as I suppose, in the celebration of the Passover; and on the Sabbath, the Law would not have allowed him to bring money. Therefore it is to me as yet unproved on what day or at what time Judas ended his life by hanging.

6. And the Chief Priests took the silver pieces, and said, It is not lawful for to put them into the treasury, because it is the price of blood.
7. And they took counsel, and bought with them the potter's field, to bury strangers in.
8. Wherefore that field was called, The field of blood, to this day.
9. Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was valued, whom they of the children of Israel did value;
10. And gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord appointed me.

CHRYS. The Chief Priests knowing that they had purchased a murder were condemned by their own conscience, they said, It is the price of blood.

JEROME; Truly straining out the gnat, and swallowing the camel; for if they would not put the money into the treasury, because it was the price of blood, wily did they sued the blood at all?

ORIGEN; They thought it meet to spend upon the dead that money which was the price of blood. But as there are differences even in burial places, they used the price of Jesus' blood in the purchase of some potter's field, where foreigners might be buried, not as they desired in the sepulchers of their fathers.

AUG. It was brought about, I conceive, by God's providence that the Savior's price should not minister means of excess to sinners, but repose to foreigners, that thence Christ might both redeem the living by the shedding of His blood, and harbor the dead by the price of His passion. Therefore with the price of the Lord's blood the potter's field is purchased. We read in Scripture that the salvation of the whole human race has been purchased by the Savior's blood. This field then is the whole world. The potter who is the Lord of the soil, is He who has formed of clay the vessels of our bodies. This potter's field then was purchased by Christ's blood, and to strangers who without country or home wander over the whole world, repose is provided by Christ's blood. These foreigners are the more devout Christians, who have renounced the world, and have no possession in it, and so repose in Christ's blood; for the burial of Christ is nothing but the repose of a Christian; for as the Apostle says, We are buried with him by baptism into death. We are in this life then as foreigners.

JEROME; Also we, who were strangers to the Law and the Prophets, have profited by the perverse temper of the Jews to obtain salvation for ourselves.

ORIGEN; Or, the foreigners are they who to the end are aliens from God, for the righteous are buried with Christ in a new tomb hewn out in the rock. But they who are aliens from God, even to the end, are buried in the field of a potter, a worker in clay, which being bought by the price of blood, is called the field of blood.

GLOSS. To this day means to the time when the Evangelist was then writing. He then confirms the event by the testimony of the Prophet; Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the Prophet, &c.

JEROME; This is not found at all in Hieremias; but in Zacharias, who is the last but one of the twelve Prophets, something like it is told, and though the sense is not very different, yet the arrangement and the words are different.

AUG. But if any one thinks this lowers the historian's credit, first let him know that not all the copies of the Gospels have the name Hieremias, but some simply by the Prophet. But I do not like this defense, because the more, and the more ancient, copies have Hieremias, and there could be no reason for adding the name, and thus making an error. But its erasure is well accounted for by the hardihood of ignorance having heard the foregoing objection urged. It might be then, that the name Hieremias occurred to the mind of Matthew as he wrote, instead of the name Zacharias, as so often happens; and that he would have straightway corrected it, when pointed out to him by such as read this while he yet lived in the flesh, had he not thought that his memory, being guided by the Holy Spirit, would not thus have called up to him one name instead of another, had not the Lord determined that it should thus be written.

And why He should have so determined, the first reason is, that it would convey the wonderful consent of the Prophets, who all spoke by one Spirit, which is much greater than if all the words of all the Prophets had been uttered through the mouth of one man; so that we receive without doubt whatever the Holy Spirit spoke through them, each word belongs to all in common, and the whole is the utterance of each. Suppose it to happen at this day, that in repeating another's words one should mention not the speaker's name, but that of some other person, who however ever was the other's greater friend, and then immediately recollecting himself should correct himself, he might yet add, Yet am I right, if you only think of the close unanimity that exists between the two. How much more is this to be observed of the holy Prophets! There is a second reason why the name Hieremias should be suffered to remain in this quotation from Zacharias, or rather why it should have been suggested by the Holy Spirit.

It is said in Hieremias, that he bought a field of his brother's son, and gave him silver for it, though not indeed the sum stated in Zacharias, thirty pieces of silver. That the Evangelist has here adapted the thirty pieces of silver in Zacharias to this transaction in the Lord's history, is plain; but he may also wish to convey that what Hieremas speaks of the held is mystically alluded to here, and therefore he puts not the name of Zacharias who spoke of the thirty pieces of silver, but of Hieremas who spoke of the purchase of the field. So that in reading the Gospel and finding the name of Hieremas, but not finding there the passage respecting the thirty pieces of silver, but the account of the purchase of the field, the reader might be induced to compare the two together, and so extract from them the sense of the prophecy, flow far it refers to what was now accomplished ill the Lord.

For what Matthew adds to the prophecy, Whom they of the children of Israel did value, and gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord appointed me this, as the Lord appointed me, is found neither in Zacharias nor Hieremias. It must then be taken in the person of the Evangelist as inserted with a mystic meaning, that he had learned by revelation that the prophecy referred to this matter of the price for which Christ was betrayed.

JEROME; Far be it then from a follower of Christ to suppose him guilty of falsehood, whereas his business was not to pry into words and syllables, but to lay down there staple of doctrine.

ID. I have lately read in a Hebrew book given me by a Hebrew of the Nazarene sect, an apocryphal Hieremias, in which I find the very words here quoted. After all, I am rather inclined to think that the passage was taken by Matthew out of Zacharias, in the usual manner of the Apostles and Evangelists when they quote from the Old Testament, neglecting the words, and attending only to the sense.

11. And Jesus stood before the governor: and the governor asked him, saying, Are you the King of the Jews? And Jesus said to him, you say it.
12. And when he was accused by the Chief Priests and elders, he answered nothing.
13. Then said Pilate to him, Hear you not how many things they witness against you?
14. And he answered him to never a word; insomuch that the governor marveled greatly.

AUG. Matthew, having finished his digression concerning the traitor Judas, returns to the course of his narrative, saying, Jesus stood before the governor.

ORIGEN; Mark how He that is ordained by His Father to be the Judge of the whole creation, humbled Himself, and was content to stand before the judge of the land of Judea, and to be asked by Pilate either in mockery or doubt, Are you the King of the Jesus?

CHRYS. Pilate asked Christ that which His enemies were continually casting in His teeth, for because they knew that Pilate cared not for matters of their Law, they had recourse to a public charge.

ORIGEN; Or, Pilate spoke this affirmatively, as he afterwards wrote in the inscription, The King of the Jews. By answering to the Chief Priest, you have said, He indirectly reproved his doubts, but now He turns Pilate's speech into an affirmative, Jesus said to him, you say it.

CHRYS. He acknowledges Himself to be a King, but a heavenly one, as it is more expressly said in another Gospel. My kingdom is not of this world, so that neither the Jews nor Pilate were excusable for insisting on this accusation.

HILARY; Or, when asked by the High Priest whether He were Jesus the Christ, He answered, you have said, because He had ever maintained out of the Law that Christ should come, but to Pilate who was ignorant of the Law, and asks if He were the King of the Jews, He answers, you say it, because the salvation of the Gentiles is through faith of that present confession.

JEROME; But observe, that to Pilate who asked the question unwillingly He did answer somewhat; but to the Chief Priests and Priests He refused to answer, judging them unworthy of a word; And when he was accused by the Chief Priests and Elders, he answered nothing.

AUG. Luke explains what were the accusations alleged against Him, And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying, that he himself is Christ a King. But it is of no consequence to the truth in what order they relate the history, or that one omits what another inserts.

ORIGEN; Neither then nor now did Jesus make any reply to their accusations, for the word of God was not sent to them, as it was formerly to the Prophets. Neither was Pilate worthy of an answer, as he had no fixed or abiding opinion of Christ, but veered about to contradictory suppositions. Hear you not how many things they witness against you?

JEROME; Thus though it is a Gentile who sentences Jesus, he lays the cause of His condemnation upon the Jews.

CHRYS. He said this out of a wish to release Him, if He should justify Himself in His answer. But the Jews, though they had so many practical proofs of His power, His meekness and humbleness, were yet enraged against Him, and urged on by a perverted judgment. Wherefore He answers nothing, or if He makes any answer He says little, that total silence might not be construed into obstinacy.

JEROME; Or, Jesus would not make any answer, lest if He cleared Himself the governor should have let Him go, and the benefit of His cross should have been deferred.

ORIGEN; The governor marveled at His endurance, as knowing that he had power to condemn Him, He yet continued in a peaceful, placid, and immovable prudence and gravity. He marveled greatly, for it seemed to him a great miracle that Christ, produced before a criminal tribunal, stood thus fearless of death, which all men think so terrible.

15. Now at that feast the governor was wont to release to the people a prisoner, whom they would.
16. And they had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas.
17. Therefore when they were gathered together, Pilate said to them, Whom will you that I release to you? Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ?
18. For he knew that for envy they had delivered him.
19. When he was set down on the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, Have you nothing to do with that just man: for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him.
20. But the Chief Priests and elders persuaded the multitude that they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus.
21. The governor answered and said to them, Whether of the two will you that I release to you? They said, Barabbas.
22. Pilate said to them, What shall I do then with Jesus which is called Christ? They all say to him, Let him be crucified.
23. And the governor said, Why, what evil has he done? But they cried out the more, saying, Let him be crucified.
24. When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing but that rather a tumult was made, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person; see you to it.
25. Then answered all the people, and said, His blood be on us, and on our children.
26. Then released he Barabbas to them: and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified.

