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The FReeper Foxhole Revisits The Battle of Trenton - 1776 - Feb. 28, 2004 ^ | scott cummings

Posted on 02/28/2004 4:03:10 AM PST by snippy_about_it


Keep our Troops forever in Your care

Give them victory over the enemy...

Grant them a safe and swift return...

Bless those who mourn the lost.

FReepers from the Foxhole join in prayer
for all those serving their country at this time.

...................................................................................... ...........................................

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The FReeper Foxhole Revisits

The Battle of Trenton

The First American Christmas

Appraising the Situation: December 13-December 25, 1776

As Maj. General William Howe entered winter quarters on December 13, 1776, Lt. General Charles Cornwallis now received permission to halt his advance at the Delaware River. Howe, supported by Maj. General Henry Clinton, wanted to pull his line of defense to between Brunswick and Newark. However, Cornwallis convinced Howe to extend the lines for several reasons. Tthe Americans were considered a minimal threat to the distant garrisons and lines of communication. Pulling back would make the British appear weak and unable to maintain positions. Such a move would also deprive New Jersey Loyalists of military protection during the winter.

As the British Army settled in for the winter, garrisons of Hessians were established at Burlington and another at Trenton under Colonel Johann Rall. Garrisons of British troops were established at Bordentown, Pennington, Perth Amboy and Princeton, while Cornwallis set up his base of operations at Brunswick, twenty-five miles behind the forward garrisons. Meanwhile, General George Washington's army was receiving a boost with new arrivals. Pennsylvania and Maryland militia under Colonel John Cadwalader and Colonel Nicholas Haussegger had begun to arrive on December 5 and continued to stream in.

On December 20, 1776, Maj. General John Sullivan arrived in command of the remaining 2,000 men from the 5,000 that had been under Maj. General Charles Lee's command untl his capture. On the same day, Maj. General Horatio Gates arrived 800 men set down from Fort Ticonderoga by Northern Department Commander Maj. General Philip Schuyler. Even though the New Jersey militia had not come to General Washington's call, they were carrying out their own campaign. They had remained near their homes to protect them from the British and especially the Hessian troops, who had quickly developed a reputation among the rebels for brutality and theft. The militia were soon taking advantage of the stretched British lines across New Jersey by carrying out regular raids on British patrols, stealing supplies and interfering with communications.

On December 22, 1776, General Washington had about 6,000 men listed in his roles having lost men on November 30 when their enlistments ran out. Of those, about 4,700 were fit for duty. His fall campaign had been little more than a series of retreats and morale was very low with the successive defeats and the loss of New York City. On December 31, more enlistments would run out and reduce his force to under 1,500 men. Winter was coming fast and the British would be able to continue their pursuit once the Delaware River froze over.

General Washington decided to attack the unsuspecting British forces who had entered winter quarters and were celebrating the holidays. He hoped to salvage a victory at the end of a disappointing campaign. He first wanted to attack the Hessians at Bordentown, but the local militia in that area was too weak to offer support. He then chose the isolated Hessian garrison under the command of Colonel Johann Rall. Rall had not heeded orders to build fortifications and send out patrols. Even though he was a skilled soldier and able commander, Rall had a low estimation of the rebels, calling them "country clowns." Washington planned for for an early morning attack on December 26. He knew the Hessians would heartily celebrate Christmas on the evening of December 25, so he meant to attack when they were tired and probably hungover.

The Battle: December 26, 1776

General George Washington ordered the crossing of the Delaware River to begin right after dark on Christmas Day, December 25, 1776. He wanted to be in position to launch his attack in the early morning hours. He expected the Hessian troops to have heartily celebrated Christmas and be drunk and tired when he attacked. A storm blew up and the men were forced to cross in the ice and snow, which slowed the crossing.

General Washington personally led 2,400 men, horses and eighteen cannon across the river the river at McKonkey's Ferry, which was nine miles above Trenton. He would then attack the town from the north. Brig. General James Ewing was to lead 1,000 militia at the Trenton Ferry and block a retreat to the south. Colonel John Cadwalader would lead 2,000 men, mostly militia, across the river at Bordentown and attack the garrison there as a diversion. However, with the storm, Ewing was unable to make it across, while Cadwalader was unable to bring his artillery and too late to be of any assistance.

General Washington's troops set out at 2 P.M. and began crossing atfter dark. The crossing was to be completed by 12:00 A.M., but the storm began at 11 P.M. and delayed completion of the crossing until 3:00 A.M. and the column was not fully ready to march until 4:00 A.M. The hoped for surprise attack in the early morning darkness was now impossible. However, Colonel Rall still felt unthreatened. Even with intelligence from Loyalists and American deserters having given away the day and hour of the attack, Rall did not know how large the attacking force would be.

At Birmingham, about four miles from their crossing, General Washington's force split into two columns. Maj. General Nathanael Greene led one column onto the Pennington Road to attack the garrison from the north. General Washington accompanied this column. Maj. General John Sullivan led the second column continued on the river road so it could attack the garrison from the west. By 6:00 A.M. the troops were miserable. Two men reportedly froze to death and muskets won't fire because of the cold, but Washington was committed and would not give up.

At the Hessian garrison in Trenton, Colonel Rall had passed out and was sound asleep along with most of his 1,200 man force, which was divided into three regiments: Knyphausen, Lossberg and Rall. They had sent out no patrols because of the severe weather. The weather had taken a toll on General Washington's troops, but had also given them cover. At 8:00 A.M. General Washington came upon a house about half a mile from Trenton where Hessian sentries were posted. The first shots were fired in the engagement. Only a few minutes later, General Sullivan's column routed the Hessian sentries at the outpost a half a mile west of Trenton.

Colonel Rall himself was slow to wake and dress because of the effects of the late night. The Hessians turned out quickly and formed up, but their attempts to attack to the north were hampered by the flanking fire from the western column and the artillery. The Americans positioned two cannon on a rise that guarded the two main routes out of town. The Hessians tried to bring four guns into action, but American fire kept them silent. Captain William Washington, cousin to General Washington, and Lieutenant James Monroe, future President of the United States, were wounded while capturing the Hessian guns.

The Knyphausen regiment of Hessians was separated from the other two regiments and driven back through the southern end of Trenton by Maj. General John Sullivan's column. Many men of this regiment were subsequently able to escape to the south where Brig. General James Ewing's troops were to have been located. The other two Hessian regiments, Lossberg and Rall, retreated into an open field and attempted a counterattack that was quickly driven back. Colonel Johann Rall ordered his force to retreat southeast into an apple orchard just outside Trenton. Only moments after giving the order, Rall was mortally wounded.

Once in the orchard, the Hessians formed up and attempted to make their way north to the road to Princeton. When they reentered the town, the Continentals now joined by civilians fired on them from buildings and other cover. Their formations were broken up by cannonfire. The two regiments retreat back to the orchard where they were forced to surrender.The remnants of the Knyphausen Regiment were making for Bordentown, but they were slowed when they tried to haul their cannon through boggy ground. They soon found themselves surrounded by General Sullivan's men and they also surrendered. It was only 9:30 A.M. and had been an overwhelming victory for General George Washington.

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No Americans had been killed during the battle, although as mentioned previously, two may have died from exposure. There had been only a handful of men wounded during the action. Meanwhile, 106 Hessians had been killed or wounded, at least 600 had been captured (depending on the source) and the rest had managed to escape. Following the battle, General George Washington had the captured men and supplies shipped across the Delaware River to Pennsylvania, then followed with his army at 12:00 P.M. By 12:00 P.M. on December 27, 1776, Washington's troops were back in their camp in Pennsylvania. 1,000 men in Washington's army reported as ill by the end of that day.

1. General Greene leads the main American force along Pennington Road.
2. General Sullivan leads the rest along River Road.
3. The American army lines up with the apex of the road as its center.
4. The first attack on the Hessians goes up King (Warren) Street.
5. The second wave goes up Queen (Broad) Street.
6. The Hessians surrender in an orchard.
7. About a third of the Hessians, however, escape over this bridge.

General Washington had succeeded in his goal. The victory lifted the morale of his army and was the first major victory against British Army regulars, even if they were Hessian troops. Continuing rumors had all the British and Hessian garrisons across New Jersey on alert for several days for an army that was nowhere near. When the Continental Congress heard of the victory, they had renewed confidence in their Commander-in-Chief and it bolstered enlistments and reenlistments for 1777. With his reenlistments, Washington was able to fight and win the Battle of Princeton, New Jersey on January 3, 1777, before he entered winter quarters at Morristown, New Jersey.

Today's Educational Sources and suggestions for further reading:
1 posted on 02/28/2004 4:03:11 AM PST by snippy_about_it
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To: All

"Gen McDougall

Head Quarters, Newtown 28th December 1776.

I have yours of the 27th and am sorry that Affairs bore so bad an Aspect in your Quarter at that time. But I hope that the late Success at Trenton on the 26th and the Consequence of it, will change the face of Matters not only there but every where else. I crossed over to Jersey the Evening of the 25th about 9 miles above Trenton with upwards of 2000 Men and attacked three Regiments of Hessians consisting of fifteen hundred Men about 8 o'Clock next Morning. Our Men pushed on with such Rapidity that they soon carried four pieces of Cannon out of Six, Surrounded the Enemy and obliged 30 Officers and 886 privates to lay down their Arms without firing a Shot. Our Loss was only two Officers and two or three privates wounded. The Enemy had between 20 and 30 killed. We should have made the whole of them prisoners, could Genl. Ewing have passed the Delaware at Trenton and got in their Rear, but the ice prevented him. I am informed that Count Donnop with the remainder of the Army below Trenton, decamped immediately upon this News, and is on his march towards South Amboy. Generals Mifflin, Ewing and Cadwallader have already passed over to Jersey with a Capital Force and I shall follow with the Continental Regiments as soon as they have recovered from the late Fatigue which was indeed very great.

I hope you, Sir, GenI. Maxwell to whom I have wrote, Colo. Vose, Colo. Ford and every Gentleman who is well affected will exert themselves in encouraging the Militia and assuring them that nothing is wanting, but for them to lend a hand, and driving the Enemy from the whole province of Jersey

Pray watch the motions of the Enemy, and if they incline to retreat or advance, harass their Rear and Flanks But at all Events endeavour to collect a Body of men to be ready to join me, or act otherwise as occasion may be.

Your son was mentioned among the first of our prisoners that I demanded in Exchange, but Genl. Howe (or Mr. Loring in his Absence) Sent out others than those I demanded. I have remonstrated to him upon this head and have assured him that I will send in no more prisoners till he sends out the paroles of the Officers taken in Canada.

I am dear Sir
Your most obt Servt

G. Washington"

Trenton, and the followup victory at Princeton on 3 January 1777, caused the British to abandon their forward posts in New Jersey. By going into winter quarters at Morristown after the Battle of Princeton, Washington threatened supply lines and thereby swept the enemy from the state. Dwindling support for the cause of liberty was reversed, and strengthening of the diminished army ranks occured. Coupled with Benedict Arnold's action at Valcour island, the Americans were able to continue into the campaigns of 1777.

Aside from the obligatory reports to John Hancock as President of the Continental Congress, Washington is only known to have written eight letters describing in any detail this battle that changed the course of World History. All but the one above are in public institutions.

2 posted on 02/28/2004 4:03:49 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: All
'These country clowns cannot whip us...If the Americans come, we'll give them the bayonet.'

--Johann Rall,
Commander of the Hessian forces at Trenton

3 posted on 02/28/2004 4:04:18 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: All

A NEW FEATURE ~ The Foxhole Revisits...

The Foxhole will be updating some of our earlier threads with new graphics and some new content for our Saturday threads in this, our second year of the Foxhole. We lost many of our graphic links and this is our way of restoring them along with revising the thread content where needed with new and additional information not available in the original threads.

A Link to the Original Thread;

The FReeper Foxhole Revisits The Battle of Trenton - 1776 - Dec. 26th, 2002

Today's Educational Sources and suggestions for further reading:
4 posted on 02/28/2004 4:05:10 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: All

Veterans for Constitution Restoration is a non-profit, non-partisan educational and grassroots activist organization.

Tribute to a Generation - The memorial will be dedicated on Saturday, May 29, 2004.

Thanks to CholeraJoe for providing this link.

Actively seeking volunteers to provide this valuable service to Veterans and their families.

Thanks to quietolong for providing this link.

Iraq Homecoming Tips

~ Thanks to our Veterans still serving, at home and abroad. ~ Freepmail to Ragtime Cowgirl | 2/09/04 | FRiend in the USAF

The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul

Click on Hagar for
"The FReeper Foxhole Compiled List of Daily Threads"

5 posted on 02/28/2004 4:05:54 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: Poundstone; Wumpus Hunter; StayAt HomeMother; Ragtime Cowgirl; bulldogs; baltodog; Aeronaut; ...

FALL IN to the FReeper Foxhole!

Good Saturday Morning Everyone

If you would like added to our ping list let us know.

6 posted on 02/28/2004 4:07:25 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Good morning Snippy.

7 posted on 02/28/2004 4:14:33 AM PST by Aeronaut (Peace: in international affairs, a period of cheating between two periods of fighting.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Good morning, Snippy and everyone at the Foxhole.

We're watching for storms tonight and tommorow. We're unplugging the computer later today.

8 posted on 02/28/2004 4:33:10 AM PST by E.G.C.
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To: Aeronaut
Good morning Aeronaut. That's yours right?
9 posted on 02/28/2004 4:57:14 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: E.G.C.
Good morning EGC. We had frost overnight, 25 degrees but the sun is out and we are supposed to be warming up. LOL. We'll see. Stay safe.
10 posted on 02/28/2004 4:58:15 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it
That's yours right?

Yes, it is.

11 posted on 02/28/2004 5:10:08 AM PST by Aeronaut (Peace: in international affairs, a period of cheating between two periods of fighting.)
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To: snippy_about_it
On This Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on February 28:
1573 Elias Hill German architect/city builder (Augsburg)
1663 Thomas Newcomen English co-inventor (steam engine)
1750 Ignacy Potocki Polish foreign minister
1764 Robert Haldane Scottish theologist/philanthropist
1797 Mary Lyon US, educator (Mt Holyoke) (Hall of Fame)
1817 James Craig Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1888
1820 John Tenniel England, cartoonist/illustrator (Alice in Wonderland)
1822 Matthew Duncan Ector Brigadier General (Confederate Army),died in 1879
1824 John Creed Moore Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1910
1825 Quincy Adams Gillmore Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1888
1865 Sir Wilfred Grenfell England, medical missionary
1887 William Zorach Lithuania, US sculptor (Spirit of the Dance)
1890 Vaslav Nijinsky Kiev Ukraine, ballet dancer
1893 Ben Hecht New York NY, novelist/playwright/screenwriter (The Front Page)
1901 Linus Pauling chemist/peace worker (Nobel 1954, 1962)
1906 Bugsy Siegel gangster created casinos in Las Vegas
1907 Milton Caniff Hillsboro OH, Dutch cartoonist (Terry & the Pirates)
1908 Billie Bird Pocatello ID, actress (Mrs Cassidy-Benson, Dear John, Jury Duty)
1910 Vincente Minnelli Chicago IL, movie director (American in Paris, Gigi)
1911 Amir Hamzah Indonesian poet (Njanji Sunji)
1915 Zero [Samuel Joel] Mostel Brooklyn NY, actor (Fiddler on the Roof, The Producers)
1923 Charles Durning Highland Falls NY, actor (Dog Day Afternoon, Fury, Sting, Tootsie)
1928 Smokey The Bear
1930 Leon Cooper US physicist (Nobel 1972)
1931 Gavin MacLeod Mt Kisco NY, actor (Murray-Mary Tyler Moore, Love Boat)
1939 John Fahey singer (Transfiguration of Blind Joe Death)
1940 Joe South Atlanta GA, guitarist/songwriter/singer (Games People Play)
1942 Brian Jones rock guitarist (Rolling Stones-Brown Sugar)
1942 Frank Bonner Little Rock AR, actor (WKRP, Hoax, You Can't Hurry Love, Sidekicks)
1945 Charles "Bubba" Smith Texas, NFLer (Baltimore Colts)/actor (Police Academy)
1953 Ricky "Dragon" Steamboat [Richard Blood], wrestler (NWA/WWF/WCW/AWA)
1960 Dorothy Stratten Vancouver British Columbia, playmate (August, 1979) (Galixina)
1962 Rae Dawn Chong Edmonton Alberta, actress (Quest for Fire)

Deaths which occurred on February 28:
1638 Henri duc de Rohan, French soldier/Huguenot leader, dies
1781 Richard Stockton US attorney (signed Declaration of Independence), dies at 50
1844 Abel P Upshur Secretary of State, dies in explosion on USS Princeton
1844 Thommas W Gilmer Navy Secretary, dies in explosion on USS Princeton
1913 Elephant seal 6.8-m, 4000-kg, killed in South Georgia (South Atlantic)
1916 Henry James US/British writer (Bostonians), dies in London at 72
1931 Ban Johnson created (baseball's AL), dies after a long illness
1941 Alfonso XIII de Borbón King of Spain (1902-31), dies
1953 Jim Thorpe decathlete (Olympics-gold-1912), dies at 64
1966 Charles A Bassett II astronaut, dies in a crash of T-38 jet at 34
1966 Elliot McKay See Jr astronaut, dies in T-38 jet crash at 38
1968 Frankie Lymon singer, dies at 25
1977 Eddie "Rochester" Anderson comedian (Jack Benny Show), dies at 71
1978 Philip Ahn Los Angeles CA, actor (Master Kan-Kung Fu), dies at 66
1978 Eric Frank Russell sci-fi author (Hugo, Deep Space), dies at 73
1979 Mr Ed talking horse, dies
1986 Sven Olof Palme Swedish PM (1969-76, 82-86), assassinated at 59
1993 Ishiro Honda Japanese director/producer (Godzilla), dies at 81
1993 Ruby Keeler actress (42nd Street, Dames), dies of cancer at 82
1994 Elbert "Skippy" Williams tenor Sax player, dies at 77
1994 George Osborne Sayles historian, dies at 92


POW / MIA Data & Bios supplied by
the P.O.W. NETWORK. Skidmore, MO. USA.

On this day...
0870 8th Ecumenical council ends in Constantinople
1066 Westminster Abbey opens
1570 Anti-Portugese uprising on Ternate, Moluccas
1610 Thomas West, Baron De La Warr, is appointed governor of Virginia
1638 Scottish Presbyterians sign National Convenant, Greyfriars, Edinburgh
1646 Roger Scott was tried in Massachusetts for sleeping in church
1692 Salem witch hunt begins
1704 Elias Neau, a Frenchman, opens a school for blacks in New York NY
1704 Indians attack Deerfield MA, kill 40, kidnap 100
1708 Slave revolt, Newton, Long Island NY, 11 die
1749 1st edition of Henry Fieldings' "Tom Jones" published
1759 Pope Clement XIII allows Bible to be translated into various languages
1778 Rhode Island General Assembly authorizes enlistment of slaves
1784 John Wesley charters Methodist Church
1794 US Senate voids Pennsylvania's election of Abraham Gallatin
1810 1st US fire insurance joint-stock company organized, Philadelphia
1827 1st commercial railroad in US, Baltimore & Ohio (B&O) chartered
1844 12-inch gun aboard USS Princeton explodes
1847 US defeats México in battle of Sacramento

1854 Republican Party formally organized at Ripon WI

1859 Arkansas legislature requires free blacks to choose exile or slavery
1861 Territories of Nevada & Colorado created
1863 Confederate raider "Nashville" sinks near Fort McAllister GA
1864 Raid at Kilpatrick's Richmond
1864 Skirmish at Albemarle County Virginia (Burton's Ford)
1871 2nd Enforcement Act gives federal control of congressional elections
1879 "Exodus of 1879" southern blacks flee political/economic exploitation
1882 1st US college cooperative store opens, at Harvard University
1883 1st US vaudeville theater opens (Boston)
1893 Edward Acheson, Pennsylvania, patents an abrasive he names "carborundum"
1896 France dismisses Queen Ranavalona of Madagascar
1900 General Buller's troops relieve Ladysmith Natal
1908 Failed assassination attempt on Shah Mohammed Ali in Teheran
1913 6.8-m, 4000-kg elephant seal killed, South Georgia (South Atlantic)
1917 AP reports México & Japan will ally with Germany if US enters WWI
1924 US begins intervention in Honduras
1925 "Tea For Two" by Marion Harris hit #1
1929 Chicago Black Hawks lose record NHL 15th straight game at home
1931 Oswald Mosley founds his New Party
1933 1st female in cabinet Francis Perkins appointed Secretary of Labor
1933 German President Von Hindenburg abolishes free expression of opinion
1933 Hitler disallows German communist party (KPD)
1935 Nylon discovered by Dr Wallace H Carothers
1939 Great-Britain recognizes Franco-regime in Spain
1940 1st televised basketball game (college game at NYC's Madison Square Garden-University of Pittsburgh beats Fordham U, 50-37)
1940 Richard Wright's "Native Son" published
1940 US population at 131,669,275 (12,865,518 blacks (9.8%))
1942 Japanese land in Java, last Allied bastion in Dutch East Indies
1942 Race riot, Sojourner Truth Homes, Detroit
1943 63 U Boats (359,300 ton) sinks this month
1947 Anti Kuomintang demonstration on Taiwan
1951 Senate committee reports of at least 2 major US crime syndicates
1954 US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Bikini Island
1956 Forrester issued a patent for computer core memory
1960 US wins Olympics hockey gold medal by defeating Czechoslovakia 9-4
1961 JFK names Henry Kissinger special advisor
1970 Bicycles permitted to cross Golden Gate Bridge
1970 WUTR TV channel 20 in Utica-Rome NY (ABC) begins broadcasting
1971 53rd PGA Championship Jack Nicklaus shoots a 281 at PGA National to win his 2nd golf grand slam
1972 President Richard Nixon ends historic week-long visit to China
1974 US & Egypt re-establish diplomatic relations after 7 years
1977 1st killer whale born in captivity (Marineland, Los Angeles CA)
1981 China PR throws out Netherlands ambassador due to submarine sale to Taiwan
1982 AT&T looses record $7 BILLION for fiscal year ending on this day
1982 FALN (PR Terrorist Group) bombs Wall Street
1983 Final TV episode of "MASH" airs (CBS); record 125 million watch
1986 Peter Uberroth suspended 7 baseball players for 1 year, after they admitted in Curtis Strong's trial in September, they used drugs
1988 Anti-Armenian pogrom in Azerbaijan, 30 killed
1991 US & allied forces grant Iraq a cease fire
1993 Gun battle erupts at Waco TX between FBI & Branch Davidians
1994 Brady Law, imposing a wait-period to buy a hand-gun, went into effect
1997 FBI agent Earl Pitts pleads guilty to selling secrets to Russia
1998 Vancouver Canucks Mark Messier is 4th NHLer to get 1,600 points

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Finland : Kalevala Day (1835)
Luxembourg : Burgsonndeg-celebrates end of winter
US : Wine Appreciation Week Ends
Public Sleeping Day
Fiber Focus Month

Religious Observances
Christian : Feast of St Romanus
Roman Catholic : Commemoration of St Hilarius, pope (461-68), calendar reformer (non-leap years)
Roman Catholic : Commemoration of St Gabriel Possenti (leap years)

Religious History
1759 Pope Clement XIII granted permission for the Bible to be translated into the languages of the Roman Catholic states.
1784 English churchman John Wesley, 80, formally chartered the movement within Anglicanism which afterward came to be known as Wesleyan Methodism.
1873 The Society of Mary, founded in 1816, was officially recognized by Pope Pius IX. This religious order seeks to combine the work of education with foreign missions.
1947 U.S. Senate Chaplain Peter Marshall prayed: 'Let not the past ever be so dear to us as to set a limit to the future. Give us the courage to change our minds when that is needed.'
870 The Fourth Constantinople Council closed, under Pope Adrian II in the West and Emperor Basil I in the East. The council had condemned iconoclasm, and became the last ecumenical council held in the Eastern Mediterranean area.

Source: William D. Blake. ALMANAC OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1987.

Thought for the day :
"Coincidence is when God chooses to remain anonymous."

One Thing I Have Learned About Texas...
Fix-in-to is one word.

Beer Philosophy...
"Well, ya see, it's like this... A herd of buffalo can only move as fast as the slowest buffalo. And when the herd is hunted, it is the slowest and weakest ones at the back that are killed first. This natural selection is good for the herd as a whole, because the general speed and health of the whole group keeps improving by the regular killing of the weakest members. In much the same way, the human brain can only operate as fast as the slowest brain cells. Excessive intake of alcohol, as we know, kills brain cells. But naturally, it attacks the slowest and weakest brain cells first. In this way, regular consumption of beer eliminates the weaker brain cells, making the brain a faster and more efficient machine. That's why you always feel smarter after a few beers."

Astounding Fact #77,711...
Americans eat more bananas than any other fruit: a total of 11 billion a year.

I like bananas because they have appeal

12 posted on 02/28/2004 7:01:29 AM PST by Valin (America is the land mine between barbarism and civilization.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Cool, a Revolution thread! Howdy ma'am.
13 posted on 02/28/2004 7:11:48 AM PST by Professional Engineer (Americans~Proud Country Clowns since 1775.)
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To: Valin
1966 Charles A Bassett II astronaut, dies in a crash of T-38 jet at 34 1966 Elliot McKay See Jr astronaut, dies in T-38 jet crash at 38

Aim High

14 posted on 02/28/2004 7:37:40 AM PST by Professional Engineer (Americans~Proud Country Clowns since 1775.)
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To: Professional Engineer
Somehow I thought you'd like that. :-)

Good morning.
15 posted on 02/28/2004 7:41:44 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: Professional Engineer
16 posted on 02/28/2004 7:45:12 AM PST by Valin (America is the land mine between barbarism and civilization.)
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To: Valin
1970 Bicycles permitted to cross Golden Gate Bridge

The BicyclespankenTruppen attack!

17 posted on 02/28/2004 7:58:42 AM PST by Professional Engineer (Americans~Proud Country Clowns since 1775.)
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To: snippy_about_it
LOL. Thanks Snippy.
18 posted on 02/28/2004 8:00:00 AM PST by Professional Engineer (Americans~Proud Country Clowns since 1775.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Good Morning Snippy.
19 posted on 02/28/2004 8:03:27 AM PST by SAMWolf (I even have boring dreams...I fall asleep in my sleep!)
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To: Aeronaut
Morning Aeronaut. Your "cubicle"?
20 posted on 02/28/2004 8:04:07 AM PST by SAMWolf (I even have boring dreams...I fall asleep in my sleep!)
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