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The M4A2, the first welded-hull Sherman to enter service. The M4A2 used the same engine as the medium tanks M3A3 and M3A5.

Early Sherman tanks used the M34 gun mount. M34A1 differed from M34 by using a direct telescope as the primary sight instead of the periscope of the M34. The periscope was retained as backup, however. The M34A1 incorporated a new rotor shield, which now protected the telescopic sight on the right of the 75mm gun and the .30cal M1919A4 machine gun to the left of the main gun. Mount M34 had used a separate shield for the coaxial machine gun.


Identification points of later production Shermans are solid disc idlers and road wheels, lack of fuel shutoff valves on the rear deck, fixed headlights, periscope guards, sandshields, a travel lock for the 75mm gun, drivers' vision slots replaced by a second set of periscopes, and mounting of the siren next to the left headlight with a guard similar to the headlight clusters. Late welded-hull tanks had the 56° glacis replaced by a single-piece plate inclined at 47° from vertical. The 56° plate featured protruding drivers' hoods (or direct vision slots on earlier tanks) and was composed of several pieces welded together, which complicated production. The 47° plate was a single piece and eliminated the drivers' hoods. Larger drivers' hatches were also introduced with the 47° plate. Late tanks also were built with a single-piece differential and final drive housing.

The engine compartment of the M4A2 had a single-piece rear armor plate that extended below the sponson level. Two rows of bolts converged to make a "T" shape in the rear armor plate, and an exhaust deflector was mounted below the plate, with twin exhaust pipes converging in the middle of the tank beneath the deflector. The engine access grill doors on the rear deck were approximately as wide as the turret bustle.


Shermans going through the mud in france.

M4A4 had a longer hull than other Shermans due to its large Chrysler multibank engine, which was five automobile engines combined in a star shape geared to run as a single engine. The A57 was also installed in the medium tank M3A4. The bogies were distinctive on M4A4 as they were spaced farther apart than other Shermans. The centers of M4A4's bogies were 63.625" (162cm) apart, while those of other Shermans were 57" (145cm) apart. There was a rectangular, square-cornered bulge on the rear deck of M4A4 that covered the engine's radiator. The radiator filler cap was in the middle of this bulge, and a thin air inlet grille was between the turret and the radiator bulge. There was also a blister in the floor of the M4A4 to allow the engine cooling fan to fit into the rear compartment. The glacis of M4A4 was simplified from that of M4A2, with five plates welded together rather than the M4A2's seven. All M4A4s were produced with the three-piece final drive and differential housing.


3rd Army crossing the Siegfried line in 1945.

M4A6 used the extended M4A4 hull with some modifications for the different engine. The radiator blister on the rear deck was round-cornered and lacked a radiator filler cap, which differentiates it from M4A4. There was also a bulge in the engine compartment floor to give the engine sufficient clearance. The M4A6 had a cast front upper hull similar to that of late model M4 tanks which were also built at Chrysler's Detroit Tank Arsenal. All M4A6s used the single-piece sharp-nosed final drive and differential housing, as well as large drivers' hatches and a travel lock for the 75mm gun. The hull ammunition racks had the usual applique armor welded overtop of them, but the turrets used in the M4A6 were of a later design and did not need reinforcing armor.

The designation of medium tank M4A5 was given to Canada's cruiser tank Ram II.


A M4A1(76)W of the 3rd Armored Division in Normandy in early August of 1944. Notice the "Rhinoceros" hedgerow cutters attached to the front lower hull.

Wet ammunition stowage was incorporated into the M4A1(76)W, hence the "W" suffix in the designation. This involved storing the ammunition in double-walled boxes. The space between the walls of the boxes were filled with water; ethylene glycol to prevent freezing; and Ammudamp, a rust inhibitor. When these boxes were penetrated, the water would snuff out the resulting ammunition fire. Wet ammunition stowage, and the stowage of most of the ammunition under the turret rather than in the sponsons, drastically reduced the Sherman's propencity to burn; the "W" tanks were no longer "Ronsons." In 76mm gun tanks there was a 6-round ready rack in the turret surrounded by 2.1 gallons (7.9L) of water and a box on either side of the drive shaft, one holding 30 rounds and the other 35, with a total of 34.5 gallons (131L) of water. The welded applique armor was eliminated in wet stowage tanks, as well as most of the turret basket to enable use of the floor ammunition boxes. A partial floor was retained which was suspended from the turret ring.

An example of the wet ammunition storage racks under the loader's position.

Seventy-six-millimeter gun tanks used a new turret modified from the medium tank T23. The T23 was never standardized, but that test series went on to produce improvements that were incorporated into other tanks (like the T23's turret), and ultimately culminated in the M26 Pershing. The turret of the first M4A1(76)Ws were fitted with a split hatch for the loader, which was replaced with the small oval hatch about one-third of the way through the production run.