CHRYS. Because Christ had answered nothing to the accusations of the Jews, by which Pilate could acquit Him of what was alleged against Him, he contrives other means of saving Him. Now on the feast day the governor was wont to release to the people a prisoner whom they would.

ORIGEN; Thus do the Gentiles show favors to those whom they subject to themselves, until their yoke is riveted. Yet did this practice obtain also among the Jews, Saul did not put Jonathan to death, because all the people sought his life.

CHRYS. And he sought to rescue Christ by means of this practice, that the Jews might not have the shadow of an excuse left them. A convicted murderer is put in comparison with Christ, Barabbas, whom he calls not merely a robber, but a notable one, that is, renowned for crime.

JEROME; In the Gospel entitled 'according to the Hebrews', Barabbas is interpreted, 'The son of their master', who had been condemned for sedition and murder. Pilate gives them the choice between Jesus and the robber, not doubting but that Jesus would be the rather chosen.

CHRYS. Whom will you that I release to you? &c. As much as to say, If you will not let Him go as innocent, at least, yield Him, as convicted, to this holy day. For if you would have released one of whose guilt there was no doubt, much more should you do so in doubtful cases. Observe how circumstances are reversed. It is the populace who arc wont to petition for the condemned, and the prince to grant, but here it is the reverse, the prince asks of the people, and renders them thereby more violent.

GLOSS. The Evangelist adds the reason why Pilate sought to deliver Christ, For he knew that for envy they had delivered him.

REMIG. John explains what their envy was, when he says; Behold, the world is gone after him; and, If we let him thus alone, all men will believe in him. Observe also that in place of what Matthew says, Jesus, who is called Christ, Mark says, Will you that I release to you the King of the Jews? For the kings of the Jews alone were anointed, and from that anointing were called Christs.

CHRYS. Then is added something else which alone was enough to deter all from putting Him to death; When he was set on the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, Have you nothing to do with that just man. For joined with the proof afforded by the events themselves, a dream was no light confirmation.

RABAN. It is to be noted, that the bench (tribunal) is the seat of the judge, the throne (sodium) of the king, the chair (cathedra) of the master. In visions and dreams the wife of a Gentile understood what the Jews when awake would neither believe nor understand

JEROME; Observe also that visions are often vouchsafed by God to the Gentiles, and that the confession of Pilate and his v if e that the Lord was innocent is a testimony of the Gentile people.

CHRYS. But why did Pilate himself not see this Vision? Because his wife was more worthy; or because if Pilate had seen it, he would not have had equal credit, or perhaps would not have told it; wherefore it is provided by God that his wife should see it, and thus it be made manifest to all. And she not merely sees it, but suffers many things because of him, so that sympathy with his wife would make the husband more slack to put Him to death. And the time agreed well, for it was the same night that she saw it.

ID. Thus then the judge is terrified through his wife, and that he might not consent in the judgment to the accusation of the Jews, himself endured judgment in the affliction of his wife; the judge is judged, and tortured before he tortures.

RABAN. Or otherwise; The devil now at last understanding that he should lose his trophies through Christ, as he had at the first brought in death by a woman, so by a woman he would deliver Christ out of the hands of His enemies, lest through His death he should lose the sovereignty of death.

CHRYS. But none of the foregoing things moved Christ's enemies, because envy had altogether blinded them, and of their own wickedness they corrupt the people, for they persuaded the people that they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus.

ORIGEN; Thus it is plainly seen how the Jewish people is moved by its elders and the doctors of the Jewish system, and stirred up against Jesus to destroy Him.

GLOSS. Pilate is said to make this answer, Whether of the two will you that I release to you? either to the message of his wife, or the petition of the people, with whom it was a custom to ask such release on the feast-day.

ORIGEN; But the populace, like wild beasts that rage the open plains, would have Barabbas released to them. For this people had seditions, murders, robberies, practiced by some of their own nation in act, and nourished by all of them who believe not in Jesus, inwardly in their mind. Where Jesus is not, there are strifes and fightings; where He is, there is peace and all good things. All those who are like the Jews either in doctrine or life desire Barabbas to be loosed to them; for whoever does evil, Barabbas is loosed in his body, and Jesus bound; but he that does good has Christ loosed, and Barabbas bound. Pilate sought to strike them with shame for so great injustice, What shall I do then with Jesus that is called Christ? And not that only, but desiring to fill up the measure of their guilt. But neither do they blush that Pilate confessed Jesus to be the Christ, nor set any bounds to their impiety, They all say to him, let him be crucified. Thus they multiplied the sum of their wickedness, not only asking the life of a murderer, but the death of a righteous man, and that the shameful death of the cross.

RABAN. Those who were crucified being suspended on a cross, by nails driven into the wood through their hands and feet, perished by a lingering death, and lived long on the cross, not that they sought longer life, but that death was deferred to prolong their sufferings. The Jews indeed contrived this as the worst of deaths, but it had been chosen by the Lord without their privity, thereafter to place upon the foreheads of the faithful the same cross as a trophy of His victory over the Devil.

JEROME; Yet even after this answer of theirs, Pilate did not at once assent, but in accordance with his wife's suggestion, Have you nothing to do with that just man, he answered, Why, what evil has he done? This speech of Pilate's acquits Jesus. But they cried out the more, saying, Let him be crucified; that it might be fulfilled which is said in the Psalm, Many dogs have compassed me, the congregation of the wicked has enclosed me; and also that of Hieremias, My heritage is to me as a lion in the forest, they have given forth their voice against me.

AUG. Pilate many times pleaded with Jews, desiring that Jesus might be released, which Matthew witnesses in very few words, when he says, Pilate seeing that he could prevail nothing, but that rather a tumult was made. He would not have spoken thus, if Pilate had not striven much, though how many efforts he made to release Jesus he does not mention.

REMIG. It was customary among the ancients, when one would refuse to participate in any crime, to take water and wash his hands before the people.

JEROME; Pilate took water in accordance with that, I will wash my hands in innocency, in a manner testifying and saying, I indeed have sought to deliver this innocent man, but since a tumult is rising, and the charge of treason to Caesar is urged against me, I am innocent of the blood of this just man. The judge then who is thus compelled to give sentence against the Lord, does not convict the accused, but the accusers, pronouncing innocent Him who is to be crucified. See you to it, as though he had said, I am the law's minister, it is your voice that has shed this blood. Then answered all the people and said, His blood be on us and on our children. This imprecation rests at the present day upon the Jews, the Lord's blood is not removed from them.

CHRYS. Observe here the infatuation of the Jews; their headlong haste, and destructive passions will not let them see what they ought to see, and they curse themselves, saying, His blood be upon us, and even entail the curse upon their children. Yet a merciful God did not ratify this sentence, but accepted such of them and of their children as repented; for Paul was of them, and many thousands of those who in Jerusalem believed.

LEO; The impiety of the Jews then exceeded the fault of Pilate; but he was not guiltless, seeing he resigned his own jurisdiction, and acquiesced in the injustice of others.

JEROME; It should be known that Pilate administered the Roman law, which enacted that every one who was crucified should first be scourged. Jesus then is given up to the soldiers to be beaten, and they tore with whips that most holy body and capacious bosom of God.

CHRYS. See the Lord is made ready for the scourge, see now it descends upon Him! That sacred skin is torn by the fury of the rods; the cruel might of repeated blows lacerates His shoulders. Ah me! God is stretched out before man, and He, in whom not one trace of sin can be discerned, suffers punishment as a malefactor.

JEROME; This was done that we might be delivered from those stripes of which it is said, Many stripes shall be to the wicked. Also in the washing of Pilate's hands all the works of the Gentiles are cleansed, and we are acquitted of all share in the impiety of the Jews.

HILARY; At the desire of the Priests the populace chose Barabbas, which is interpreted 'the son of a Father,' thus shadowing forth the unbelief to come when Antichrist the son of sin should be preferred to Christ.

RABAN. Barabbas also, who headed a sedition among the people, is released to the Jews, that is the Devil, who to this day reigns among them, so that they cannot have peace.

27. Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the common hall, and gathered to him the whole band of soldiers.
28. And they stripped him, and put on him a scarlet robe.
29. And when they had platted a crown of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand: and they bowed the knee before him, and mocked him, saying, Hail, king of the Jews!
30. And they spit upon him, and took the reed, and smote him on the head.

AUG. After the Lord's trial comes His Passion, which Matthew thus begins, Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the common hall, &c.

JEROME; He had been styled King of the Jews, and the Scribes and Priests had brought this charge against Him, that He claimed sovereignty over the Jewish nation; hence this mockery of the soldiers, taking away His own garments, they put on Him a scarlet cloak to represent that purple fringe which kings of old used to wear, for the diadem they put on Him a crown of thorns, and for the regal scepter give Him a reed, and perform adoration to Him as to a king.

AUG. Hence we understand what Mark means by clothed him with purple; instead of the royal purple, this scarlet cloak was used in mockery; and there is a shade of purple which is very like scarlet. Or it may be, that Mark spoke of the purple which the cloak contained, though its color was scarlet.

CHRYS. What should we henceforth care if any one insults us, after Christ has thus suffered? The utmost that cruel outrage could do was put in practice against Christ; and not one member only, but His whole body suffered injuries; His head from the crown, the reed, and the buffetings; His face which was spit upon; His cheeks which they smote with the palms of their hands; His whole body from the scourging, the stripping to put on the cloak, and the mockery of homage; His hands from the reed which they put into them in mimicry of a scepter; as though they were afraid of omitting aught of indignity.

