Free Republic
Browse · Search
Religion
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

Is an Annulment a Catholic Divorce? (Catholic Caucus)
Holy Apostles ^ | July 29, 2014 | David Anderson

Posted on 07/31/2014 3:54:29 PM PDT by NYer

Many of us know of couples that have divorced. Some may be Catholic couples that divorced, remarried, and are able to receive the Sacraments with no problems because they received an annulment. Other Catholic couples we may know divorced but were told they could not remarry as they were not given an annulment. This may seem confusing and harsh of the Church, especially if the reason for separation is the infidelity of only one spouse. One of my students put the situation this way: it is as if the Church condemns some people to a lifetime of loneliness because their first marriage failed, even though it is not that spouse’s fault.

The Council of Trent states that there are “many reasons a separation may take place between husband and wife” and a couple ought not be condemned for such an act. An indeterminate separation of a married couple is a legitimate act and sometimes necessary as in the case of abuse. This article will concentrate specifically on divorce and remarriage and how it is handled in the Bible and the Church.

In Deuteronomy 24:1-4, Moses allowed an Israelite to write a certificate of divorce, send his wife away, and marry another. In the New Testament, Jesus teaches that this practice is no longer to be followed—divorce and remarriage are adultery (Matthew 5:32; 19:7-9). Today, the Roman Catholic Church has a process of issuing an annulment, properly called a decree of nullity. This process evaluates the validity or non-validity of a marriage. At first glance we seem to have three contradictory teachings on divorce and marriage: 1) Moses allows divorce, 2) Christ forbids it, and 3) the Roman Catholic Church decides whether they will recognize a marriage as valid or not based on a formal investigation.

The word “annulment” never appears in the English translation of the 1983 Code of Canon Law. The section handling annulments is titled “Cases to Declare the Nullity of Marriage.” Declaring a marriage null does not mean that it was valid and is no longer valid from a specific date going forward. Instead, it means that there never was a marriage. It asserts that a couple never married, ever. So it would be a grave error to state that it is a “Catholic divorce.”

A close friend of mine, a Catholic priest, gave me some very good points to remember about this topic. 1) The Church does not issue annulments; it issues decrees of nullity. 2) The choice of the tribunal cannot make a valid thing invalid; the decree simply declares that which is reality. 3) A marriage is either valid or invalid from its beginning. 4) The Church’s tribunal is primarily concerned about the moment of consent (the wedding day) when evaluating marriages. The course of one’s marriage may be considered for proofs of an invalid vow but are not the basis for declaring a marriage invalid.

According to Deuteronomy 24:1-4, if a man wanted to divorce his wife he could issue a bill of divorce that stated “You are free to marry again” and would send her away. There were two main schools of thought during the time of Jesus’ earthly ministry that interpreted Deuteronomy and the possible grounds for divorce. The Shammai school believed that divorce was only appropriate in the case of an unchaste wife, while the Hillel school believed anything could be grounds for divorce—even a badly cooked dinner (The Mishnah: A New Translation, Gittin 9:10). Rabbi Aqiba went so far as to state that even a man’s desire for a prettier woman was sufficient grounds for divorce (Gittin 9:10).

Caravaggio - San Gerolamo (St. Jerome)

St. Jerome (340-420 AD)

When the Pharisees question Jesus in Matthew 19 about divorce, they were not asking him the question to find out if the practice itself was valid. Instead, they wanted to know under what circumstances one was able to divorce his wife; only in cases of infidelity or even when a wife burns dinner.

Jesus responded that Moses did not allow for divorce because he believed it to be moral in some circumstances. Moses allowed divorce because of how sinful the people had become—it was a concession to their extreme sinfulness (Matthew 19:3-9). In fact, St. Jerome wrote in his Commentary on Matthew that Moses was preventing murder by allowing divorce as men were killing their wives in order to marry another.

In Matthew 19:8, Jesus teaches that “from the beginning [divorce] was not so.” Christ calls us to remember the unveiling of Eve to Adam in Genesis before Original Sin. Upon seeing Eve, Adam cries out “This at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh” (Genesis 2:23). The two become one flesh at that point, and there is an inseparable nature to their marital union. The Code of Canon Law teaches that the only event which is able to dissolve a valid marriage is death. What is exchanged in marriage between the couple is not merely a promise that must be fulfilled, but each gives themself entirely to their spouse.

The process of the Catholic Church in determining the validity of a marriage is based on the requirements for making a vow. The most important being consent; without it a marriage cannot exist. Consent is an “act of the will” where spouses mutually give and accept each other. A person must have knowledge of what they are doing and have reached psychic maturity in understanding what a marriage is; thus, a child is incapable of marriage. Lack of freedom leads to an invalid vow as well.