The 76mm guns themselves differ in the following ways: the outside recoil surface of the M1A1 was lengthened by one foot over the M1, thereby allowing the trunnions to be moved forward and providing better gun balance; the M1A1C had the end of the barrel threaded for a muzzle brake; the rifling of the M1A2 was one turn in 32 calibers versus one turn in forty for the other weapons. All M1A2s were equipped with muzzle brakes.


The M4A3(75)W was also known as simply M4A3W, the "75" in the designation being redundant. The ammunition stowage in M4A3(75)W was as follows: one hundred 75mm rounds were held in 10 boxes on the hull floor jacketed in 37.1gal (140L) of water. The ready rack on the turret floor was protected by another gallon (3.8L).


Early M4A3Ws were fitted with the split hatch for the commander due to shortages of the turret cupola, but all had the oval loader's hatch.


One hundred-five millimeter howitzer tanks retained the turrets of the 75mm gun tanks, but lacked stabilization and power traverse. Early models also lacked a tank commander's cupola and loader's hatch. The small oval loader's hatch was added, as well as the TC's cupola. These tanks also did not have a turret basket, but a partial platform suspended from the turret ring. Wet ammunition stowage was not instituted on 105mm howitzer Shermans, but the ammunition stowage racks were armored.
1 posted on 02/24/2004 12:03:04 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: snippy_about_it; PhilDragoo; Johnny Gage; Victoria Delsoul; Darksheare; Valin; bentfeather; radu; ..

General Patton chastising a tank commander for having too many sandbags piled on his tank.

Early vehicles had the circular split loader's hatch, which was replaced by the oval hatch in later models. Late M4A3(76)Ws also had the gun travel lock modified from a double-pronged cradle to a single arm which was hinged on one side. The turret basket was completely eliminated in later models, and the crew seats were then suspended from the turret ring.


M4A3 (105)

The first M4A3(105)s lacked a commander's vision cupola and power turret traverse. Powered traverse was later incorporated, but VE Day came before it could see action. An armored cover for the direct sight telescope to the right of the howitzer was developed in late production vehicles to protect the turret interior from small arms fire.

Sherman Jumbo

Sherman Jumbo

The Sherman Jumbo was an M4A3 with applique armor welded to the hull front and sponson sides, and a new single-piece differential and final drive housing. Jumbos also lacked headlights and sirens. The turret was completely new, and came with a commander's cupola and an oval loader's hatch. The tank's final drive ratios were altered to better cope with the increased weight. The T110 gun mount was constructed by welding armor plate to a standard M62 76mm gun mount. In fact it was intended to arm these tanks with the 76mm gun, but the 75mm weapon possessed a more effective high-explosive shell for infantry support and was therefore mounted. That the gun mount was originally a 76mm mount meant Jumbos could easily have their main gun switched to a 76mm M1 series, and a few tanks were field-modified with the 76mm guns.

M4A1(76)W HVSS


HVS suspension increased the Sherman's weight by 2950lbs with T66 single pin track and 4780 lbs with T84 double pin track. HVSS allowed the installation of wider tracks, thereby decreasing the tank's ground pressure, and eased maintenance on the running gear since the bogie no longer had to be disassembled to remove road wheels. HVSS also provided more wheel travel, which gave the tank an easier and more stable ride. The prototype tanks that had HVSS installed were designated with an -E8 suffix, which is the origin of the "Easy Eight" nickname of the M4A3(76)W HVSS.

M4A3(76)W HVSS

M4A3E8(76)HVSS "Easy Eight"

These vehicles were also known as "Easy Eight" Shermans, since the prototype HVSS tanks were known as M4A3E8s. Certainly Easy Eight is much less of a mouthful than M4A3(76)W HVSS...

M4(105) HVSS

The final 841 M4(105) produced were fitted with HVS suspension.

The Horizontal Volute Spring Suspension (or HVSS). One of its advantages was that when the horizontal volute springs were placed in compression by either the front or rear bogie wheel arm, the load was transmitted to the opposite arm thus keeping tension on the track.
The new suspension adoption increased the weight of the tank by approximately 2950 pounds with the T66 track or by approximately 4780 pounds with the heavier T80 track.

M4A2(76)W HVSS

The last M4A2(76)Ws were fitted with HVS suspension

Additional Sources:

2 posted on 02/24/2004 12:04:32 AM PST by SAMWolf (You've got to be really scummy to make Clinton look honest. - (Samwise, describing John Kerry))
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To: SAMWolf

Today's classic warship, USS Iowa (BB-61)

Iowa class battleship
displacement. 45,000 t.
length. 887'3"
beam. 108'2"
draft. 37'9"
speed. 33 k.
complement. 2,800
armament. 9 16", 20 5"

The USS Iowa (BB-61) was laid down at New York Navy Yard, 27 June 1940; launched 27 August 1942; sponsored by Mrs. Henry A. Wallace, wife of Vice President Wallace, and commissioned 22 February 1943, Capt. John L. McCrea in command.

On 24 February, Iowa put to sea for shakedown in Chesapeake Bay and along the Atlantic coast. She got underway, 27 August for Argentia, Newfoundland to neutralize the threat of German Battleship Tirpitz which was reportedly operating In Norwegian waters.