AUG. But Matthew seems to introduce this here as recollected from above, not that it was done at the time Pilate gave Him up for crucifixion. For John puts it before He is given up by Pilate.

JEROME; All these things we may understand mystically. For as Caiaphas said that it is expedient that one man should die for the people, not knowing what he said, so these, in all they did, furnished sacraments to us who believe, though they did them with other intention. In the scarlet robe He bears the bloody works of the Gentiles; by the crown of thorns He takes away the ancient curse; with the reed He destroys poisonous animals; or He held the reed in His hand wherewith to write down the sacrilege of the Jews.

HILARY; Or otherwise; The Lord having taken upon Him all the infirmities of our body, is then covered with the scarlet colored blood of all the martyrs, to whom is due the kingdom with Him; He is crowned with thorns, that is, with the sins of the Gentiles who once pierced Him, for there is a prick in thorns of which is woven the crown of victory for Christ. In the reed, He takes into His hand and supports the weakness and frailty of the Gentiles; and His head is smitten therewith that the weakness of the Gentiles sustained by Christ's hand may rest on God the Father, who is His head.

ORIGEN; Or, The reed was a mystery signifying that before we believed we trusted in that reed of Egypt, or Babylon, or of some other kingdom opposed to God, which He took that He might triumph over it with the wood of the cross. With this reed they smite the head of Christ, because this kingdom ever beats against God the Father, who is the head of the Savior.

REMIG. Or otherwise, By the scarlet robe is denoted the Lord's flesh, which is spoken of as red by reason of shedding of His blood; by the crown of thorns His taking upon Him our sins, because He appeared in the likeness of sinful flesh.

RABAN. They smite the head of Christ with a reed, who speak against His divinity, and endeavor to maintain their error by the authority of Holy Scripture, which is written by a reed. They spit upon His face who reject in abominable words the presence of His grace, and deny that Jesus is come in the flesh. And they mock Him with adoration who believe on Him, but despise Him with perverse works.

AUG. That they took from off the Lord in His passion His own garment, and put on Him a colored robe, denotes those heretics who said that He had a shadowy, and not a real body.

31. And after that they had mocked him, they took the robe off from him, and put his own raiment on him, and led him away to crucify him.
32. And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name: him they compelled to bear his cross.
33. And when they were come to a place called Golgotha, that is to say, a place of a skull,
34. They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof, he would not drink.

GLOSS. After the Evangelist had narrated what concerned the mocking of Christ, he proceeds to His crucifixion.

AUG. This is to be understood to have been done at the end of all, when He was led off to crucifixion after Pilate had delivered Him up to the Jews.

JEROME; It is to be noted, that when Jesus is scourged and spit upon, He has not on His own garments, but those which He took for our sins; but when He is crucified, and the show of His mockery is completed, then He takes again His former garments, and His own dress, and immediately the elements are shaken, and the creature gives testimony to the Creator.

ORIGEN; Of the cloak it is mentioned that they took it off Him, but of the crown of thorns the Evangelists have not spoken, so that there are now no longer those ancient thorns of ours, since Jesus has taken them from us upon His revered head.

CHRYS. The Lord would not suffer under a roof, or in the Jewish Temple, that you should not suppose that He was offered for that people alone; but without the city, without the walls, that you might know that the sacrifice was common, that it was the offering of the whole earth, that the purification was general.

JEROME, Let none think that John's narrative contradicts this place of the Evangelist. John says that the Lord went forth from the praetorium bearing His cross; Matthew tells, that they found a man of Cyrene upon whom they laid Jesus' cross. We must suppose that as Jesus went out of the praetorium, He was bearing His cross, and that afterwards they met Simon, whom they compelled to bear it.

ORIGEN; Or, as they went out, they laid hold of Simon, but when they drew near to the place in which they would crucify Him, they laid the cross upon Him that He might bear it. Simon obtained not this office by chance, but was brought to the spot by God's providence, that he might be found worthy of mention in the Scriptures of the Gospel, and of the ministry of the cross of Christ. And it was not only meet that the Savior should carry His cross, but meet also that w e should take part therein, filling a carriage so beneficial to us. Yet would it not have so profited us to take it on us, as we have profited by His faking it upon Himself.

JEROME; Figuratively, the nations take up the cross, and the foreigner by obedience hears the ignominy of the Savior.

HILARY; For a Jew was not worthy to bear Christ's cross, but it was reserved for the faith of the Gentiles both to take the cross, and to suffer with Him.

REMIG. For this Simon was not a man of Jerusalem, but a foreigner, and denizen, being a Cyrenean; Cyrene is a town of Lybia. Simon is interpreted 'obedient', and a Cyrenean 'an heir'; whence he well denotes the people of the Gentiles, which was strange to the testaments of God, but by believing became a fellow-citizen of the saints, of the household, and an heir of God.

GREG. Or otherwise; By Simon who bears the burden of the Lord's cross are denoted those who are abstinent and proud; these by their abstinence afflict their flesh, but seek not within the fruit of abstinence. Thus Simon bears the cross, but does not die thereon, as these afflict the body, but in desire of vain-glory live to the world.

RABAN. Golgotha is a Syriac word, and is interpreted Calvary.

JEROME; I have heard Calvary expounded as the spot in which Adam was buried, as though it had been so called from the head of the old man being buried there. A plausible interpretation, and agreeable to the ears of the people, yet not a true one. Without the city outside the gate are the places where criminals are executed, and these have got the name of Calvary, that is, of the beheaded. And Jesus was crucified there, that where the plot of criminals had been, there might be set up the flag of martyrdom. But Adam was buried near Ebron and Arbee, as we read in the volume of Jesus the son of Nave.

HILARY; Such is the place of the cross, set up in the center of the earth, that it might be equally free to all nations to attain the knowledge of God.

AUG. And they gave him to drink wine mingled with gall. Mark says, mingled with myrrh. Matthew put gall to express bitterness, but wine mingled with myrrh is very bitter; though indeed it might be, that gall together with myrrh would make the most bitter.

JEROME; The bitter vine makes bitter wine; this they gave the Lord Jesus to drink, that that might be fulfilled which was written, They gave me also gall for my meat. And God addresses Jerusalem, I had planted there a true vine, how are you turned into the bitterness of a strange vine?

AUG. And when he had tasted thereof, be would not drink. That Mark says, But he received it not, we understand to mean that He would not receive it to drink thereof. For that He tasted it Matthew bears witness; so that Matthew's, He could not drink thereof, means exactly the same as Mark's, He received it not; only Mark does not mention His tasting it.

That He tasted but would not drink of it, signifies that He tasted the bitterness of death for us, but rose again the third day.

HILARY; Or, He therefore refused the wine mingled with gall, because the bitterness of sin is not mingled with the incorruption of eternal glory.

35. And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots.
36. And sitting down they watched him there;
37. And set up over his head his accusation written, THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS.
38. Then were there two thieves crucified with him, one on the right hand, and another on the left.

GLOSS. Having described how Christ was led to the scene of His Passion, the Evangelist proceeds to the Passion itself, describing the kind of death; And they crucified him.

AUG. The Wisdom of God took upon Him man, to give us an, example how we might live rightly. It pertains to right life not to fear things that are not to be feared. But some men who do not fear death in itself, yet dread some kinds of death. That no sort of death is to be feared by the man who lives aright, was to be shown by this Man's cross. For of all the modes of death none was more horrible and fearful than this.

AUG. Let your holiness consider of what might is the power of the cross. Adam set at nought the commandment, taking the apple from the tree; but all that Adam lost, Christ found upon the cross. The ark of wood saved the human race from the deluge of waters; when God's people came out of Egypt, Moses divided the sea with his rod, overwhelmed Pharaoh, and redeemed God's people. The same Moses changed the bitter water into sweet by casting wood into it. By the rod the refreshing stream was drawn out of the rock; that Amalech might be overcome, Moses' outstretched hands were supported upon his rod; the Law of God is entrusted to the wooden ark of the covenant, that thus, by these steps we may come at last to the wood of the cross.

CHRYS. He suffered on a lofty cross, and not under a roof, to the end that the nature of the air might be purified; the earth also partook a like benefit, being cleansed by the blood that dropped from His side.

GLOSS. The shape of the cross seems also to signify the Church spread through the four quarters of the earth.

RABAN. Or, according to the practical exposition, the cross in respect of its broad transverse piece signifies the joy of him that works, for sorrow produces straitness; for the broad part of the cross is in the transverse beam to which the hands are fastened, and by the hands we understand works. By the upper part to which the head is fastened is denoted our looking for retribution from the supreme righteousness of God. The perpendicular part on which the body is stretched denotes endurance, whence the patient are called 'long-suffering'. The point that is fixed into the ground shadows forth the invisible part of a sacrament.

HILARY; Thus on the tree of life the salvation and life of all is suspended.

AUG. Matthew shortly says, They parted his garments casting lots; but John explains more fully how it was done. The soldiers, when they had crucified him, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat; now the coat was without seam.

CHRYS. It is to be noted, that this is no small degradation of Christ. For they did this as to one utterly abject and worthless, yet for the thieves they did not the same. For they share the garments only in the case of condemned persons so mean and poor as to possess nothing more.

JEROME; This which was now done to Christ had been prophesied in the Psalm, They parted my garments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture. It proceeds, And sitting down, they watched him there. This watchfulness of the soldiers and of the Priests has proved of use to us in making the power of His resurrection greater and more notorious.

And they set up over his head his accusation written, This is Jesus, the King of the Jews. I cannot sufficiently wonder at the enormity of the thing, that having purchased false witnesses, and having stirred up the unhappy people to riot and uproar, they found no other plea for putting Him to death, than that He was King of the Jews; and this perhaps they set up in mockery.