In summary, divorce was allowed by Moses in Deuteronomy due to the extreme sinfulness of the men. Jesus teaches that divorce and remarriage is adultery, plain and simple. From the beginning of creation, God designed marriage as a lifelong bond. The annulment process of the Catholic Church evaluates whether a marriage has properly occurred. If it is found that a person was incapable of contracting a marriage for some reason, be it a mental disorder, fear, or lack of freedom, then a marriage never existed and a Decree of Nullity is issued. Unfortunately, some people enter into valid marriages, but regret doing so or are unhappy with the way the marriage turns out. This does not invalidate a marriage. It may be no one’s fault that a marriage does not work out, but that does not mean that a true marriage does not exist.


TOPICS: Apologetics; Catholic; Moral Issues; Theology
KEYWORDS: annulment; divorce; marriage

1 posted on 07/31/2014 3:54:29 PM PDT by NYer
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: Tax-chick; GregB; Berlin_Freeper; SumProVita; narses; bboop; SevenofNine; Ronaldus Magnus; tiki; ...

Catholic Caucus Thread

Please respect the caucus rules - no bashing of other denominations.

2 posted on 07/31/2014 3:55:55 PM PDT by NYer ("You are a puff of smoke that appears briefly and then disappears." James 4:14)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: NYer

NO it is a certification that a valid sacramental marriage did not occur.


3 posted on 07/31/2014 4:05:07 PM PDT by verga (Conservative, leaning libertarian)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: NYer

No. Absolutely not.


4 posted on 07/31/2014 4:11:57 PM PDT by trisham (Zen is not easy. It takes effort to attain nothingness. And then what do you have? Bupkis.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: verga

If you are a Kennedy they pass them out like programs at a ball game.


5 posted on 07/31/2014 4:12:40 PM PDT by yarddog (Romans 8: verses 38 and 39. "For I am persuaded".)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: verga
NO it is a certification that a valid sacramental marriage did not occur.

What is the status of any issue from this non valid sacramental marriage?

6 posted on 07/31/2014 4:13:03 PM PDT by Mastador1 (I'll take a bad dog over a good politician any day!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Mastador1

Because the state issues the license for the wedding to occur, they are still legitimate. They will be recognized by both the state and the Church as legitimate heirs.


7 posted on 07/31/2014 4:24:55 PM PDT by verga (Conservative, leaning libertarian)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: yarddog
If you are a Kennedy they pass them out like programs at a ball game.
It's all about the "Benjamins."
8 posted on 07/31/2014 4:25:20 PM PDT by oh8eleven (RVN '67-'68)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: Mastador1

I am working from memory here...if they are baptized they are ok.

I think you are going for the bastard child rules that plagued Henry VIII. If the issue from the annulment is in line for the throne, I think you would get plenty of counsel. In all other cases, I think we can agree the kids are not at fault and should be treated accordingly.


9 posted on 07/31/2014 4:30:07 PM PDT by Vermont Lt (If you want to keep your dignity, you can keep it. Period........ Just kidding, you can't keep it.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: verga

You got it!


10 posted on 07/31/2014 4:31:39 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Vermont Lt

A situation that I know of.

The couple were both baptized.

The woman wanted children; the man didn’t.

10+ years down the road the man says — I never wanted to be married and I never wanted to have children.

Two weeks later he had moved in with a man.

Lack of form annulment.


11 posted on 07/31/2014 4:34:44 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: NYer

And if one’s spouse decided that their mind did not match the birth sex of their body? i.e. wanted a sex change operation? Would the spouse whom was content with their body be expected to remain married to their spouse who wanted to change his or her sexual orientation/identity?

I can’t believe that Jesus would say: “you must remain married to that person.”


12 posted on 07/31/2014 4:35:29 PM PDT by GreyFriar (Spearhead - 3rd Armored Division 75-78 & 83-87)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: oh8eleven

It’s not about the money.


13 posted on 07/31/2014 4:35:54 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 8 | View Replies]

To: Vermont Lt

Children are always recognized as legitimate. That’s a false idea.


14 posted on 07/31/2014 4:37:12 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: Salvation

It was about money when the sold the remission of punishment for sins.


15 posted on 07/31/2014 4:41:21 PM PDT by yarddog (Romans 8: verses 38 and 39. "For I am persuaded".)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 13 | View Replies]

To: NYer
Annulments say that a marriage never took place.