In the fall, Iowa carried President Franklin D. Roosevelt to Casablanca, French Morocco on the first leg of the journey to the Teheran Conference in November. After the conference she returned the President to the United States.

As Flagship of Battleship Division 7, Iowa departed the United States 2 January 1944 for the Pacific Theatre and her combat debut In the campaign for the Marshalls. From 29 January to 3 February, she supported carrier air strikes made by Rear Admiral Frederick C. Sherman's task group against Kwajalein and Eniwetok Atolls in the Marshall Islands. Her next assignment was to support air strikes against the Japanese Naval base at Truk, Caroline Islands. Iowa, in company with other ships was detached from the support group 16 February, 1944 to conduct an anti-shipping sweep around Truk to destroy enemy naval vessels escaping to the north. On 21 February, she was underway with Fast Carrier Task Force 58 while it conducted the first strikes against Saipan, Tinian, Rota, and Guam in the Marianas.

On 18 March, Iowa, flying the flag of Vice Admiral Willis A. Lee, Commander Battleships, Pacific, joined in the bombardment of Mili Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Although struck by two Japanese 4.7" projectiles during the action, Iowa suffered negligible damage. She then rejoined Task Force 58, 30 March, and supported air strikes against the Palau Islands and Woleai of the Carolines which continued for several days.

From 22 to 28 April 1944, Iowa supported air raids on Hollandia, Aitape, and Wakde Islands to support Army forces on Aitape, Tanahmerah Bay, and Humbolt Bay in New Guinea. She then joined the Task Force's second strike on Truk, 29-30 April, and bombarded Japanese facilities on Ponape in the Carolines, 1 May.

In the opening phases of the Marianas campaign, Iowa protected the flattops during air strikes on the islands of Saipan, Tinian, Guam, Rota, and Pagan, 12 June. Iowa was then detached to bombard enemy installations on Saipan and Tinian, 13-14 June. On 19 June, in an engagement known as the Battle of the Philippine Sea, Iowa, as part of the battle line of Fast Carrier Task Force 58, helped repel four massive air raids launched by the Japanese Middle Fleet. This resulted in the almost complete destruction of Japanese carrier-based aircraft. Iowa then joined In the pursuit of the fleeing enemy Fleet, shooting down one torpedo plane and assisting in splashing another.

Throughout July, Iowa remained off the Marianas supporting air strikes on the Palaus and landings on Guam. After a month's rest, Iowa sortied from Eniwetok as part of the 3d Fleet, and helped support the landings on Peleliu, 17 September. She then protected the carriers during air strikes against the Central Philippines to neutralize enemy air power for the long awaited invasion of the Philippines. On 10 October, Iowa arrived off Okinawa for a series of air strikes on the Ryukyus and Formosa. She then supported air strikes against Luzon, 18 October and continued this vital duty during General MacArthur's landing on Leyte 20 October.

In a last ditch attempt to halt the United States campaign to recapture the Philippines, the Japanese Navy struck back with a three-pronged attack aimed at the destruction of American amphibious forces in Leyte Gulf. Iowa accompanied TF-38 during attacks against the Japanese Central Force as it steamed through the Sibuyan Sea toward San Bernardino Strait. The reported results of these attacks and the apparent retreat of the Japanese Central Force led Admiral Halsey to believe that this force had been ruined as an effective fighting group. Iowa, with Task Force 38, steamed after the Japanese Northern Force off Cape Engano, Luzon. On 25 October 1944, when the ships of the Northern Force were almost within range of Iowa's guns, word arrived that the Japanese Central Force was attacking a group of American escort carriers off Samar. This threat to the American beachheads forced her to reverse course and steam to support the vulnerable "baby carriers." However, the valiant fight put up by the escort carriers and their screen had already caused the Japanese to retire and Iowa was denied a surface action. Following the Battle for Leyte Gulf, Iowa remained in the waters off the Philippines screening carriers during strikes against Luzon and Formosa. She sailed for the West Coast late in December 1944.

Iowa arrived San Francisco, 15 January 1945, for overhaul. She sailed 19 March 1945 for Okinawa, arriving 15 April 1945. Commencing 24 April 1945, Iowa supported carrier operations which assured American troops vital air superiority during their struggle for that bitterly contested Island. She then supported air strikes off southern Kyushu from 25 May to 13 June 1945. Iowa participated in strikes on the Japanese homeland 14-15 July and bombarded Muroian, Hokkaido, destroying steel mills and other targets. The city of Hitachi on Honshu was given the same treatment on the night of 17-18 July 1945. Iowa continued to support fast carrier strikes until the cessation of hostilities, 15 August 1945.

Iowa entered Tokyo Bay with the occupation forces, 29 August 1945. After serving as Admiral William F. Halsey's flagship for the surrender ceremony, 2 September 1945, Iowa departed Tokyo Bay 20 September 1945 for the United States.

Arriving Seattle, Wash., 15 October 1945, Iowa returned to Japanese waters in January 1946 and became flagship of the 5th Fleet. She continued this role until she sailed or the United States 25 March 1946. From that time on, until September 1948, Iowa operated from West Coast ports, on Naval Reserve and at sea training and drills and maneuvers with the Fleet. Iowa decommissioned 24 March 1949.

After Communist aggression in Korea necessitated an expansion of the active fleet, Iowa recommissioned 25 August 1951, Captain William R. Smedberg III in command. She operated off the West Coast until March 1952, when she sailed for the Far East. On 1 April 1952, Iowa became the flagship of Vice Admiral Robert T. Briscoe, Commander, 7th Fleet, and departed Yokosuka, Japan to support United Nations Forces in Korea. From 8 April to 16 October 1952, Iowa was involved in combat operations off the East Coast of Korea. Her primary mission was to aid ground troops, by bombarding enemy targets at Songjin, Hungnam, and Kojo, North Korea. During this time, Admiral Briscoe was relieved as Commander, 7th Fleet. Vice Admiral J. J. Clark, the new commander, continued to use Iowa as his flagship until 17 October 1952. Iowa departed Yokosuka, Japan 19 October 1952 for overhaul at Norfolk and training operations in the Caribbean Sea.

Iowa embarked midshipmen for at sea training to Northern Europe, July 1953, and immediately after took part in Operation "Mariner," a major NATO exercise, serving as flagship of Vice Admiral E. T. Woolfidge, commanding the 2d Fleet. Upon completion of this exercise, until the fall of 1954, Iowa operated in the Virginia Capes area. In September 1954, she became the flagship of Rear Admiral R. E. Libby, Commander, Battleship Cruiser Force, U. S. Atlantic Fleet.

From January to April 1955, Iowa made an extended cruise to the Mediterranean as the first battleship regularly assigned to Commander, 6th Fleet. Iowa departed on a midshipman training cruise 1 June 1955 and upon her return, she entered Norfolk for a 4-mouth overhaul. Following refit, Iowa continued intermittent training cruises and operational exercises, until 4 January 1957 when she departed Norfolk for duty with the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean. Upon completion of this deployment, Iowa embarked midshipmen for a South American training cruise and joined in the International Naval Review off Hampton Roads, Va., 13 June 1957.

On 3 September 1957, Iowa sailed for Scotland for NATO Operation "Strikeback." She returned to Norfolk, 28 September 1957 and departed Hampton Roads for the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, 22 October 1957. She decommissioned 24 February 1958 and entered the Atlantic Reserve Fleet at Philadelphia, where she remained in reserve for 26 years.

Modernized at Avondale and Litton/Ingalls, Iowa was recommissioned 28 April 1984 under a Reagan Administration initiative to bring all four Iowa class battleships back into active service. Her "B" turret was badly damaged by a powder explosion in the center gun on 19 April 1989. The resulting blast overpressures, secondary explosions and fires killed 47 crewmen within the turret structure. The robustness of the turret assembly, which extended from the main deck to the keel, fortunately withstood the blast and prevented more widespread damage throughout the ship.

After her ammunition was unloaded, the Iowa underwent a limited ship repair. B Turret was trained in and its guns lowered using its own motors and gearing, which had not been destroyed by the explosion. The damaged internal structure of the turret, the rangefinders, and equipment of Turret B were removed to be reconditioned or replaced. The Naval Ordnance Station, Louisville, refurbished some of this equipment. Included in the reconditioned equipment were the rammer assembly, gunfire-control computer, control panel, switches, periscopes, and rangefinder. These were later stowed in Turret II or at the Naval Ordnance Station, Louisville, where they can be accessed for future use. The turret was sealed.

On 7 June 1989 the Iowa departed from Norfolk for her scheduled six-month deployment to Northem Europe and the Mediterranean. She became the flagship of the Sixth Fleet, as flag facilities had been completed during one of her shipyard availabilities in 1988-89, and continued in this capacity until relieved by the Belknap (CG-26). She returned to Norfolk in December 1989 to commence final repairs to Turret B. Although these repairs were authorized and funded, they were never completed. All damaged equipment in Turret B was reconditioned and scheduled to be returned to the Norfolk Naval Shipyard for reinstallation on the Iowa. This included the optical rangefinder in the turret and the radar equipment.

Iowa was decommissioned on 26 October 1990, stricken 12 January 1995, and retained at Philadelphia Naval Inactive Ship Maintenance Facility. She was moved to Newport RI on 18 September 1998 and used as a parts source and placed on donation hold for eventual preservation. On 4 Jan 1999 Congress ordered USS Iowa reinstated on the Naval Register for possible use in future conflicts (gunnery support). On 8 March 2001, Iowa was towed out of Narragansett Bay to Suisan Bay CA.

Iowa earned nine battle stars for World War II service and two for Korean service.

Big guns in action!

17 posted on 02/24/2004 5:57:18 AM PST by aomagrat (IYAOYAS)
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To: SAMWolf
On This Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on February 24:
1304 Muhammad ibn Battutah Arab travel writer (Travels in Asia & Africa)
1463 Giovanni Pico della Mirandola Italy, scholar/platonist
1500 Emperor Charles V king of Spain (1516-56)/Holy Roman Emperor
1536 Clement VIII [Ippolito Aldofireini], Fano Italy, last Counter-Reformation pope (1592-1605)
1545 Don John of Austria the elder, Austrian general
1547 Jan of Austria Spanish military man/land guardian of the Netherlands
1557 Matthias C Sarbiewski [Sarbievius], Vienna, Polish Jesuit/poet/Holy Roman emperor (1612-19)
1684 Catherine I Empress of Russia 1725-27, Dorpat, Estonia
1766 Samuel Wesley Bristol England, composer/organist (Exultate Deo)
1786 Wilhelm Karl Grimm Hanau Germany, story teller (Grimm's Fairy Tales)
1811 Daniel A Payne Bishop/reformer/educator of AME Church
1811 Edward Dickinson Baker Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1861
1824 John Crawford Vaughn Brigadier General(Confederate Army), died in 1875
1827 Charles Davis Jameson Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1862
1836 Winslow Homer US, painter (Gulfstream)
1838 Thomas Benton Smith Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1923
1874 Honus Wagner HOF shortstop (Pittsburgh Pirates, 1900-17)
1885 Admiral Chester Nimitz US Admiral (commanded Pacific fleet in WWII)
1898 Kurt Tank German WWII aircraft designer
1909 Max Black Dutch/British/US philosopher (analytical philosophy)
1914 Zachary Scott Austin TX, actor (Spotlight Playhouse, Mildred Pierce)
1914 David Langdon cartoonist/illustrator
1917 William Fairbank Minneapolis MN, physicist (superconductivity)
1921 Abe Vigoda New York NY, actor (Barney Miller, Fish)
1922 Steven Hill Seattle WA, actor (Goddess, Raw Deal, Yentl, Law & Order)
1932 John Vernon Canada, actor (Animal House, Chained Heat, Dirty Harry)
1934 Bettino Craxi Italy's 1st socialist premier (1983-87)
1938 James Farentino Brooklyn NY, actor (Dead & Buried, Final Countdown)
1942 Joe Lieberman (Senator-D-CT)
1944 Nicky Hopkins rock pianist (Stones-Ruby Tuesday, Jeff Beck, Quicksilver)
1945 Alain Prost France, Formula 1 race driver (1985, 86, 89, 93) & current team owner
1946 Barry Bostwick San Mateo CA, actor (Spin City, Rocky Horror Picture Show, Lexx, Megaforce, Movie Movie, Scruples, Foul Play)
1947 Edward James Olmos California, actor (Miami Vice, Stand & Deliver, Triumph)
1947 Lonnie Turner bassist/vocalist (Steve Miller Band-Abracadabra)
1955 Steven Jobs cofounder of Apple Computer
1956 Eddie Murray Los Angeles CA, 1st baseman (Baltimore Orioles, Los Angeles Dodgers, Cleveland Indians)
1958 Sammy Kershaw Kaplan LA, country vocalist (Cadillac Style)
1963 Fuad Reveiz NFL kicker (Minnesota Vikings)
1973 Oscar de la Hoya boxer
1978 Louise Woodward Elton England, nanny who killed Matthew Eappen

Deaths which occurred on February 24:
1624 Vicente Espinel Spanish adventure/chaplain (Marcos de Obrégon), dies at 72
1642 Marco da Gagliano Italian opera composer, dies at about 66
1799 Broerius Brorius theologist (Pensive Christian), dies at about 41
1815 Robert Fulton steamboat pioneer, dies
1825 Thomas Bowdler self-appointed Shakespearean censor, dies
1907 Otto Goldschmidt composer, dies at 77
1926 Eddie Plank pitcher (won 327 games in 17 years), dies at 51
1945 Ahmed Maher Pasha Egypt's PM, assassinated in parliament
1953 Karl R G von Rundstedt German General-field marshal (Ardennes), dies at 77
1970 Conrad Nagel actor (Celebrity Time), dies at 73
1975 Nikolai A Bulganin marshal/premier of USSR (1955-58), dies at 79
1982 Virginia Bruce actress (Born to Dance, Great Ziegfield), dies at 71
1983 Tennessee Williams US playwright (Cat on a Hot Tin Roof), dies at 71
1990 Johnnie Ray singer (Cry), dies of liver failure at 61
1990 Malcolm Forbes CEO (Forbes Publishing), dies of a heart attack at 70
1991 George Gobel Chicago IL, comedian (George Gobel Show), dies after surgery at 71
1991 Jean Rogers actress (Flash Gordon, Hot Cargo), dies at 74
1991 Webb Pierce US country singer (Bye Bye Love), dies of cancer at 64
1993 Toy Caldwell guitarist (Marshall Tucker Band), dies at 45
1994 Dinah Shore singer (Chevrolet), dies of cancer at 76
1996 Laurence Richard Deniz jazz guitarist, dies at 71
1998 Henny Youngman comedian (Take my wife please), dies at 92


[03/14/73 RELEASED BY DRV, DIED MAY 1995]

POW / MIA Data & Bios supplied by
the P.O.W. NETWORK. Skidmore, MO. USA.

On this day...
0303 1st official Roman edict for persecution of Christians issued
1208 St Francis of Assisi, 26, received his vocation in Portiuncula Italy
1296 Pope Boniface VIII degree Clericis Iaicos
1389 Battle at Falköping Danes defeat King Albert of Sweden
1496 England's Henry VII ends commercial dispute with Flanders
1510 Pope Julius II excommunicates the republic of Venice
1525 Battle at Pavia Emperor Karel V's troops beat French king, François I caught taken/8700 killed
1527 Ferdinand of Austria crowned as king of Bohemia
1528 János Zápolyai, Hungarian king, recognizes Sultan Suleiman's suzerainty
1530 1st imperial coronation by a Pope, Charles V crowned by Clement V
1541 Santiago, Chile founded by Pedro de Valvidia
1552 Privileges of the Hanseatic League in England are abrogated
1581 Pope Gregory approves the results of his calendar reform commission
1582 Pope Gregory XIII announces New Style (Gregorian) calendar
1779 George Rogers Clark captures Vincennes IN from British
1786 Charles Cornwallis appointed Governor-General of India
1803 Supreme Court 1st rules a law unconstitutional (Marbury vs Madison)
1821 Mexico gains independence from Spain
1835 Siwinowe Kesibwi (Shawnee Sun) is 1st Indian language monthly magazine
1836 3,000 Mexicans attack 182 Texans at the Alamo, lasts 13 days
1839 Steam shovel patented by William Otis, Philadelphia
1848 King Louis-Philippe abdicates, 2nd French republic declared
1855 US Court of Claims established for cases against the government
1857 1st perforated US postage stamps delivered to the government
1857 Los Angeles Vineyard Society organized
1863 Arizona Territory created
1863 Forrest's raid on Brentwood TN
1864 Battle of Tunnel Hill GA (Buzzard's Roost)
1868 House of Representatives vote 126 to 47, to impeach President Andrew Johnson
1868 1st US parade with floats (Mardi Gras-Mobile AL)
1876 Henrik Ibsen's "Peer Gynt" premieres in Oslo
1881 De Lesseps' Company begins work on Panamá Canal
1888 Louisville KY becomes 1st government in US to adopt Australian ballot
1895 Cuban war of independence begins
1902 Battle at Yzer Spruit Boer General De la Rey beats British
1903 US signs agreement acquiring a naval station at Guantanamo Bay Cuba
1917 German plan to get Mexican help in WWI exposed (Zimmerman telegram)

1917 Russian revolution breaks out

1918 Estonia declares independence from Russia
1920 Peace treaty gives Estonia independence
1921 1st transcontinental flight in 24 hours flying time arrives Florida
1923 Flying Scotsman goes into service
1923 Mass arrests in US of Mafia
1924 Johnny Weissmuller, swims 100 meter record (57:2/5 seconds)
1924 Mahatma Gandhi released from jail
1925 Thermit explosive 1st used to break up ice jam, Waddington NY
1932 Malcolm Campbell drives record speed (253.96 mph) at Daytona
1933 Final demonstration of German communist party in Berlin
1933 League of Nations tells Japanese to pull out of Manchuria
1938 Du Pont begins commercial production of nylon toothbrush bristles
1940 Frances Langford records "When You Wish Upon a Star"
1942 Voice of America begins broadcasting (in German)
1943 Texas League announces it will quit for the duration of WWII
1944 Argentina coup by Juan Peron minister of war
1945 Egypt & Syria declares war on Nazi-Germany
1945 Manila freed from Japanese
1946 Juan Peron elected President of Argentina
1948 Communist Party seizes complete control of Czechoslovakia
1949 V-2/WAC-Corporal 1st rocket to outer space, White Sands NM, 400 km
1949 Israel & Egypt sign an armistice agreement
1950 Labour wins British parliamentary election
1952 Betty MacKinnon & Sam Snead win LPGA Orlando Mixed Golf Tournament
1960 US beats Germany in Olympics hockey finals round, 9-1
1961 Explorer (10) fails to reach Earth orbit
1965 Beatles begin filming "Help" in the Bahamas
1965 East German President Ulbricht visits Egypt
1966 Coup ousts President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana
1968 1st pulsar discovered (CP 1919 by Jocelyn Burnell at Cambridge)
1968 US troops reconquer Hue Vietnam
1970 KVDO TV channel 3 in Salem OR (IND) begins broadcasting
1971 Algeria nationalizes French oil companies
1974 Pakistan officially recognizes Bangladesh
1976 Cuba adopts its constitution
1976 Leonid Brezhnev opens 25th congress of CPSU
1977 President Carter announces US foreign aid will consider human rights
1979 Highest price ever paid for a pig, $42,500, Stamford TX
1979 War between North & South Yemen begins
1981 Jean Harris is convicted of murdering Scarsdale diet doctor Tarnower
1981 Britain's Prince Charles announces engagement to Lady Diana Spencer
1985 Jim Kelly (Houston USFL) passes for pro football record 574 yards
1986 Voyager 2, 1st Uranus fly-by
1986 Texas Air buys Eastern Airlines for $676 million
1988 Supreme Court votes 8-0 Jerry Falwell cannot collect for Hustler parody
1989 150-million-year-old fossil egg (oldest dinosaur embryo) found
1989 US Boeing 747 loses parts of roof over Pacific, 9 die
1991 US & allies begin a ground war assault on Iraqi troops
1996 Cuba downs 2 US planes

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

World : Friendship Week (Day 3)
Cuba : Baire Uprising
Estonia : National Day (1920)
Ghana : Liberation Day (1966)
Indiana : Vincennes Day-George Clark's defeat of British (1779)
México : Flag Day
US : Engineers Week (Day 3)
US : Null and Void Day
US : Obnoxious Day
International Boost Your Self-Esteem Month

Religious Observances
Anglican, Lutheran, Roman Catholic : Commemoration of St Matthias the Apostle (non-leap years)
Christian : Shrove Tuesday (Mardi Gras)

Religious History
303 The first official Roman edict for the persecution of Christians was issued by Roman Emperor Galerius Valerius Maximianus.
1208 St Francis of Assisi, 26, received his vocation in the Italian village of Portiuncula. He founded the Franciscans the following year, and is regarded by some Catholics as the greatest of all Christian saints.
1500 Birth of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Reigning 1519-56, it was Charles who officially pronounced Martin Luther an outlaw and heretic.
1782 Pioneer American Methodist bishop Francis Asbury wrote in his journal: 'It is my constitutional weakness to be gloomy and dejected; the work of God puts life into me.'
1967 Swiss Reformed theologian Karl Barth wrote in a letter: 'The statement that God is dead comes from Nietzsche and has recently been trumpeted abroad by some German and American theologians. But the good Lord has not died of this; He who dwells in the heaven laughs at them.'

Source: William D. Blake. ALMANAC OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1987.

Thought for the day :
"There is a bit of insanity in dancing that does everybody a great deal of good."

Word of the day...
AIBOHPHOBIA - the fear of palindromes.

You May Be An Engineer If...
If you are aware that computers are actually only good for playing games, but are afraid to say it out loud

Astounding fact #912...
The metal instrument used in shoe stores to measure feet is called the Brannock device.
21 posted on 02/24/2004 6:37:58 AM PST by Valin (America is the land mine between barbarism and civilization.)
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To: All

Air Power
Henschel Hs-129

Henschel's Hs-129 was the Luftwaffe's first aircraft designed from the start to be used as a ground attack aircraft (the famed Ju-87 was a dive-bomber). Attempts at modifying other airframes with extra armor proved to be less than satisfactory. When the dust settled, there were two contenders, both of which performed about the same: the Hs-129 and an armored version of the FW-189. Seeing that the Hs-129 had a greater prospect of continued development as well as being a smaller aircraft and therefore a smaller target, it was chosen in September 1939.

Prototype versions of the 129 were powered by two Argus inline, air-cooled engines and had two 7.9mm MG 17 machine guns and two Oerlikon MG/FF 20mm cannon. However the preproduction Hs-129A-0 had the Oerlikon cannon replaced with Mauser MG 151/20 cannon. These weapons had a much higher rate of fire than the Oerlikon guns. It was found that the Argus engines were seriously underpowered and other than being used for initial testing and unit familiarization, were quickly passed on to training units.

Anticipating the Luftwaffe's refusal to accept the production Hs-129A-1, Henschel proposed building a slightly larger version powered by the more powerful Gnôme-Rhône 14M engine. The Luftwaffe didn't want any delays encompassed by a redesign and Henschel was told to convert the A-1 airframes to accept this new engine, the type being the Hs-120B-0. These engines were produced in two variants, each turning a different direction, one clockwise and the other counterclockwise. This prevented any torque problems with takeoff and landing. Despite the problems associated with this engine, it was used on all succeeding variants of the Hs-129.

Differences from the B-0 to B-1 were mostly minor, but the biggest was the cockpit. The vee shaped windscreen was replace with a larger, flatter paneled one. A variety of underfuselage weapons racks were available for the Hs-129 to carry a number of different weapons. Other weapons such as a pack with four 7.9mm machine guns, a bomb carrier for four 100kg bombs were designed for the 129. However, it was the MK 101 30mm cannon that really made the Hs-129 a superb anti-tank weapon.

The B-2 was version built in the greatest numbers, having just some minor differences from the B-1 including higher rated Gnôme-Rhône 14M engines and the ability to handle the BK 103 30mm gun later in 1943. The final variant was the C-1 with the 75mm cannon. There were less than a handful of these completed and only one or two actually saw any action in the last months of the war.

The 129 served primarily in North Africa and in the Eastern Front, not being used at all in the Western Front. The only air arm other than the Luftwaffe to use the aircraft was Romania, which used them against the Germans after they changed sides late in 1944.

The first pilot to earn the Ritterkreuz - Knight's Cross for his tank kills in the Hs-129 was Hptm. Rudolf-Heinz Ruffer for his 72 tank kills on 9 June 1944. He was killed by flak in July 1944. Less than a handful of 129 pilots would earn that distinction during the war.

This small twin-engine airplane was developed towards the late 1930's as a pioneering concept in attack warplanes, to meet a requirement to carry at least two 20-mm cannon and extensive armour protection. Henschel designed the HS 129 and the first prototype (of three in all) flew in early 1939. It was made of very sturdy construction, with a low-wing monoplane design, a distinctive triangular section fuselage accommodating an armoured nose and a very "cosy" cockpit with thick armoured glass.

A more powerful engine was fitted to production Hs 129 aircraft, which were redesignated Hs 129B series, and entered service in 1942. A total of just over 850 aircraft, in several variant forms, was produced, with most being employed over the Eastern Front against Russia - although smaller numbers were deployed to North Africa, Italy and France.

The Hs 129B-3 was a converted aircraft design to carry an electropneumatically operated 75-mm BK 7.5 gun under the fuselage, proving itself to be a formidable tank buster, able to withstand a fair amount of damage caused by anti-aircraft guns, even though it was very difficult to fly.

There are no surviving Hs-129s, only a cockpit shell exists in Australia.

Type: Close Support and ground attack aircraft
Origin: Henschel Flugwerke AG
Crew: One
Models: A & B
First Flight
   Hs 129V-1: Early 1939
   Hs 129B: October 1941
Service Delivery:
   Hs 129A-0: Early 1941
   Hs 129B: Late 1942
Final Delivery: N/A
Number Produced: 841 B-Series (879 total)

Hs 129S Series:
  Model: Argus As 410A-1
  Type: Ari-Cooled inverted V12
  Number: Two      Horsepower: 495 hp

Hs 129B Series:
  Model: Gnome-Rhône 14M 04/05
  Type: 14-Cylinder two-row radials
  Number: Two      Horsepower: 690 hp

Wing span: 46 ft. 7 in.(14.2m)
Length: 31 ft. 11¾ in. (9.75m)
Height: 10 ft. 8 in. (3.25m)
Wing Surface Area: 312.16 Sq. Ft. (29.00²)

Weights: Hs 129B-1, Typical
Empty: 8,940 lb. (4060 kg)
Loaded: 11,265 lb. (5110 kg)

Performance: Hs 129B-1, Typical
Maximum Speed: 253 mph (408 km/h)
Initial Climb: 1,390 ft/min (425 m/min)
Service Ceiling: 29,530 ft. (9000m)
Range: 547 miles (880km)
Hs 129B-1/R1 & Hs 129B-1/R-4:
Two 7.92mm MG 17 Machine Guns in nose.
Two 20mm MG 151/20 cannon in nose.

Hs 129B-1/R2:
Two 7.92mm MG 17 Machine Guns in nose.
Two 20mm MG 151/20 cannon in nose.
One 30mm Mk 101 cannon mounted under fuselage.

Hs 129B-1/R3:
Two 7.92mm MG 17 Machine Guns in nose.
Two 20mm MG 151/20 cannon in nose.
Four 7.92mm MG 17 Machine Guns in ventral box.

Hs 129B-2 Series:
Two 13mm MG 131 Machine Guns in nose.
Two 20mm MG 151/20 cannon in nose.
Various weapons were fitted inclusding 37mm BK 3.7 and 75mm BK 7.5. An interesting weapon was a battery of six 75mm smoothbore recoiless rifles that fired downwards and to the rear. This system was fired by an automatic magnetic trigger that fired when the aircraft flew over metal objects. This system was reported to be quite successful.

Hs 129B-1/R1:
Fuselage racks for two 110 lb. or 48 fragmentation bombs.

Hs 129B-1/R4:
Fuselage racks for up to 551 lb. of bombs.

          Note the big 75mm gun in front

          Rear view, notice "tank kill" markings.

All information and photos Copyright of Warbird Resource Group
32 posted on 02/24/2004 7:08:42 AM PST by Johnny Gage (God Bless our Firefighters, our Police, our EMS responders, and most of all, our Veterans)
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To: SAMWolf
Finally! A Sherman post...

Photo taken at the General Patton museum just east of Palm Springs on the I-10. Apparantly Rosie was used for target practice before being moved to the museum.

97 posted on 02/24/2004 10:04:22 AM PST by PsyOp (War is nothing but a duel on a larger scale. - Clauswitz, On War, 1832.)
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To: SAMWolf
Hi Sam

Great turnout and layouts on todays thread : )

Remembering the high price of Freedom

281 posted on 02/24/2004 10:02:10 PM PST by Light Speed
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