REMIG. It was divinely provided that this title should be set up over His head, that the Jews might learn that not even by putting Him to death could they avoid having Him for their King; for in the very instrument of His death He not only did not lose, but rather confirmed His sovereignty.

ORIGEN; The High Priest also in obedience to the letter of the Law wore on his head the writing, 'Holiness to the Lord,' but the true High Priest and King, Jesus, bears on His cross the title, This is the King of the Jews; when ascending to His Father, instead of His own name with its proper letters, He has the Father Himself.

RABAN. For because He is at once King and Priest, when He would offer the sacrifice of His flesh on the altar of the cross, His title set forth His regal dignity. And it is set over and not beneath the cross, because though He suffered for us on the cross with the weakness of man, the majesty of the King was conspicuous above the cross; and this He did not lose, but rather confirmed, by the cross.

JEROME; As Christ was made for us a curse of the cross, so for the salvation of all He is crucified as guilty among the guilty.

LEO; Two thieves were crucified with him, one on the right hand and one on the left, that in the figure of His cross might be represented that separation of all mankind which shall be made in His judgment. The Passion then of Christ contains a sacrament of our salvation, and of that instrument which the wickedness of the Jews provided for His punishment, the power of the Redeemer made a step to glory.

HILARY; Or otherwise; Two thieves are set up on His right and left hand, to signify that the entire human race is called to the Sacrament of the Lord's Passion; but because there shall be a division of believers to the right, and unbelievers to the left, one of the two who is set on His right hand is saved by the justification of faith.

REMIG. Or, by the two thieves are denoted all those who strive after the continence of a strict life. They who do this with a single intention of pleasing God, are denoted by him who was crucified on the right hand; they who do it out of desire of human praise or any less worthy motive, are signified by him who was crucified on the left.

39. And they that passed by reviled him, wagging their heads,
40. And saying, you that destroy the temple, and build it in three days, save yourself. If you be the Son of God, come down from the cross.
41. Likewise also the Chief Priests mocking him, with the Scribes and elders, said,
42. He saved others; himself he cannot save. If he be the King of Israel, let him now come down from the cross, and we will believe him.
43. He trusted in God; let him deliver him now, if he will have him: for he said, I am the Son of God.
44. The thieves also, which were crucified with him, cast the same in his teeth.

CHRYS. Having stripped and crucified Christ, they go yet further, and seeing Him on the cross revile Him.

JEROME; They revile him because they passed by that way, and would not walk in the true way of the Scriptures. They wagged their heads, because they had just before shifted their feet, and stood not upon a rock. The foolish rabble cast the same taunt against Him that the false witnesses had invented, Aha! you that destroy the temple of God and rebuild it in three days.

REMIG. Aha! is an interjection of taunt and mockery.

HILARY; What forgiveness then for them, when by the resurrection of His body they shall see the temple of God rebuilt within three days?

CHRYS. And as beginning to extenuate His former miracles, they add, Save yourself; if you be the Son of God, come down from the cross.

ID. But He, on the contrary, does not come down from the cross, because He is the Son of God; for He therefore came that He might be crucified for us.

JEROME; Even the Scribes and Pharisees reluctantly confess that He saved others. Your own judgment then condemns you, for in that He saved others, He could if He would have saved Himself.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. But attend to this speech of these children of the Devil, how they imitate their father's speech. The Devil said, If you be the Son of God, cast yourself down; and they say now, If you be the Son of God, come down from the cross.

LEO; From what source of error, O Jews, have you sucked in the poison of such blasphemies; What teacher delivered it to you? What learning moved you to think that the true King of Israel, that the veritable Son of God, would be He who would not suffer Himself to be crucified, and would set free His body from the fastenings of the nails? Not the hidden meaning of the Law, not the mouths of the Prophets. Had you indeed ever read, I hid not my face from the shame of spitting; or that again, They pierced my hands and my feet, they told all my bones. Where have you ever read that the Lord came down from the cross? But you have read, The Lord has reigned from the tree.

RABAN. Had He then been prevailed on by their taunts to leave the cross, He would not have proved to us the power of endurance; but He waited enduring their mockery; and He who would not come down from the cross, rose again from the tomb.

JEROME; But unworthy of credit is that promise, And we will believe him. For which is greater, to come down while yet alive from the cross, or to rise from the tomb when dead? Yet this He did, and you believed not; therefore neither would you have believed if He had come down from the cross. It seems to me that this was a suggestion of the demons. For immediately when the Lord was crucified they felt the power of the cross, and perceived that their strength was broken, and therefore contrive this to move Him to come down from the cross. But the Lord, aware of the designs of His foes, remains on the cross that He may destroy the Devil.

CHRYS. He trusted in God, let him now deliver him, if he will. O most foul! Were they therefore not Prophets or righteous men, because God did not deliver them out of their perils? But if He would not oppose their glory, which accrued to them out of the perils which you brought upon them, much more in this man ought you not to be offended because of what He suffers; what He has ever said ought to remove any such suspicion. When they add, Because he said, I am the Son of God, they desire to intimate that He suffered as an impostor and seducer, and as making high and false pretenses. And not only the Jews and the soldiers from below, but from above likewise. The thieves, which were crucified with him, cast the same in his teeth.

AUG. It may seem that Luke contradicts this, when he describes one of the robbers as reviling Him, and as therefore rebuked by the other. But we may suppose that Matthew, shortly alluding to the circumstance, has used the plural for the singular, as in the Epistle to the Hebrews we have, Have stopped the mouths of lions, when Daniel only is spoken of. And what more common way of speaking than for one to say, See the country people insult me, when it is one only who has done so. If indeed Matthew had said that both the thieves had reviled the Lord, there would be some discrepancy; but when he says merely, The thieves, without adding 'both', we must consider it as that common form of speech in which the singular is signified by the plural.

JEROME; Or it may be said that at first both reviled Him; but when the sun had withdrawn, the earth was shaken, the rocks were rent, and the darkness increased, one believed in Jesus, and repaired his former denial by a subsequent confession.

CHRYS. At first both reviled Him, but afterwards not so. For that you should not suppose that the thing was arranged by any collusion, and that the thief was not a thief, he shows you by his wanton reproaches, that even after he was crucified he was a thief and a foe, but was afterwards totally changed.

HILARY; That both the thieves cast in His teeth the manner of His Passion, shows that the cross should be an offense to all mankind, even to the faithful.

JEROME; Or, in the two thieves both nations, Jews and Gentiles, at first blasphemed the Lord; afterwards the latter terrified by the multitude of signs did penitence, and thus rebukes the Jews, who blaspheme to this day.

ORIGEN; The thief who was saved may be a sign of those who after many sins have believed on Christ.

45. Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land to the ninth hour.
46. And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?
47. Some of them that stood there, when they heard that, said, This man calls for Elias.
48. And straightway one of them ran, and took a spurge, and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink.
49. The rest said, Let be, let us see whether Elias will come to save him.
50. Jesus, when he had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. Creation could not bear the outrage offered to the Creator; whence the sun withdrew his beams, that he might not look upon the crime of these impious men.

ORIGEN; Some take occasion from this text to cavil against the truth of the Gospel. For indeed from the beginning eclipses of the sun have happened in their proper seasons; but such an eclipse as would be brought about by the ordinary course of the seasons could only be at such time as the sun and moon come together, when the moon passing beneath intercepts the sun's rays. But at the time of Christ's passion it is clear that this was not the case, because it was the paschal feast, which it was customary to celebrate when the moon was full. Some believers, desiring to produce some answer to this objection, have said, that this eclipse in accordance with the other prodigies was an exception to the established laws of nature.

DIONYS. When we were together at Heliopolis, we both observed such an interference of the moon with the sun quite unexpectedly, for it was not the season of their conjunction; and then from the ninth hour until evening, beyond the power of nature, continuing in a direct line between us and the sun. And this obscuration we saw begin from the east, and so pass to the extreme of the sun's orb, and again return back the same way, being thus the very reverse of an ordinary eclipse.

CHRYS. This darkness lasted three hours, whereas an eclipse is transient, and not enduring, as they know who have studied the matter.

ORIGEN; Against this the children of this world urge, How is it that of the Greeks and Barbarians, who have made observations of these things, not one has recorded so remarkable a phenomenon as this? Phlegon indeed has recorded such an event as happening in the time of Tiberius Caesar, but he has not mentioned that it was at the full moon. I think therefore that, like the other miracles which took place at the Passion, the rending of the veil, and the earthquake, this also was confined to Jerusalem. Or, if any one chooses, it may be extended to the whole of Judea; as in the book of Kings, Abdias said to Elias, As the Lord your God lives, there is no nation or kingdom where my Lord has not sent to seek you, meaning that he had been sought in the countries round about Judea.

Accordingly we might suppose many and dense clouds to have been brought together over Jerusalem and Judea, enough to produce thick darkness from the sixth to the ninth hour. For we understand that there were two creatures created on the sixth day the beasts before the sixth hour, man on the sixth; and therefore it was fitting that He who died for the salvation of man should be crucified at the sixth hour, and for this cause that darkness should be over the whole earth from the sixth to the ninth hour. And as by Moses stretching out his hands towards heaven darkness was brought upon the Egyptians who held the servants of God in bondage, so likewise when at the sixth hour Christ stretched out his hands on the cross to heaven, darkness came over all the people who had cried out, Crucify him, and they were deprived of all light as a sign of the darkness that should come, and that should envelop the whole people of the Jews.