1. I learned that if a man/woman DIDN'T tell perspective spouse about tied tubes and/or vasectomies and knew that spouse wanted children, then an annulment is granted.
Spouse DENIED the prospect of children and never told children-wanting spouse about the surgeries: a lie about children annulled the marriage; that is, there was NO marriage.

2. If husband beat the HOLY PIE out of his wife, an annulment is granted.
I knew an old high school student classmate in our class who underwent the latter. Her mother told me about it because they both had the same name and I met the MOTHER socially.
She told me that her daughter DID get the annulment, with FIVE children, and she got to marry someone else and HE was/is a WINNER and said school chum was/is HAPPY at last.
Marriage is about "love, cherish," etc. NOT about beating up spouse, so there was NO marriage.

THOSE are the only two experiences I've had with annulments.

16 posted on 07/31/2014 4:42:59 PM PDT by cloudmountain
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Salvation
Children are always recognized as legitimate. That’s a false idea.

Correct, us usual!

17 posted on 07/31/2014 4:43:37 PM PDT by cloudmountain
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 14 | View Replies]

To: NYer
Is an Annulment a Catholic Divorce

They may soon become the same, if Cardinal Kasper and Pope Francis get their way in October's synod.

18 posted on 07/31/2014 4:49:07 PM PDT by ebb tide
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: yarddog

88It was about money when the sold the remission of punishment for sins.**

You are talking about something different — indulgences.


19 posted on 07/31/2014 4:49:54 PM PDT by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 15 | View Replies]

To: GreyFriar
I can’t believe that Jesus would say: “you must remain married to that person.”

I agree with you.
In many cases there WAS no marriage because of several factors. If that was the case, then people CAN marry, for real.

Also, Catholics can divorce...but not remarry IF the marriage was valid. No one is expected to stay with a drunk, abuser, cheater, etc. One can always leave and divorce.

I had an aunt who had that latter problem. They separated and divorced. She married again and stayed with him (one of my father's brothers) until she died...but that marriage was NOT recognized by the Catholic Church. It broke her heart.

FINALLY her former husband DIED. She was then able to marry the man she loved IN CHURCH with a Catholic wedding...at last. She was my godmother.

I was able to say "good-bye" to her on her death-bed. I did love her. She was so good. I still miss her.

20 posted on 07/31/2014 4:52:54 PM PDT by cloudmountain
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

To: NYer
ANNULMENTS are not Catholic divorces.

Annulment = a marriage never took place, even with children.

21 posted on 07/31/2014 4:54:50 PM PDT by cloudmountain
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: cloudmountain
Annulment = a marriage never took place, even with children.

a sacramental marriage as opposed to a natural marriage. A declaration of nullity is a ruling that there was never a sacrament. It's a fine distinction but it is there.

22 posted on 07/31/2014 5:00:16 PM PDT by Legatus (Either way, we're screwed.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 21 | View Replies]

To: Legatus
a sacramental marriage as opposed to a natural marriage. A declaration of nullity is a ruling that there was never a sacrament. It's a fine distinction but it is there.

YEP.
The devil's in the details, innit?

23 posted on 07/31/2014 5:10:23 PM PDT by cloudmountain
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 22 | View Replies]

To: NYer
There are 4 things required for a sacrament to be valid. Matter, form, minister, and intent.

1) Matter- for a valid marriage you must have a man and woman, and only one of each.

2) Form- Vows need to be exchanged promising fidelity to each other.

3)Minister- In marriage the couple ministers the sacrament to each other. The priest is there to make sure the proper form is used.

4) Intent- This is the tricky one. Do both members intend the marriage to be sacramental? Do they intend to be faithful? Are they both of sound mind and are they giving their full and willing consent to this or is it under duress? Are both mature enough to give consent?

If one of these four is missing there may be grounds for a cert of nullity to be issued.

24 posted on 07/31/2014 5:14:28 PM PDT by verga (Conservative, leaning libertarian)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: NYer

Hey I think the rules don’t apply for Rich and Kings

Ask Kennedy or Henry VIII


25 posted on 07/31/2014 5:16:04 PM PDT by SevenofNine (We are Freepers, all your media bases belong to us ,resistance is futile)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: NYer
Unfortunately, some people enter into valid marriages, but regret doing so or are unhappy with the way the marriage turns out. This does not invalidate a marriage.

It does if as far as I am concerned. If you kept your vows and your spouse shattered theirs and thereafter kicked you to the curb for someone else, I think they invalidated the marriage. The contracts with both spouse and God were severed and invalidated if not completly distroyed.

