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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers Grattan Massacre & Battle of Ash Hollow (1854 -1855) - Nov. 2nd, 2003
www.authorsden.com ^ | August 11, 2002 | Richard Jepperson

Posted on 11/02/2003 12:03:30 AM PST by SAMWolf



Lord,

Keep our Troops forever in Your care

Give them victory over the enemy...

Grant them a safe and swift return...

Bless those who mourn the lost.
.

FReepers from the Foxhole join in prayer
for all those serving their country at this time.


...................................................................................... ...........................................

U.S. Military History, Current Events and Veterans Issues

Where Duty, Honor and Country
are acknowledged, affirmed and commemorated.

Our Mission:

The FReeper Foxhole is dedicated to Veterans of our Nation's military forces and to others who are affected in their relationships with Veterans.

In the FReeper Foxhole, Veterans or their family members should feel free to address their specific circumstances or whatever issues concern them in an atmosphere of peace, understanding, brotherhood and support.

The FReeper Foxhole hopes to share with it's readers an open forum where we can learn about and discuss military history, military news and other topics of concern or interest to our readers be they Veteran's, Current Duty or anyone interested in what we have to offer.

If the Foxhole makes someone appreciate, even a little, what others have sacrificed for us, then it has accomplished one of it's missions.

We hope the Foxhole in some small way helps us to remember and honor those who came before us.

To read previous Foxhole threads or
to add the Foxhole to your sidebar,
click on the books below.

The War of the Mormon Cow


On August 19th one hundred and forty eight years ago an incident occurred that destroyed the fragile peace between the Indians and white emigrants and set the stage for more than a decade of "Indian Wars."

Were the "Indian Wars" triggered by conditions imposed by the Perpetual Emigrating Fund of the Mormon Church?

From: Comprehensive History of the Church, Volume 4/Chapter 95 Miscellaneous Events, 1851-7, page 51



August 19th, 1854: At Sarpy’s point, eight miles east of Laramie, while a company of saints was passing a camp of Sioux of about one thousand lodges, a lame cow belonging to the company, became frightened and ran into the Indian camp where she was left. Some of them killed and ate her, which circumstance was reported at Fort Laramie. Lieutenant Grattan, with twenty-seven soldiers and an interpreter, repaired to Sarpy’s point to arrest the Indian who killed the cow, but he refused to give himself up. The Lieutenant then ordered his men to fire upon the Indians, which they did. The Indians then charged and routed the soldiers, who were all killed but one, who was dangerously wounded… All this for the killing of an old cow!

Known by "our" historians as the Grattan Massacre, the Sioux called it The War of the Mormon Cow.

The "company of saints" noted above was a participant in the Perpetual Emigrating Company that was incorporated on September 11, 1850 "…to assist the poor in emigrating to the Great Basin." The Company charter provided that, "All persons receiving assistance from the Perpetual Emigrating Fund for the Poor, shall reimburse the same in labor or otherwise as soon as their circumstances permit." In the first year of the program money was raised ($6,000) and a Salt Lake bishop was appointed as Emigrant Agent to carry the sum east to expend on the purchase of wagons, livestock and provisions. By 1854 the Company was fully organized and the needs of emigrants well planned. When they arrived at the Missouri River camps their outfits had been purchased by the Emigrant Agent and were waiting for them. An "outfit" consisted of one wagon, two yoke of oxen, two cows, a tent and foodstuffs and cost from $250 to $500. This outfit served ten emigrants. A typical P. E. Company was made up of 60 outfits (600 emigrants). Since emigrants were held responsible for the goods assigned to them this likely elicited the "hard nosed" response over "the loss of a lame cow" for the full price was owed on the cow when embarking from the Missouri River to the Great Basin.


Fort Laramie, 1850. Engraving from Stanbury Expedition


What has been left out of "our" history is the story from the point of view of the Sioux: (The following was excerpted and edited from Crazy Horse, the Strange Man of the Oglala by Mari Sandoz (1942, MJF Books).

When we first gathered at Fort Laramie it was good. Every year since the Peace Paper we would rendezvous in the spring. There was much trading and dancing and meeting with old friends. But this year it was near summer’s end and each day the old ones looked to the east waiting for the agent of the Washington Father.