Further, under Moses there was darkness over the land of Egypt three days, but all the children of Israel had light; so under Christ there was darkness over all Judea for three hours, because for their sins they were deprived of the light of God the Father, the splendor of Christ, and the illumination of the Holy Spirit. But over the rest of the earth there is light, which every where illumines the Church of God in Christ. And if to the ninth hour there was darkness over Judea, it is manifest that light returned to them again after that; so, when the fullness of, the Gentiles shall have entered in, then all Israel shall be saved.

CHRYS. Or otherwise; The wonder was in this, that the darkness was over the whole earth, which had never come to pass before, save only in Egypt what time the Passover was celebrated; for the things done then were a type of these. And consider the time when this is done; at mid-day, while over the whole world it was day, that all the dwellers on the earth might perceive it. This is the sign He promised to them that asked Him, An evil and adulterous generation seeks a sign, and there shall no sign be given it save the sign of Jonas the Prophet, alluding to His cross and resurrection. And it was a much greater marvel that this should come to pass when He was fastened to the cross, than when hen He was walking at large on the earth.

Surely here was enough to convert them, not by the greatness of the miracle alone, but because it was done not till after all these instances of their frenzy, when their passion was past, when they had uttered all that they would, and were satiated with taunts and gibes. But how did they not all marvel and conclude Him to be God? Because the human race was at that time plunged in exceeding sluggishness and vice, and this wonder was but one, and quickly past away, and none cared to search out its cause, or perhaps they attributed it to eclipse, or some other physical consequence. And on this account He shortly afterwards lifts up His voice to show that He yet lives, and Himself wrought this miracle; And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, &c.

JEROME; He employed the beginning of the twenty-first Psalm. That clause in the middle of the verse, Look upon me, is superfluous; for the Hebrew has only 'Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani,' that is, My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? It is impiety therefore to think that this Psalm was spoken in the character of David or Esther or Mardocheus, when passages taken out of it by the Evangelist are understood of the Savior; as, They parted my garments among them, and, They pierced my hands.

CHRYS. He uttered this word of prophecy, that He might bear witness to the very last hour to the Old Testament, and that they might see that He honors the Father, and is not against God. And therefore too, He used the Hebrew tongue, that what He said might be intelligible to them.

ORIGEN; But it must be asked, What means this, that Christ is forsaken of God? Some, unable to explain how Christ could be forsaken of God, say that this was spoken out of humility. But you will be able clearly to comprehend His meaning if you make a comparison of the glory which He had with the Father with the shame which He despised when He endured the cross.

HILARY; From these words heretical spirits contend either that God the Word was entirely absorbed into the soul at the time it discharged the function of a soul in quickening the body; or that Christ could not have been born man, because the Divine Word dwelt in Him after the manner of a prophetical spirit. As though Jesus Christ was a man of ordinary soul and body, having His beginning then when He began to be man, and thus now deserted upon the withdrawal of the protection of God's word cries out, My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?

Or at least that the nature of the Word being transmuted into soul, Christ, who had depended in all things upon His Father's support, now deserted and left to death, mourns over this desertion, and pleads with Him departing. But amidst these impious and feeble opinions, the faith of the Church imbued with Apostolic teaching does not sever Christ that He should be considered as Son of God and not as Son of Man. The complaint of His being deserted is the weakness of the dying man; the promise of Paradise is the kingdom of the living God. You have Him complaining that He is left to death, and thus He is Man; you have Him as He is dying declaring that He reigns in Paradise; and thus He is God. Wonder not then at the humility of these words, when you know the form of a servant, and see the offense of the cross.

GLOSS. God is said to have forsaken Him in death because He exposed Him to the power of His persecutors; He withdrew His protection, but did not break the union.

ORIGEN; When He saw darkness over the whole land of Judea He said this, Father, why have you forsaken me? meaning, Why have you given Me over exhausted to such sufferings? that the people who were honored by Thee may receive the things that they have dared against Me, and should be deprived of the light of Your countenance. Also, you have forsaken Me for the salvation of the Gentiles. But what good have they of the Gentiles who have believed done, that I should deliver them from the evil one by shedding My precious blood on the ground for them? Or will they, for whom I suffer these things, ever do aught worthy of them? Or foreseeing the sins of those for whom He suffered, He said, Why have you forsaken me? that I should become as one that gathers stubble in the harvest, and gleanings in the vintage. But you must not imagine that the Savior said this after the manner of men by reason of the misery which encompassed Him on the cross; for if you take it so you will not hear His loud voice and mighty words which point to something great hidden.

RABAN. Or, The Savior said this as bearing about with Him our feelings, who when placed in dangers think ourselves forsaken by God. Human nature was forsaken by God because of its sins, and the Son of God becoming our Advocate laments the misery of those whose guilt He took upon Him; therein showing how they who sin ought to mourn, when He who never sinned did thus mourn.

JEROME; It follows, Some of them that stood by, &c. some, not all; whom I suppose to have been Roman soldiers, ignorant of Hebrew, but from the words Eli, Eli, thought that He called upon Elias. But if we prefer to suppose them Jews, they do it after their usual manner, that they may accuse the Lord of weakness in thus invoking Elias.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. Thus the Source of living water is made to drink vinegar, the Giver of honey is fed with gall; Forgiveness is scourged, Acquittance is condemned, Majesty is mocked, Virtue ridiculed, the Bestower of showers is repaid with spitting.

HILARY; Vinegar is wine, which has turned sour either from neglect, or the fault of the vessel. Wine is the honor of immortality, or virtue. When this then had been turned sour in Adam, He took and drunk it at the hands of the Gentiles. It is offered to Him on a reed and a spurge; that is, He took from the bodies of the Gentiles immortality spoiled and corrupted, and transfused in Himself into a mixture of immortality that in us which was spoiled.

REMIG. Or otherwise; The Jews as degenerating from the wine of the Patriarchs and Prophets were vinegar; they had deceitful hearts, like to the winding holes and hollows in sponge. By the reed, Sacred Scripture is denoted, which was fulfilled in this action; for as we call that which the tongue utters, the Hebrew tongue, or the Greek tongue, for example; so the writing, or letters which the seed produces, we may call a reed.

ORIGEN; And perhaps all who know the ecclesiastical doctrine, but live amiss, have given them to drink wine mingled with gall; but they who attribute to Christ untrue opinions, these filling a sponge with vinegar, put it upon the reed of Scripture, and put it to His mouth.

RABAN. The soldiers misunderstanding the sound of the Lord's words foolishly looked for the coming of Elias. But God, whom the Savior thus invoked in the Hebrew tongue, He had ever inseparably with Him.

AUG. When now nought of suffering remains to be endured, death still lingers, knowing that it has nothing there. The ancient foe suspected somewhat unusual. This man, first and only, he found having no sin, free from guilt, owing nothing to the laws of his jurisdiction. But leagued with Jewish madness, Death comes again to the assault, and desperately invades the Life-giver.

And Jesus, when be had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost. Wherefore should we be offended that Christ came from the bosom of the Father to take upon Him our bondage, that He might confer on us His freedom; to take upon Him our death, that we might be set free by His death; by despising death He exalted us mortals into Gods, counted them of earth worthy of things in heaven? For seeing the Divine power shines forth so brilliant in the contemplation of its works, it is an argument of boundless love, that it suffers for its subjects, dies for its bondsmen.

This then was the first cause of the Lord's Passion, that He would have it known how great God's love to man, Who desired rather to be loved than feared. The second was that He might abolish with yet more justice the sentence of death which He had with justice passed. For as the first man had by guilt incurred death through God's sentence, and handed down the same to his posterity, the second Man, who knew no sin, came from heaven that death might be condemned, which, when commissioned to seize the guilty, had presumed to touch the Author of sinlessness. And it is no wonder if for us He laid down what He had taken of us, His life, namely, when He has done other so great things for us, and bestowed so much on us.

PSEUDO-AUG. Far be from the faithful any suspicion that Christ experienced our death in such sort that life (as far as it can) ceased to live. Had this been so, how could aught have been said to live during that three days, if the Fountain of Life itself was dried up? Therefore Christ's Godhead experienced death through its partaking of humanity or of human feeling, which it had voluntarily taken on it; but it lost not the properties of its nature by which it gives life to all things. For when we die, without doubt the loss of life by the body is not the destruction of the soul, but the soul quitting the body loses not its own properties, but only lets go w hat it had quickened, and as far as in it lays produces the death of somewhat else, but itself defies death. To speak now of the Savior's soul; it might depart without being itself destroyed from His body for this three days' space, even by the common laws of death, and without taking into account the indwelling Godhead, and His singular righteousness. For I believe that the Son of God died not in punishment of unrighteousness which He had not at all, but according to the law of that nature which He took upon Him for the redemption of the human race.

DAMASC. Although He died as man, and His holy soul was separated from His unstained body, yet His God-head remained inseparate from either body or soul. Yet was not the one Person divided into two; for as both body and soul had from the beginning an existence in the Person of the Word, so also had they in death. For neither soul nor body had ever a Person of their own, besides the Person of the Word.

JEROME; It was a mark of Divine power in Him thus to dismiss the Spirit as Himself had said, No man can take my life from me, but I lay it down and take it again. For by the ghost in this place we understand the soul; so called either because it is that which makes the body quick or spiritual, or because the substance of the soul itself is spirit, according to that which is written, you take away their breath, and they die.

CHRYS. Also for this reason He cried out with a loud voice to show that this is done by His own power. For by crying out with a loud voice when dying, He showed incontestably that He was the true God; because a man in dying can scarcely utter even a feeble sound.

AUG. Luke mentions the words which He thus cries out, Father, into your hands I commend my Spirit.

HILARY; Or, He gave up the ghost with a loud voice, in grief that He was not carrying the sins of all men.

51. And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in two from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent;
52. And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose,
53. And came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared to many.
54. Now when the centurion, and they that were with him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake, and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, Truly this was the Son of God.
55. And many women were there beholding afar off, which followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering to him:
56. Among which was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedee's children.

ORIGEN; Great things were done at the moment that Jesus cried with a great voice.

AUG. The wording sufficiently shows that the veil was rent just when He gave up the ghost. If he had not added, And, lo! but had merely said, And the veil of the temple was rent, it would have been uncertain whether Matthew and Mark had not inserted it here out of its place as they recollected, and Luke had observed the right order, who having said, And the sun was darkened, adds, And the veil of the temple was rent in two; or, on the contrary, Luke had returned to what they had inserted in its place.

ORIGEN; It is understood that there were two veils; one veiling the Holy of Holies, the other, the outer part of the tabernacle or temple. In the Passion then of our Lord and Savior, it was the outer veil which was rent from the top to the bottom, that by the rending of the veil from the beginning to the end of the world, the mysteries might be published which had been hid with good reason until the Lord's coming. But when that which is perfect is come, then the second veil also shall be taken away, that we may see the things that are hidden within, to wit, the true Ark of the Testament, and behold the Cherubim and the rest in their real nature.

HILARY; Or, The veil of the temple is rent, because from this time the nation was dispersed, and the honor of the veil is taken away with the guardianship of the protecting Angel.

LEO; The sudden commotion in the elements is a sufficient sign in witness of His venerable Passion, The earth quaked, and the rocks rent, and the graves were opened.

JEROME; It is not doubtful to any what these great signs signify according to the letter, namely, that heaven and earth and all things should bear witness to their crucified Lord.

HILARY; The earth quaked, because it was unequal to contain such a body ; the rocks rent, for the Word of God that pierces all strong and mighty things, and the virtue of the eternal Power had penetrated them; the graves were opened, for the bands of death were loosed. And many bodies of the saints which slept arose, for illumining the darkness of death, and shedding light upon the gloom of Hades, He robbed the spirits of death.

CHRYS. When He remained on the cross they had said tauntingly, He saved others, himself he cannot save. But what He would not do for Himself, that He did and more than that for the bodies of the Saints. For if it was a great thing to raise Lazarus after four days, much more was. it that they who had long slept should now show themselves alive; this is indeed a proof of the resurrection to come. But that it might not be thought that that which was done was an appearance merely, the Evangelist adds, And came out of the graves after his is resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared to many.

JEROME; As Lazarus rose from the dead, so also did many bodies of the Saints rise again to show forth the Lord's resurrection; yet notwithstanding that the graves were opened, they did not rise again before the Lord rose, that He might be the first-born of the resurrection from the dead. The holy city in which they were seen after they had risen may be understood to mean either the heavenly Jerusalem, or this earthly, which once had been holy. For the city of Jerusalem was called Holy on account of the Temple and the Holy of Holies, and to distinguish it from other cities in which idols were worshipped. When it is said, And appeared to many, it is signified that this was not a general resurrection which all should see, but special, seen only by such as were worthy to see it.

REMIG. But some one will ask, what became of those who rose again when the Lord rose. We must believe that they rose again to be witnesses of the Lord's resurrection. Some have said that they died again, and were turned to dust, as Lazarus and the rest whom the Lord raised. But we must by no means give credit to these men's sayings, since if they were to die again, it would be greater torment to them, than if they had not risen again. We ought therefore to believe without hesitation that they who rose from the dead at the Lord's resurrection, ascended also into heaven together with Him.

ORIGEN; These same mighty works are still done every day; the veil of the temple is rent for the Saints, in order to reveal the things that are contained within. The earth quakes, that is, all flesh because of the new word and new things of the New Testament. The rocks are rent, i.e. the mystery of the Prophets, that we may see the spiritual mysteries hid in their depths. The graves are the bodies of sinful souls, that is, souls dead to God; but when by God's grace these souls have been raised, their bodies which before were graves, become bodies of Saints, and appear to go out of themselves, and follow Him who rose again, and walk with Him in newness of life; and such as are worthy to have their conversation in heaven enter into the Holy City at divers times, and appear to many who see their good works.

AUG. It is no contradiction here that Matthew says, that The centurion and they that were with him, watching Jesus, feared when they saw the earthquake, and the things that were done; while Luke says, that he wondered at the giving up the ghost with a loud voice. For when Matthew adds, the things that were done, this gives full scope for Luke's expression, that he wondered at the Lord's death, for this among the rest was wonderful.

JEROME; Observe, that in the very midst of the offense of His passion the Centurion acknowledges the Son of God, while Arius in the Church proclaims Him a creature.

RABAN. Whence with good reason by the Centurion is denoted the faith of the Church, which, when the veil of heavenly mysteries had been rent by the Lord's death, immediately asserts Jesus to be both very Man, and truly Son of God, while the Synagogue held its peace.

LEO; From this example then of the Centurion let the substance of the earth tremble in the punishment of its Redeemer, let the rocks of unbelieving minds be rent, and those who were pent up in these sepulchers of mortality leap forth, bursting the bonds that would detain them; and let them show themselves in the Holy City, i.e. the Church of God, as signs of the Resurrection to come; and thus let that take place in the heart, which we must believe takes place in the body.

JEROME; It was a Jewish custom, and held no disgrace, according to the manners of the people of old, for women to minister of their substance, food, and clothing to their teachers. This Paul says, that he refused, because it might occasion scandal among the Gentiles. They ministered to the Lord of their substance, that He might reap their carnal things, of whom they reaped spiritual things. Not that the Lord needed food of the creature, but that He might set an example for the teacher, that He should be content to receive food and clothing from His disciples.

But let us see what sort of attendants He had; Among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of Zebedee's children.

ORIGEN; In Mark the third is called Salome.

CHRYS. These women thus watching the things that are done are the most compassionate, the most sorrowful. They had followed Him ministering, and remained by Him in danger, showing the highest courage, for when the disciples fled they remained.

JEROME; 'See,' says Helvidius,' Jacob and Joseph are the sons of Mary the Lord's mother, whom the Jews call the brethren of Christ. He is also called James the less, to distinguish him from James the greater, who was the son of Zebedee. And he urges that it were impious to suppose that His mother Mary would be absent, when the other women were there; or that we should have to invent some other third unknown person of the name of Mary, and that too when John's Gospel witnesses that His mother was present. O blind folly! O mind perverted to its own destruction!

Hear what the Evangelist John says: There stood by the cross of Jesus, his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene. No one can doubt that there were two Apostles called James; the son of Zebedee, and the son of Alphaeus. This unknown James the less, whom Scripture mentions as the son of Mary, if he is an Apostle, is the son of Alpheus; if he is not an Apostle, but a third unknown James, how can he be supposed to be the Lord's brother, and why should he be styled 'The Less,' to distinguish him from 'The Greater'. For The Greater and The Less are epithets which distinguish two persons, but not three. And that the James, the Lord's brother, was an Apostle, is proved by Paul, other of the Apostles saw I none, save James the Lord's brother. But that you should not suppose this James to be the son of Zebedee, read the Acts, where he was put to death by Herod.

The conclusion then remains, that this Mary, who is described as the mother of James the less, was wife of Alpheus, and sister of Mary the Lord's mother, called by John, Mary the wife of Cleophas. But should you incline to think them two different persons, because in one place she is called Mary the mother of James the less, and in another place Mary' the wife of Cleophas, you will learn the Scripture custom of calling the same man by different names; as Raguel Moses' father-in-law is called Jethro. In like manner then, Mary the wife of Cleophas is called the wife of Alpheus, and the mother of James the less. For if she had been the Lord's mother, the Evangelist would here, as in all other places, have called her so, and not described her as the mother of James, when he meant to designate the mother of the Lord. But even if Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, were different persons, it is still certain, that Mary the mother of James and Joses was not the Lord's mother.

AUG. We might have supposed that some of the women stood afar off, as three Evangelists says, and others near the cross, as John says, had not Matthew and Mark reckoned Mary Magdalen among those that stood afar off, while John puts her among those that stood near. This is reconciled if we understand the distance at which they were to be such that they might be said to be near, because they were in His sight; but far off in comparison of the crowd who stood nearer with the centurion and soldiers. We might also suppose that they who were there together with the Lord's mother, began to depart after He had commended her to the disciple, that they might extricate themselves from the crowd, and looked on from a distance at the other things which were done, so that the Evangelists, who speak of them after the Lord's death, speak of them as standing afar off:

57. When the even was come, there came a rich man of Arimathea, named Joseph, who also himself was Jesus' disciple:
58. He went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded the body to be delivered.
59. And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth,
60. And laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulcher, and departed.
61. And there was Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary, sitting over against the sepulcher.

GLOSS. When the Evangelist had finished the order of the Lord's Passion and death, he treats of His burial.

REMIG. Arimathea is the same as Ramatha, the city of Helcana and Samuel, and is situated in the Chananitic country near Diospolis. This Joseph was a man of great dignity in respect of worldly station, but has the praise of much higher merit in God's sight, seeing he is described as righteous. Indeed he that should have the burial of the Lord's body ought to have been such, that he might be deserving of that office by righteous merit.

JEROME; He is described as rich, not out of any ambition on the part of the writer to represent so noble and rich a man as Jesus' disciple, but to show how he was able to obtain the body of Jesus from Pilate. For poor and unknown individuals would not have dared to approach Pilate, the representative of Roman power, and ask the body of a crucified malefactor. In another Gospel this Joseph is called a counselor; and it is supposed that the first Psalm has reference to him, Blessed is the man that walks not in the counsel of the ungodly.

CHRYS. Consider this man's courage; he risked his life, and took upon him many enmities in order to render this service; and not only dares to ask for Christ's body, but also to bury it.

JEROME; By this simple burial of the Lord is condemned the ostentation of the rich, who cannot dispense with lavish expense even their tombs. But we may also consider in a spiritual sense, that the Lord's body was wrapped not in gold, jewels, or silk, but in clean linen; and that he who wrapped it, is he who embraces Jesus with a pure heart.

REMIG. Or, otherwise; The linen is grown out of the ground, and is bleached to whiteness with great labor, and thus this signifies that His body which was taken of the earth, that is of a Virgin, through the toil of passion came to the whiteness of immortality.

RABAN. From this also has prevailed in the Church the custom of celebrating the sacrifice of the altar not in silk, or in colored robes, but in linen grown from the earth, as we read, was ordered by the Holy Pope Silvester.

PSEUDO-AUG. The Savior was laid in a tomb belonging to another man, because He died for the salvation of others. For or why should He who in Himself had no death, hare been laid in His own tomb? Or He whose place was reserved for Him in heaven, have had a monument upon earth? He who remained but three days space in the tomb, not as dead, but as resting on His bed? A tomb is the necessary abode of death; Christ then, who is our life, could not have an abode of death; He that ever lives had no need of the dwelling of the departed.

JEROME; He is laid in a new tomb, lest after His resurrection it should be pretended that it was some other who had risen when they saw the other bodies there remaining. The new tomb may also signify the virgin womb of Mary. And He was laid in a tomb hewn out of the rock, lest had it been one raised of many stones, it might have been said that He was stolen away by undermining the foundations of the pile.

PSEUDO-AUG. Had the tomb been in the earth, it might have been said they undermined the place, and so carried Him off. Had a small stone been laid thereon, they might have said, They carried Him off while we slept.

JEROME; That a great stone was rolled there, shows that the tomb could not have been reopened without the united strength of many.

HILARY; Mystically, Joseph affords a figure of the Apostles. He wraps the body in a clean linen cloth, in which same linen shoes were let down to Peter out of heaven all manner of living creatures; whence we understand, that under the representation of this linen cloth the Church is buried together with Christ. The Lord's body moreover is laid in a chamber hewn out of rock, empty and new; that is, by the teaching of the Apostles, Christ is conveyed into the hard breast of the Gentiles hewn out by the toil of teaching, rude and new, hitherto unpenetrated by any fear of God. And for that besides Him ought nothing to enter our breasts, a stone is rolled to the mouth, that as before Him we had received no author of divine knowledge, so after Him we should admit none.

ORIGEN; This is no casual mention of the circumstances that the body was wrapped in clean linen, and laid in a new tomb, and a great stone rolled to the mouth, but that every thing touching the body of Jesus is clean, and new, and very great.

REMIG. When the Lord's body was buried, and the rest returned to their own places, the w omen alone, who had loved Him more attachedly adhered to Him, and with anxious care noted the place where the Lord's body was laid, that at fit time they might perform the service of their devotion to him.

ORIGEN; The mother of the sons of Zebedee is not mentioned as having sat over against the sepulcher. And perhaps she was able to endure as far as the cross only, but these as stronger in love were not absent even from the things that afterwards done.

JEROME; Or, when the rest left the Lord, the women continued in their attendance, looking for what Jesus had promised; and therefore they deserved to be the first to see the resurrection, because he that endures to the end shall be saved.

REMIG. And to this day the holy women, that is, the lowly souls of the saints, do the like in this present world, and with pious assiduity wait while Christ's passion is being completed.

62. Now the next day, that followed the day of the preparation, the Chief Priests and Pharisees came together to Pilate,
63. Saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, while he was yet alive, After three days I will rise again.
64. Command therefore that the sepulcher be made sure until the third day, lest his disciples come by night, and steal him away, and say to the people, He is risen from the dead: so the last error shall be worse than the first.
65. Pilate said to them, you have a watch: go your way, make it as sure as you can.
66. So they went and made the sepulcher sure, sealing the stone, and setting a watch.

JEROME; It was not enough for the Chief Priests to have crucified the Lord the Savior, if they did not guard the sepulcher, and do their utmost to lay hands on Him as He rose from the dead.

RABAN. By the Parasceve is meant 'preparation'; and they gave this name to the sixth day of the week, on which they made ready the things needed for the Sabbath, as was commanded respecting the manna, On the sixth day they gathered twice as much. Because on the sixth day man was made, and on the seventh God rested; therefore on the sixth day Jesus died for man, and rested the Sabbath day in the tomb. The Chief Priests although in putting the Lord to death they had committed a heinous crime, yet were they not satisfied unless even after His death they carried on the venom of their malice once begun, traducing His character, and calling one, whom they new to be guileless, a deceiver. But as Caiaphas prophesied without knowing it, that it is expedient that one man should die for the people, so now, Christ was a deceiver, not from truth into error, but leading men from error to truth, from vices to virtue, from death to life.

REMIG. They say that He had declared, After three days I will rise again, in consequence of that He said above, As Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly &c. But let us see in what way He can be said to have risen again after three days. Some would have the three hours of darkness understood as one night, and the light succeeding the darkness as a day, but these do not know the force of figurative language. The sixth day of the week on which He suffered comprehended the foregoing, night; then follows the night of the Sabbath with its own day, and the night of the Lord's day includes also its own day; and hence it is true that He rose again after three days.

AUG. He rose again after three days, to signify the consent of the whole Trinity in the passion of the Son; the three days' space is read figuratively, because the Trinity which in the beginning made man, the same in the end restores man by the passion of Christ.

RABAN. Command therefore that the sepulcher be made sure until the third day. For Christ's disciples were spiritually thieves; stealing from the unthankful Jews the writings of the New and Old Testament, they bestowed them to be used by the Church; and while they slept, that is, while the Jews were sunk in the lethargy of unbelief, they carried off the promised Savior, and gave Him to be believed in by the Gentiles.

HILARY; Their fear lest the body should be stolen, the setting a watch on the tomb, and sealing it, are marks of folly and unbelief, that they should have sought to seal up the tomb of One at whose bidding they had seen a dead man raised from the tomb.

RABAN. When they say, And the last error will be worse than the first, they utter a truth unwittingly, for their contempt of penitence was worse for the Jews than was their error of ignorance.

CHRYS. Observe how against their will they concert to demonstrate the truth, for by their precautions irrefragable demonstration of the resurrection was attained. The sepulcher was watched, and so no fraud could have been practiced; and if there was no collusion, it is certain that the Lord rose again.

RABAN. Pilate's answer to their request is as much as to say, Be it enough for you that you have conspired the death of an innocent man, henceforth let your error remain with you. CHRYS. Pilate will not suffer that the soldiers alone should seal. But as though he had learnt the truth concerning Christ, he was no longer willing to be partner in their acts, and says, Seal it as you will yourselves, that you may not be able to accuse others. For had the soldiers alone sealed, they might have said that the soldiers had suffered the disciples to steal the body, and so given the disciples a handle to forge a tale concerning the resurrection; but this could they not say now, when they themselves had sealed the sepulcher.

Matthew 27
43 posted on 04/13/2014 10:32:57 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex

?


44 posted on 04/13/2014 10:33:06 AM PDT by Mears
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To: annalex


Passion Altarpiece

1490-95
Oak, 88,5 x 87,5 cm
Museum Mayer van den Bergh, Antwerp

45 posted on 04/13/2014 10:35:18 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: Mears

You have a question? What is it? These are the gospel readings for today (two of them) in the original Greek, Vulgate Latin translation and Douay-Rheims translation.

Following are the commentary of the Fathers of the Church collected by St. Thomas Aquinas. This work of his is known as Golden Chain, “Catena Aurea”. Lastly, I pick an appropriate piece of sacred art.


46 posted on 04/13/2014 10:40:29 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: All

Catholic

Almanac:

Friday, April 13

Liturgical Color: White


Today is the optional memorial of Pope St. Martin I. Elected pope in 649 A.D., he fought against heresies supported by the emperor. For his efforts he was arrested and tortured. Martin is the last pope to die as a martyr.


47 posted on 04/13/2014 4:44:38 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All
Catholic Culture

 

Daily Readings for:April 13, 2014
(Readings on USCCB website)

Collect: Almighty ever-living God, who as an example of humility for the human race to follow caused our Savior to take flesh and submit to the Cross, graciously grant that we may heed his lesson of patient suffering and so merit a share in his Resurrection. Who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.

RECIPES

o    Almond Milk

o    Almond Milk Frumenty

o    Fig Pudding

o    Fig Swirl

o    Frumenty

o    Pea Soup

o    Pease Porridge

o    Yellow Split Pea Soup

ACTIVITIES

o    A Jonas (Jonah) Project

o    Blessed Palms in the Home

o    Carling or Passion Sunday

o    Fun Pretzel Project

o    Holy Week in the Catholic Tradition

o    Hymn: Gloria Laus et Honor (All Glory, Laud and Honor)

o    Jonas and Holy Week

o    Lent Hymn: O Head All Scarred and Bleeding

o    Lent Hymn: Open, O Hard and Sinful Heart!

o    Lenten Customs of the Russian Germans

o    Music for Lent and Easter: St. Matthew Passion by Bach

o    Palm Sunday

o    Palm Sunday and Holy Week in the Home

o    Palm Sunday Festivities

o    Palm Sunday Procession

o    Palm Sunday Procession

o    Purple Shrouds

o    Shrouding of Statues and Crucifixes

o    Traditions related to Palm Sunday

PRAYERS

o    Prayer Before a Crucifix

o    Prayer for Palm Sunday and Holy Week

o    Sacrifice Beads

o    Way of the Cross

o    To Keep A True Lent

o    Book of Blessings: Blessing Before and After Meals: Lent (1st Plan)

LIBRARY

o    From Palm Branches to the Wood of the Cross | Fr. Roger J. Landry

o    Hymn for Palm Sunday | Bishop Theodulf

o    Palm Sundays | Dom H. Philibert Feasey O.S.B.

o    We hail you, O Cross of Christ! | Pope John Paul II

·         Lent: April 13th

·         Palm Sunday

Old Calendar: Palm Sunday ; Other Titles: Palm Sunday; Hosanna Sunday; Fig Sunday; Flowery Festival;

So they took branches of palm trees and went out to meet him, crying, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord, even the King of Israel!" And Jesus found a young ass and sat upon it; as it is written, "Fear not, daughter of Zion; behold, your king is coming, sitting on an ass's colt (Jn 12:13-15)!"

Today we commemorate Christ's entry into Jerusalem for the completion of the Paschal Mystery. In the old calendar before Vatican II, the Church celebrated Passion Sunday two Sundays before Easter, and then Palm Sunday was the beginning of Holy Week. The Church has combined the two to reinforce the solemnity of Holy Week.

The Palm Sunday procession is formed of Christians who, in the "fullness of faith," make their own the gesture of the Jews and endow it with its full significance. Following the Jews' example we proclaim Christ as a Victor... Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is He who comes in the Name of the Lord. But by our faith we know, as they did not, all that His triumph stands for. He is the Messiah, the Son of David and the Son of God. He is the sign of contradiction, acclaimed by some and reviled by others. Sent into this world to wrest us from sin and the power of Satan, He underwent His Passion, the punishment for our sins, but issues forth triumphant from the tomb, the victor over death, making our peace with God and taking us with Him into the kingdom of His Father in heaven.

Stational Church


Liturgy for Palm Sunday

The priests and deacons wear red vestments for Mass. There is a special entrance at the beginning of each Mass, either simple or solemn. This includes a blessing of the palms and the gospel reading of the entrance into Jerusalem (Matt 21:1-11; Mark 11:1-10; John 12:12-16; Luke 19:28-40). The introduction by the priest explains the solemnity of Holy Week, and invites the faithful to take full part in the celebration:

Dear friends in Christ, for five weeks of Lent we have been preparing, by works of charity and self-sacrifice, for the celebration of our Lord's paschal mystery. Today we come together to begin this solemn celebration in union with the whole Church throughout the world. Christ entered in triumph into his own city, to complete his work as our Messiah: to suffer, to die, and to rise again. Let us remember with devotion this entry which began his saving work and follow him with a lively faith. United with him in his suffering on the cross, may we share his resurrection and new life.

The palms are blessed with the following prayer:

Almighty God, we pray you bless these branches and make them holy. Today we joyfully acclaim Jesus our Messiah and King. May we reach one day the happiness of the new and everlasting Jerusalem by faithfully following him who lives and reigns for ever and ever. Amen.

As the faithful, we remember and dramatize Christ's triumphal entrance into Jerusalem on a donkey. In Jesus' time, a huge crowd assembled, put their cloaks or branches on the ground, and waved palm branches, acclaiming Christ as the King of Israel, the Son of David. We now wave our palm branches and sing as the priest enters the church:

Hosanna to the Son of David, the King of Israel.
Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.
Hosanna in the highest.

These words of praise are echoed every day at the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass at the Sanctus (Holy, Holy).

Our joy is quickly subdued. We are jolted to reality and see the purpose of Christ coming to Jerusalem by the reading of the Passion at the Gospel. (Written by Jennifer Gregory Miller)

Things to Do:


The Station at Rome is in the church of St. John Lateran which represents the Holy City Jerusalem which Christ and we, His disciples, have just entered. It is the first cathedral of Rome, where Emperor Constantine allowed the Pope to set up the episcopal chair after 312.


48 posted on 04/13/2014 4:56:56 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All
The Word Among Us

Meditation: Matthew 26:14–27:66

Palm Sunday of the Passion of the Lord

From now on you will see “the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the Power” and “coming on the clouds of heaven.” (Matthew 26:64)

From a sermon by St. Leo the Great:

“No one, however weak, is denied a share in the victory of the cross. The sacred blood of Christ has quenched the flaming sword that barred access to the tree of life (Genesis 3:24). The age-old night of sin has given way to the true light, and the Christian people are invited to share the riches of paradise. All who have been reborn have the way open before them to return to their native land… .

“True reverence for the Lord’s passion means fixing the eyes of our heart on Jesus crucified and recognizing in him our own humanity. In taking our human nature while remaining God, he left no member of the human race without a share in his mercy. Who does not share a common nature with Christ, if he has welcomed Christ who took our nature and is reborn in the Spirit through whom Christ was conceived?

“Who cannot recognize in Christ his own infirmities? Who would not recognize that Christ’s eating and sleeping, his sadness and his shedding tears of love are marks of the nature of a slave? It was this nature of a slave that had to be healed of its ancient wounds and cleansed of the defilement of sin.

“The body that lay lifeless in the tomb is ours. The body that rose again on the third day is ours. The body that ascended to the right hand of the Father’s glory is ours. If then we walk in the way of his commandments, and are not ashamed to acknowledge the price he paid for our salvation in a lowly body, we too are to rise to share his glory. The promise he made will be fulfilled: ‘Everyone who acknowledges me before others, I also will acknowledge before my Father in heaven’ (Matthew 10:32).”

“All praise and glory to you, Lord Jesus, for redeeming us! I want to be with you in heaven forever!”

Matthew 21:1-11; Isaiah 50:4-7; Psalm 22:8-9, 17-20, 23-24; Philippians 2:6-11

Questions for Reflection or Group Discussion

(Isaiah 50:4-7; Psalm 22:8-9, 17-20, 23-24; Philippians 2:6-11; Matthew 26:14–27:66)

1. The first reading from Isaiah is a powerful prophecy on Jesus’ faithfulness, obedience, and his passion. In what way is it also a testimony to his total trust in the Father’s love and call for his life? When you are in the midst of difficult circumstances, or suffering, do you believe that, “The Lord God is my help, therefore, I am not disgraced?” Are you able to say, “I have set my face like flint, knowing that I will not be put to shame” (Isaiah 54:7)? Share a time when this was true and when it was a struggle for you.

2. The responsorial psalm is also a powerful prophetic word on Jesus’ suffering, his death on the Cross, and his resurrection. It also contains Jesus’ words from the Cross, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” Why do you think Jesus cried out these words from the Cross? Was there ever a time when you felt this way as well? Why?

3. The second reading provides a wonderful witness to Jesus’ humility in that he “emptied himself, taking the form of a slave” and “humbled himself, becoming obedient to the point of death.” If humility is lifting others above yourself, and pride is lifting yourself above others, how do you rate yourself on these characteristics? What steps can you take to reflect more and more the humility of Jesus?

4. The Gospel reading provides us with a narrative of Jesus’ passion and death on the Cross. It is so easy to take for granted this familiar story, or passively listen as the Gospel is read at Mass. What steps can you take to prevent this from happening?

5. The meditation, which comes from a sermon by St. Leo the Great, begins with these words: “No one, however weak, is denied a share in the victory of the cross.” How would you answer, if someone were to ask you: “What is the victory of the cross?” How would you describe this “victory” in your own life?

6. During Holy week, what steps can you take to spend additional time with Jesus, “watching,” praying with him, and meditating on his journey to the cross?

7. Take some time now to pray and thank the Lord for the victory of the Cross and for redeeming you and rescuing you from the power of sin and death. Use the prayer at the end of the meditation as the starting point.


49 posted on 04/13/2014 5:03:45 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All

Day 125 - Why is faith a prerequisite for the sacraments? // What if sacraments are administered by someone unworthy?

 

Why is faith a prerequisite for the sacraments?

Sacraments are not magic. A sacrament can be effective only if one understands and accepts it in faith. Sacraments not only presuppose faith, they also strengthen it and give expression to it.

Jesus commissioned the apostles first to make people disciples through their preaching, in other words, to awaken their faith and only then to baptize them. There are two things, therefore, that we receive from the Church: faith and the sacraments. Even today someone becomes a Christian, not through a mere ritual or by being listed in a register, but rather through acceptance of the true faith. We receive the true faith from the Church. She vouches for it. Because the Church's faith is expressed in the liturgy, no sacramental ritual can be changed or manipulated at the discretion of an individual minister or a congregation.


If a sacrament is administered by someone who is unworthy, does it fail to have its effect?

No. The sacraments are effective on the basis of the sacramental action that is carried out (ex opere operato), in other words, independently of the moral conduct or spiritual outlook of the minister. It is enough for him to intend to do what the Church does.

By all means, ministers of the sacraments ought to live an exemplary life. But the sacraments take effect, not because of the holiness of their ministers, but rather because Christ himself is at work in them. In any case, he respects our freedom when we receive the sacraments. That is why they have a positive effect only if we rely on Christ. (YOUCAT questions 177-178)


Dig Deeper: CCC section (1122-1128) and other references here.


50 posted on 04/13/2014 5:04:49 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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