If you maintained your commitment to your spouse and your compact with God intact, I see no reason in the world why you should not remarry (be a LOT more selective next time).

To punish someone for the sins of another is not the Christan way nor in keeping with the fundamentals of reason.

26 posted on 07/31/2014 5:16:50 PM PDT by usurper (Liberals GET OFF MY LAWN)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: yarddog

What Kennedy?


27 posted on 07/31/2014 6:11:43 PM PDT by NKP_Vet
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: NKP_Vet

Teddy and a whole bunch of the Grandchildren and GGrandchildren of Joe.


28 posted on 07/31/2014 6:14:48 PM PDT by yarddog (Romans 8: verses 38 and 39. "For I am persuaded".)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 27 | View Replies]

To: verga

“NO it is a certification that a valid sacramental marriage did not occur.”

So then, for the sake of argument, what you are saying indirectly, is that the only way one can know you have a true sacramental marriage is to have had the marriage sacrament and subsequently sought and been denied an annulment, thereby confirming that the sacrament actually occurred.

Otherwise you have know actual way of knowing if your marriage is of the sacramental variety.

I think this may postpone a lot of honeymoons!

Annulment is an earthly construct.


29 posted on 07/31/2014 6:22:07 PM PDT by RFEngineer
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Salvation

My wife’s ex was Catholic. When they were going together he went to Mass. From the moment they were married he never went with her to Mass again. Their child was baptised Catholic and he told the priest he would raise the child in the faith. He never went to any of her cathecism classes. Not the first one. He never went with her and her mother to Mass. His reply when asked why, was “the Catholic Church is not telling me what to do”. After 10 years of living with this character she filed for a divorce. I met her 10 years later and she applied for a annulment. It took 2 years to get, many statements of witnesses that attested to the fact that he led her on and had no intention of living like a Catholic. The final straw was when he ignored the statement asked by the tribunal for his side of the story.


30 posted on 07/31/2014 6:25:04 PM PDT by NKP_Vet
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 11 | View Replies]

To: NKP_Vet
Vatican reverses Kennedy ruling

Just think of all the other false annulments that have been granted in the U.S.!

31 posted on 07/31/2014 6:28:41 PM PDT by ebb tide
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 27 | View Replies]

To: NKP_Vet

St. Monica
The circumstances of St. Monica’s life could have made her a nagging wife, a bitter daughter-in-law and a despairing parent, yet she did not give way to any of these temptations. Although she was a Christian, her parents gave her in marriage to a pagan, Patricius, who lived in her hometown of Tagaste in North Africa. Patricius had some redeeming features, but he had a violent temper and was licentious. Monica also had to bear with a cantankerous mother-in-law who lived in her home. Patricius criticized his wife because of her charity and piety, but always respected her. Monica’s prayers and example finally won her husband and mother-in-law to Christianity. Her husband died in 371, one year after his baptism.


32 posted on 07/31/2014 6:36:37 PM PDT by ebb tide
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 30 | View Replies]

To: yarddog

Teddy got an annulment because he said he never intended to be faithful to his wife and his wife went along with the story. But Teddy DID NOT get remarried in the Catholic Church.


33 posted on 07/31/2014 6:57:24 PM PDT by NKP_Vet
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 28 | View Replies]

To: NKP_Vet
But Teddy DID NOT get remarried in the Catholic Church.

But, the Church DID give a Catholic funeral, fit for royalty, for the non-repentent adulterous baby- butcherer. And is was Sean Cardinal O'Malley who threw that lavish extravaganza. O'Malley is a current member of the Pope's Gang o' Eight.

34 posted on 07/31/2014 7:04:06 PM PDT by ebb tide
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 33 | View Replies]

To: ebb tide

“for the non-repentent adulterous baby- butcherer”

But there is always the chance that Teddy went to confession and his confessor was O’Malley!! Only the shadow knows, because a priest is under no obligation to tell anyone who might have gone to confession.


35 posted on 07/31/2014 7:16:08 PM PDT by NKP_Vet
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 34 | View Replies]

To: NKP_Vet
Notorious public sinners are required to make public repentance for their sins.

Stop relying on "the shadows'.

36 posted on 07/31/2014 7:20:39 PM PDT by ebb tide
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 35 | View Replies]

To: yarddog
If it is found that a person was incapable of contracting a marriage for some reason, be it a mental disorder

Sounds like most if not all the Kennedy family does indeed qualify...