One day a Mormon, walking far behind a train on the Road was using a stick to beat an old cow with bleeding feet. The cow spooked, flipped its tail and ran into the camp of the Brules. It ran kicking its back legs up, scattering travois and parfleches and knocking down one lodge then got stuck with its horns in the skins of another. Straight Foretop, a Minneconjou, caught the cow and held it by the horns. The Mormon chased after the cow until he saw the great Indian camp. Straight Foretop waved and shouted to the Mormon to come and get his cow. But the man left the cow. We thought it was to pay for the trouble it caused. It was of little value because it was old and dry and had bleeding feet. Straight Foretop killed the cow and we ate it.

Conquering Bear and Man Afraid smoked and talked into the fire late that night. They thought there might be a little trouble so they said, "Let us go to the fort and talk with the Soldier Chief in the morning." The next morning Conquering Bear and Man Afraid prepared to go to the fort but before they could leave a Little Soldier Chief, called Grattan, came with twenty-seven soldiers and two wagon-guns.


Crazy Horse


There was a trading post nearby owned by Frenchman known as Louis Bordeaux. He was little, squat and hairy, with a Brule wife and a friend of the Sioux for more years than the fort had stood. That morning, at the fort, Bordeaux had talked with Grattan and offered the Mormon ten dollars for the cow, of his own money, to avoid trouble. But the Mormon wanted twenty-five dollars and Bordeaux said he would not pay that much for a strong cow. Bordeaux smelled trouble and would not come with Grattan. Grattan left Bordeaux and came to the camp with Wyuse, demanding the cow killer.

Wyuse was the White-to-Indian speaker. He was always drunk and lied but the Soldier Chief would use no other. Conquering Bear and Man Afraid went back and forth between Grattan and Straight Foretop, trying to get Straight Foretop to surrender. Straight Foretop would not go with the whites over the killing of an old cow. Conquering Bear then offered a good mule and sent the camp crier to get more from the tribes and the crier returned with five sticks, meaning five good horses, and placed them on the ground before Grattan even though the cow was worth nothing.

Grattan wanted to put Straight Foretop in the iron house and demanded that Conquering Bear make the Minneconjou come. Conquering Bear could not make him do that because Straight Foretop was a guest. Each time Conquering Bear said, "Wait, wait," and asked to sit and smoke and settle the trouble, Wyuse changed the words and Grattan got redder in the face, roaring and stomping his boots.


CONQUERING BEAR


Grattan turned and walked to the line of soldiers, pulled his long knife and shouted and the soldiers fired the wagon-guns at Conquering Bear, Man Afraid, Big Partisan and the brother of Conquering Bear, who stood wrapped in council blankets. The brother of Conquering Bear fell dead. Grattan again called out and the wagon guns roared and Conquering Bear fell, wounded.

Straight Foretop lifted his rifle and fired through clouds of foul smelling black smoke and Grattan fell. Spotted Tail whooped and a hundred warriors shot a flood of arrows into the soldiers at the wagon guns. With lances and war clubs they charged like a buffalo herd trampling the soldiers into the ground. More warriors than you could count came from every direction, crying war whoops, kicking their ponies, leaning forward, waving lances, clubs and axes. A few soldiers got away and they tried to stand and fight but were soon dead.

Once the trouble started the great camp dissolved like sugar in a rainstorm. There was now a great river of men, women, children, dogs, horses and travois moving north under a cloud of dust stretching over many miles. Man Afraid, other chiefs and Ice, the holy man, made a covered sling for Conquering Bear and carried him gently on their shoulders, walking fast enough to keep ahead of the people with horses and travois, all the way to the north country and there we made camp.



The next morning, at daybreak, the herald came for Man Afraid to go to the lodge of Conquering Bear. The other headmen of the Oglalas and the Brules were there. When they came in the Great Chief called to Man Afraid in a voice they could scarcely hear. Such a small voice from the chief who had filled the camp with roaring so even the dogs ran for the hills. When Man Afraid was near he told him to always remember the treaty of the Big Council. The treaty was of things that belonged to their children, goods to be sent them for giving up the wars on their enemies and for making the trail by the fort a Holy Road where no one who walked on the Road would be killed. There were annuities for fifty-five years and protection by the soldiers for all people, from every enemy, Indian or White.

"It was the white soldiers who came to our peaceful village," one growled. But Conquering Bear said there had been a mistake and he did not want the people to get angry at the whites when he was dead.

"There were wild young men among the Sioux who did not do right, too. I am killed and in my place I give my people to Man Afraid, all the Teton Lakotas I give him."

With the death of Conquering Bear, Man Afraid tried to fill his moccasins but was not respected enough to take his place. The Sioux fractured into many camps that attacked the whites at will, effectively sealing off travel to the west, unless accompanied by the U.S. Calvary, making commerce and travel to and from Salt Lake City a high risk venture. For more than a decade many battles were won and lost on both sides until the introduction of the railroad sealed their fate and the Sioux Chiefs signed the treaty of 1868.



TOPICS: VetsCoR
KEYWORDS: ashhollow; bluewatercreek; conqueringbear; crazyhorse; freeperfoxhole; generalharney; grattanmassacre; indianwars; redcloud; sioux; veterans
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To: Valin
I read that they were on their way to R & R. What ticks me off is that all last week we had warnings of something like this coming.
51 posted on 11/02/2003 1:11:15 PM PST by SAMWolf (Sorry. No quotation today!!)
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To: Valin
LOL! I think a Piper Cub could use the Spruce Goose as a landing field.
52 posted on 11/02/2003 1:12:06 PM PST by SAMWolf (Sorry. No quotation today!!)
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To: Victoria Delsoul
Afternoon Victoria.

Typical Sunday here, had to give up the machine to the rest of the family. Arrrgh. Gotta get more than one Internet connection.!!
53 posted on 11/02/2003 1:13:28 PM PST by SAMWolf (Sorry. No quotation today!!)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; Victoria Delsoul
Thanks for the history today. I think if a cow came into my camp, I would have eaten too.

Prayers of comfort for our grieving families this sad day. It sure is hard news to take.

click on the picture

Soldiers from the Alpha Company, 1st 325 Airborne Infantry Regiment, review their mission after running through the squad tactics course at Kursah Range, Iraq, Oct. 18, 2003. (U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Stacy L. Pearsall) (released)

Photo by: STAFF SERGEANT STACY PEARSASLL,

(sorry this isn't the best recording of this song. I lost my good one).

:(

54 posted on 11/02/2003 1:41:25 PM PST by SpookBrat (The devil is a liberal)
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Comment #55 Removed by Moderator

Comment #56 Removed by Moderator

To: SAMWolf
SAM, that's what you can get me for my birthday!! (In case you were wondering ...)
57 posted on 11/02/2003 3:38:42 PM PST by manna
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To: SpookBrat
Thanks Spooky, good song. Sad day indeed.
58 posted on 11/02/2003 4:01:40 PM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: Matthew Paul
Thank you Matt. Don't worry so much about the language, you do a wonderful job and we know what you mean. Thank you so much for your support and caring.
59 posted on 11/02/2003 4:09:34 PM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: SpookBrat
Good afternoon Spooky. DON't worry about the song. It's still good.
60 posted on 11/02/2003 4:21:02 PM PST by SAMWolf (Sorry. No quotation today!!)
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To: Matthew Paul
We have a talk radio host here who talks about "Borders, Language and Culture" The three things that make a Country unique, America is having all 3 of those things assaulted. If "We the people" don't wake up there will no longer be an America as we know it today.

I don't know a lot about early Polish history other than there always seemed to be others who didin't want an independent Poland to exist. Poles have always had to fight for their existance and it's a tribute to their spirit that there is still a Poland today.
61 posted on 11/02/2003 4:25:38 PM PST by SAMWolf (Sorry. No quotation today!!)
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To: manna
Dream on, LOL! Unless you mean a picture of one.
62 posted on 11/02/2003 4:26:47 PM PST by SAMWolf (Sorry. No quotation today!!)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; SpookBrat
Hi guys, good to see you all.

Gotta get more than one Internet connection.!!

Most definitely. We are missing precious moments when you aren't around, hehehe.

(I'm just trying to be nice)

63 posted on 11/02/2003 4:57:04 PM PST by Victoria Delsoul (I love the smell of winning, the taste of victory, and the joy of each glorious triumph)
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To: Victoria Delsoul
(I'm just trying to be nice)

Now Victoria, you are always nice, we know you don't have to try at it. LOL.

64 posted on 11/02/2003 5:30:04 PM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: Victoria Delsoul
Awwwwww! Precious moments.
65 posted on 11/02/2003 6:43:06 PM PST by SAMWolf (Sorry. No quotation today!!)
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To: SAMWolf
LOL!!! Hey, no quotation today?
66 posted on 11/02/2003 6:48:03 PM PST by Victoria Delsoul (I love the smell of winning, the taste of victory, and the joy of each glorious triumph)
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To: snippy_about_it
Col Lopez update:

Good morning to all. It may or may not surprise some of you to hear that "Elvis has left the building"... Yes, believe it or not, Dad was doing well enough that he was paroled (released) from the hospital and sentenced to confinement at home to fully rest and recover. He continues to do well with his recovery and has even been up out of bed for a few minutes at a time to bark orders for all the various chores that need to be done around the farm. We're all thrilled that he is doing so well. However, despite being able to come home he will need lots of rest. We know that many of you would like to call or visit, but we are asking that you hold off at least until Monday. As you all know, if Dad had his way, he'd be trying to go out for his daily 5-mile walk with Maggie, fire up the tractor and/or get back to his ever-present political activities. As such, please understand if we try to protect him from his usual Type-A self!!!

67 posted on 11/02/2003 7:28:09 PM PST by GailA (Millington Rally for America after action http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/872519/posts)
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To: GailA
Thanks Gail. I just love his son's sense of humor too!
68 posted on 11/02/2003 7:29:21 PM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: GailA
Thakns you Gail. Sounds like this family is going to do just fine based on the son's reports.
69 posted on 11/02/2003 7:31:03 PM PST by SAMWolf (Sorry. No quotation today!!)
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To: SAMWolf
From my email

For those of you who don't know, Troop Fan Mail is an organization that sends cards and letters to our troops ALL OVER THE WORLD. They are gearing up for their Christmas mailing and everything has to be sent to them before Thanksgiving. This organization coordinates delivery with the USO, so the troops currently serving in Iraq will also receive letters and cards. The guys and girls serving in other countries REALLY appreciate hearing from people back home.

It's simple to participate. Just write letters, notes, or cards and put them in envelopes. DO NOT SEAL the envelopes, just tuck in the flaps. Also do not put any postage on the letters. Put your return address in the upper left corner and this address on the envelope: Troop Fan Mail Troop Fan Mail

70 posted on 11/02/2003 7:32:14 PM PST by GailA (Millington Rally for America after action http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/872519/posts)
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To: snippy_about_it
The Col is a real nice man and has the same since of humor. He use to live in Texas and KNOWS Pres Bush, and use to play baseball with him, when W owned the team.

On another note our guys and gals in Iraq have a NEED to be filled CB's according to our local fish wrapper. See thread

71 posted on 11/02/2003 7:45:44 PM PST by GailA (Millington Rally for America after action http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/872519/posts)
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To: GailA
Thanks Gail.
72 posted on 11/02/2003 7:52:29 PM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; bentfeather; Darksheare; Johnny Gage; Light Speed; Samwise; All
GOOD EVENING ALL AT THE FOXHOLE!
Hope you've had a splendid weekend.

It looks like I just made it under the wire to say THANK YOU service men and women, past and present, for your service to the USA!

I wish I'd known sooner that FR was going to be down for a while tonight. I'd have busted buns to get here sooner. But since I blew it, I'll say "good night" and I'll see y'all tomorrow. *HUGZ*


73 posted on 11/02/2003 8:55:29 PM PST by radu (May God watch over our troops and keep them safe)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; E.G.C.; Victoria Delsoul
Now Indians have casinos, pay no taxes, receive benefits from paleface taxpayers.

Christmas Eve 1992 a drunk Indian (Gordon House) drove wrong way on I-25 near Albuquerque and killed four whites, mom and three daughters.

Ten years later drunken Indian (Lloyd Larson) drove wrong way on I-25 near Albuquerque and killed four whites, two couples from out of state.

Bill Richardson now governor, his 3d District leads the nation in heroin overdose deaths.

Massacre? Communism has killed 100 million and is still prefered by Barbra Streisand, Sean Penn, Tim Robinson and Hillary Clinton.

Re Iraq, death to terrorists.

A daisy cutter for every celebration by swine delighted at our deaths.

Time to debed reporters from hotels and embed them in patrols--at point on foot, strapped to side of humvee and chinook.

No more mr. nice guy--no more new tone.

Ba'ath boys, Ba'ath boys,
Watchoo gonna do.
Watchoo gonna do win dey
Blow your head clean off.

Enough with this religion of peace crap.

Mecca them an offer they can't refuse:

Damascus, you dumb asses ask us to believe you don't harbor these punks?

Teheran, you tear in, build a car bomb, and ran.

It's a capital crime:

Turn up the heat--peace has been cancelled.

And while we're at it, Miss Funky Wagnalls sez: cache is one syllable pronounced like Johnny Cash--not cachet like sashay on over to the saloon. Cachet is a royal seal--now that is two syllables--but when our people find AKs and RPGs and C-4 and copies of Donkieboy, that's a cache, one syllable.

, daß das Flugboot HK-1 (später H-4 "Hercules") das größte jemals gebaute Flugzeug ist? Die gigantische Maschine wurde im zweiten Weltkrieg von den USA zum Überseetransport von Truppen und Material entwickelt, da auf dem Seeweg die deutschen U-Boote für schmerzhafte Verluste sorgten. Howard Hughes, Pilot und großer Förderer der Luftfahrt, plante und baute mit seinem Expertenteam die HK-1 aus Sperrholz um die Verwendung kriegswichtiger Materialien zu umgehen. Deshalb ist die HK-1 auch bekannt unter dem inoffiziellen Namen "Spruce Goose" (Fichtengans). Angetrieben wurde die "Hercules" von 8 (acht!) R-4360 Vierfach-Sternmotoren von je 3.000 PS. Am 2. November 1947 erfolgte der erste und einzige Flug über die Strecke von einer Meile in einer Flughöhe von max. 70 ft. Das Projekt wurde anschließend eingestellt obwohl die "Spruce Goose" in Design und Technik ihrer Zeit um Jahrzehnte voraus war. Noch heute kann der Prototyp in flugfähigem Zustand in einem US-Museum bewundert werden. Mehr über die faszinierende Geschichte der "Spruce Goose" erfahren Sie unter www.sprucegoose.org

The special lifting cradle, originally designed by Cash & Associates, and first used to relocate the HK-1 within Long Beach Harbor, was used for this move as well as for the September 2000 move from temporary storage to the newly constructed Captain Michael King Smith Evergreen Aviation Educational Institute in McMinnville, Oregon.

The Spruce Goose under construction. Does Norm Abrams have as nice a planer as that?

Recommended party favor for next terrorist celebration:


74 posted on 11/02/2003 10:33:39 PM PST by PhilDragoo (Hitlery: das Butch von Buchenvald)
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To: GailA
Thanks GailA.

Sounds like a great idea to get words of support to our troops.
75 posted on 11/03/2003 12:05:30 AM PST by SAMWolf (I'm immortal - so far.)
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To: radu
Hi Radu. Getting ready for FR withdrawel?
76 posted on 11/03/2003 12:06:22 AM PST by SAMWolf (I'm immortal - so far.)
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To: PhilDragoo
Morning Phil Dragoo.

All I know is that theis "new tone" crap has got the Republicans and Conservatives absolutely squat. The Libs are even more vicious and hateful than ever berfore. They spit on us and this Country and we're supposed to "get along" under the "new tone" BS. They need to be stood up too and defeated. No more compromising with them and then having them stab us in the back.

I don't begrudge the Casinos. I do resent paying for the "sins" of our forefathers.

77 posted on 11/03/2003 12:13:49 AM PST by SAMWolf (I'm immortal - so far.)
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To: SAMWolf
Hiya SAM!

Sheesh! I thought I was just getting my post in earlier....figured the time diference backwards. duuuuuuh! I think my lack of sleep is showing. LOL!!!

Been trying to get caught up before FR shuts down but doooooon't think I'm gonna make it. I'm waaaaay too far behind. But that's not unusual, is it? hehehe!

I hope your weekend was a LOT more restful than ours was. This gorgeous weather is keeping us busy.....gonna get cold before we know it. The wooly worms say so.
78 posted on 11/03/2003 12:25:39 AM PST by radu (May God watch over our troops and keep them safe)
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To: PhilDragoo
BTTT!!!!!!
79 posted on 11/03/2003 3:07:35 AM PST by E.G.C.
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To: PhilDragoo
Ba'ath boys,Ba'ath boys,Watchoo gonna do.


You made my day!
80 posted on 11/03/2003 3:38:33 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: SAMWolf
YEP!

free dixie,sw

81 posted on 11/03/2003 9:57:10 AM PST by stand watie (Resistence to tyrants is obedience to God. -Thomas Jefferson)
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To: aomagrat
Man, we built a load of battships around the turn of the century! Navy must have scarfed up most of the defense dollars back then!
82 posted on 11/03/2003 12:50:05 PM PST by colorado tanker ("There are but two parties now, Traitors and Patriots")
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To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf
Nice read, guys. Brief geography lesson. Laramie is in a different place than Ft. Laramie, where the massacre happened. And Laramie Peak and Laramie County are different places, yet. Cheyenne, not Laramie, is the county seat of Laramie County. The Laramie River does flow by Laramie and Ft. Laramie, but does not flow through Laramie County. Confused yet?
83 posted on 11/03/2003 1:16:48 PM PST by colorado tanker ("There are but two parties now, Traitors and Patriots")
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To: PhilDragoo
Thanks, Phil. I didn't realize where the Spruce Goose ended up after the Long Beach museum closed. Even by today's standards, that's one huge aircraft.

Baath Boys . . . LOL!

84 posted on 11/03/2003 1:19:51 PM PST by colorado tanker ("There are but two parties now, Traitors and Patriots")
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To: Matthew Paul
Thanks for bringing your perspective to the Foxhole, Matt.

Solidarity, Pope John Paul and the end of the Cold War brought admiration for Poland from many Americans. Many of us are now taking notice of Poland's entry into NATO and support for the coalition and freedom in the Iraq War. Poland today is a better ally of the US than France and many of us are taking notice, believe me.

You are right, this is a war between east and west, at least the part of the west that is still Christian. It seems to me the root cause of the islamofascism of the terrorists is rage at the decline of the islamic world relative to the west, which began when your Jan Sobieski defeated them at the gates of Vienna. It is essential that the muslim world respond to the present crisis by undergoing a reformation where they achieve some division of church and state and give up the idea of military conquest in the name of religion. Otherwise, they will be destroyed.

85 posted on 11/03/2003 1:28:09 PM PST by colorado tanker ("There are but two parties now, Traitors and Patriots")
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To: colorado tanker
Huh?
86 posted on 11/03/2003 1:44:14 PM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Well, Wyoming is not only scarce of people, but of place names, too. So, different places have to share the same name.
87 posted on 11/03/2003 1:50:08 PM PST by colorado tanker ("There are but two parties now, Traitors and Patriots")
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Comment #88 Removed by Moderator

To: stand watie
So, then, are you pro-treaty as was your namesake?
89 posted on 11/09/2003 5:57:51 PM PST by DeaconBenjamin
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To: DeaconBenjamin
the General was naive enough ONCE to believe in the supposed truthfullness & honor of the hairy faces, but never again.

the lack of honesty of the damnyankee government is why he fought so long and so well for dixie LIBERTY & the freedom of our tribe.

a FREE dixie republic would have treated my people well, by leaving us alone!

btw,i am only his horse-holder.

free dixie,sw

90 posted on 11/10/2003 7:29:47 AM PST by stand watie (Resistence to tyrants is obedience to God. -Thomas Jefferson)
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To: stand watie
I figured that he accepted the choice of a possible "happy ending" -- not because he believed the promises, but because he was too fully aware of the destruction that would follow refusal to sign -- destruction that had already been demonstrated too graphically in the experiences of other tribes along the Atlantic seaboard.
Stay and fight was not a practical option, and the U.S. army would not be called out to shoot down the locals (at least, not for another 30 years).
91 posted on 11/10/2003 4:23:52 PM PST by DeaconBenjamin
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