37 posted on 07/31/2014 7:24:21 PM PDT by Tammy8
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: NKP_Vet

Can. 1184 §1. Unless they gave some signs of repentance before death, the following must be deprived of ecclesiastical funerals:

1/ notorious apostates, heretics, and schismatics;

2/ those who chose the cremation of their bodies for reasons contrary to Christian faith;

3/ other manifest sinners who cannot be granted ecclesiastical funerals without public scandal of the faithful.


38 posted on 07/31/2014 7:32:16 PM PDT by ebb tide
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 35 | View Replies]

To: ebb tide

The Popes have always been there for Ted, from his first Communion by Pope Pius XII at age 7, to Pope Benedict XVI blessing him on his death bed in a letter, but he had to settle for a Cardinal to perform his first marriage and a Cardinal for his funeral.

He is Catholic royalty.

Here is part of the letter he wrote to his Pope.

““Most Holy Father,
I asked President Obama to personally hand deliver this letter to you. As a man of deep faith himself, he understands how important my Roman Catholic faith is to me and I am so deeply grateful to him.”
(snip)
“I am 77-years-old and preparing for the next passage of life.

I’ve been blessed to be part of a wonderful family and both my parents, specifically my mother, kept our Catholic faith at the center of our lives.

That gift of faith has sustained and nurtured and provided solace to me in the darkest hours. I know that i have been an imperfect human being, but with the help of my faith I have tried to right my past.

I want you to know, your Holiness, that in my 50 years of elected office I have done my best to champion the rights of the poor and open doors of economic opportunity. I’ve worked to welcome the immigrant, to fight discrimination and expand access to health care and education. I’ve opposed the death penalty and fought to end war. Those are the issues that have motivated me and have been the focus of my work as a U.S. Senator.

I also want you to know that even though I am ill, I am committed to do everything I can to achieve access to health care for everyone in my country. This has been the political cause of my life.

I believe in a conscience protection for Catholics in the health field and I’ll continue to advocate for it as my colleagues in the Senate and I work to develop an overall national health policy that guarantees health care for everyone.

I’ve always tried to be a faithful Catholic, Your Holiness. And though I have fallen short through human failings I’ve never failed to believe and respect the fundamental teachings of my faith.”


39 posted on 07/31/2014 9:22:30 PM PDT by ansel12 (LEGAL immigrants, 30 million 1980-2012, continues to remake the nation's electorate for democrats)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 36 | View Replies]

To: Salvation
It’s not about the money.
40 posted on 08/01/2014 6:21:04 AM PDT by oh8eleven (RVN '67-'68)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 13 | View Replies]

To: RFEngineer
Read my post #24

Annulment is an earthly construct.

The sacraments are a divine construct. If you have not met all four criteria for a sacrament to occur than you might as well be engaging in a play. It may be moving or emotionally satisfying but nothing divine has occurred. If the first three criteria are met than it is up to the couple as afar as that goes and they know what is in their respective hearts.

So no an annulment is not an earthly construct, it is a formalization that the event did not occur as prescribed.

41 posted on 08/01/2014 6:25:58 AM PDT by verga (Conservative, leaning libertarian)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 29 | View Replies]

To: ansel12

Did Pope Benedict return a letter with his blessing of Kennedy?

If so, I wouldn’t be surprised. Kennedy was invited to and given Holy Communion at Pope Benedict’s Mass in D.C.


42 posted on 08/01/2014 12:54:12 PM PDT by ebb tide
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 39 | View Replies]

To: verga

The sacraments are divine. The annulment, an earthly convenience. The process has a religious pretension, to make it palatable, but an earthly convenience it is.

The four criteria are supposedly affirmed during the sacrament - you can’t just rely on the “honor system”, and Catholics do not.

Regardless, sometimes people can’t live together regardless. Catholics need their way out, and they have it. I’m not arguing against it, just against the presumption that it is somehow more legit than any other garden variety divorce for “irreconcilable differences”. It’s a process Catholics have invented for themselves - which is fine.


43 posted on 08/01/2014 7:44:53 PM PDT by RFEngineer
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 41 | View Replies]

To: RFEngineer

Matthew 16:19 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.”


44 posted on 08/01/2014 7:54:39 PM PDT by verga (Conservative, leaning libertarian)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 43 | View Replies]

To: RFEngineer

“Immaturity” seems to be a catch-all for annulments; since it has to be something at the time of the original marriage that invalidates it/gives cause for an annulment, immaturity is an unverifiable catch-all (not as concrete as a pregnancy or prior marriage by one party) that seems to work.


45 posted on 08/02/2014 7:38:56 PM PDT by kearnyirish2 (Affirmative action is economic warfare against white males (and therefore white families).)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 43 | View Replies]

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
Religion
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson