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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers The Cold War (A Synopsis) - Part I - Sep. 20th, 2004
See Sources

Posted on 09/19/2004 7:44:37 PM PDT by SAMWolf



Lord,

Keep our Troops forever in Your care

Give them victory over the enemy...

Grant them a safe and swift return...

Bless those who mourn the lost.
.

FReepers from the Foxhole join in prayer
for all those serving their country at this time.


...................................................................................... ...........................................

U.S. Military History, Current Events and Veterans Issues

Where Duty, Honor and Country
are acknowledged, affirmed and commemorated.

Our Mission:

The FReeper Foxhole is dedicated to Veterans of our Nation's military forces and to others who are affected in their relationships with Veterans.

In the FReeper Foxhole, Veterans or their family members should feel free to address their specific circumstances or whatever issues concern them in an atmosphere of peace, understanding, brotherhood and support.

The FReeper Foxhole hopes to share with it's readers an open forum where we can learn about and discuss military history, military news and other topics of concern or interest to our readers be they Veteran's, Current Duty or anyone interested in what we have to offer.

If the Foxhole makes someone appreciate, even a little, what others have sacrificed for us, then it has accomplished one of it's missions.

We hope the Foxhole in some small way helps us to remember and honor those who came before us.

To read previous Foxhole threads or
to add the Foxhole to your sidebar,
click on the books below.

Comrades: 1917-1945


REVOLUTION

The seeds for the Cold War are planted during World War I and the ensuing revolution in Russia. In 1917, the new communist government led by Vladimir Lenin withdraws Russia from the war -- and signs a separate peace with Germany. Many of the Western Allies view the new Russian government with suspicion.


Lenin


Russia's treaty with Germany ends fighting on the Eastern Front. But from 1918 to 1920, civil war rages in Russia -- with the anti-communist forces receiving support from the West and elsewhere as part of an unsuccessful attempt to oust the Bolsheviks.

Following Lenin's death in 1924, Joseph Stalin rapidly rises to power. By the 1930s, Stalin's "Great Purge" is under way. Millions are arrested, and many are executed or sent to prison camps, as Stalin tightens his grip on the nation.

DEPRESSION

At the end of the 1920s, the Great Depression plunges much of the world into economic hard times. In the West, there is growing support for the Soviet Union -- where socialism offers an alternative to the harsh realities of capitalism. Around the same time, Stalin begins the first of the Soviet Union's five-year plans for economic development. Many in the United States and elsewhere chose to ignore reports of the widespread calamities caused by Stalin's policies of collectivization.



In the United States, President Roosevelt promises a New Deal, a series of sweeping reforms. And among those policy changes, the United States recognizes the Soviet Union.

American politics also shifts to the left during the Depression, especially as the trend toward fascism grows in Europe.

WARTIME ALLIANCES

Despite European attempts at appeasing Hitler, Nazi Germany continues its war preparations. Stalin, in an attempt to buy time for the Soviet Union, signs a non-aggression pact with Berlin on August 23, 1939.



German troops storm into Poland just over a week later, starting World War II. Soviet forces take over the Baltic states and invade Finland. Stalin's treaty serves to keep Moscow out of the greater war, while the Nazis conquer much of Western Europe.

But Hitler's appetite for territory isn't sated. The Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, "Operation Barbarossa," takes the Soviet military by surprise.



After months of retreats and millions of casualties, the Red Army begins to beat back the German forces. The costly Soviet victory during the Battle of Stalingrad in 1943 ends the German advance and signals the beginning of the end for the Nazis.

SUMMITS

In 1943, the leaders of Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States gather in Tehran, Iran, where they agree to work toward the defeat of Nazi Germany. They also begin to map out the future of post-war Europe.



The so-called "Big Three" meet again in February 1945 in Yalta, a town on the Black Sea and a resort for Russia's former czars.

While in Yalta, Joseph Stalin, now marshal of the Soviet Union, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt consider the fate of Poland, which is already occupied by the Soviets.

Yalta ends with Britain and the United States securing Stalin's agreement that the Soviets will attack Japan once Germany is defeated. Victory over the Nazis, meanwhile, is fast becoming reality. Soviet and U.S. troops meet on the Elbe River in April 1945, effectively cutting Germany in two.



Roosevelt dies soon after the Yalta summit, just weeks before V-E Day. Vice President Harry S. Truman then assumes the presidency and represents the United States at the first post-war "Big Three" meeting -- which takes place in Potsdam, just outside Berlin. But there are already signs that the wartime alliance between the West and the Soviets is quickly unraveling.

HIROSHIMA/NAGASAKI

The Potsdam conference ends on August 2, 1945. Four days later, the United States drops an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. A second atomic device is dropped on the port city of Nagasaki three days after Hiroshima. Japan soon surrenders, ending World War II.



But the world has entered the Nuclear Age, a time of unprecedented danger. And that nuclear threat would overshadow all the future Cold War confrontations to come.

Thanks to Freeper Spookbrat for the idea of providing this synopsis of the Cold War



TOPICS: VetsCoR
KEYWORDS: coldwar; fdr; freeperfoxhole; ironcurtain; marshallplan; russianrevolution; sovietunion; stalin; truman; veterans
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Iron Curtain: 1945-1947

HOMECOMINGS

The United States emerges from World War II with both its government and economy intact. In fact, the American war machine has revitalized the nation's businesses and brought affluence to more people on levels unimaginable during the pre-war Depression.



In the Soviet Union, soldiers return home to a nation ravaged by war. Most are amazed to find themselves alive following a war that has killed an estimated 27 million Soviet civilians and military personnel.



CONQUERED, DIVIDED

Germany, which had terrorized and occupied much of the European continent, now finds itself divided among the victors. Four occupation zones are established, and each of the Allies sets up a sector in Berlin.



Meanwhile, national borders are being redrawn in an attempt to settle old scores. Millions of ethnic Germans are expelled from Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary.

SOVIET CONTROL

New regional power struggles spring up in Europe following World War II, as communist and capitalist factions vie for control. The most notable and brutal example of these is the drawn-out civil war in Greece.


Some of the bitterest fighting was along the mountain border with Albania. Here a priest sips his coffee as officers plan the assault on Mount Kiapha.


Although he did not support the Greek communist cause during that country's civil war, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin has succeeded in establishing a buffer zone between his nation and the West -- by creating a series of Soviet satellite states.

WARNINGS

Comments by Stalin in early 1946, that capitalism and imperialism made future wars inevitable, set off alarm bells in the West. George Kennan, a career U.S. diplomat in Moscow, was asked by the State Department for his view on Soviet motives and intentions. His famous cabled response warned there could be no permanent, peaceful coexistence with the Soviet Union.


George Kennan


Days after Kennan's telegram, Winston Churchill, the former British prime minister, arrives in the United States. He later speaks at a college in Fulton, Missouri, the home state of his host, U.S. President Harry Truman. Although the speech was not well-received at the time, it coined the phrase that best described the political and ideological divide between the Soviets and the West as the Cold War began.

TRUMAN'S DOCTRINE

Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech set the tenor for the growing tensions between the Soviet Union and its former allies.



The chill in relations between communists and capitalists coincides with the unusually bitter winter of 1946-47. As shortages and famine gripped an exhausted Europe, President Truman announced what became known as the Truman Doctrine.
1 posted on 09/19/2004 7:44:38 PM PDT by SAMWolf
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To: snippy_about_it; PhilDragoo; Johnny Gage; Victoria Delsoul; The Mayor; Darksheare; Valin; ...
Marshall Plan: 1947-1952

POSTWAR EUROPE

The events that brought about the Marshall Plan were spurred on by a combination of man-made and natural disasters. Immediately following World War II, much of Europe was in chaos.



Millions of refugees roam the continent, some attempting to return home after the war, others fleeing westward, away from Soviet domination. Governments lie toppled, national economies remain in ruin.

Meanwhile, the harvest of 1946 is poor, and the winter of '46-47 is one of the worst in memory. The strife leads many in Western Europe to consider communism as an end to the hard life and injustices they suffer.

TRUMAN DOCTRINE

After decades as a global power, Britain finds itself unable to cope with the growing postwar crisis on the European continent. Exhausted by World War II, London wants to hold on to its traditional, imperial role. But the winter of 1946-47 brings an end to Britain's longtime status as a main player in world politics.


Harry Truman


In February 1947, Britain informs the United States that London is ending aid to Greece and Turkey. U.S. President Harry Truman then seizes the moment. At a joint session of Congress, Truman successfully persuades lawmakers to authorize $400 million in aid for Turkey and Greece.

During that speech, he also establishes the Truman Doctrine -- a clear distinction between the capitalist and communist worlds.

GEORGE MARSHALL

Truman turns to his secretary of state, George Marshall, to put Europe back on its feet economically. Marshall had been famous for his logistical skills while U.S. Army chief of staff during the war.


George Marshall


Marshall meets with others from the so-called "Big Four" in Moscow, in an attempt to determine the future of then-occupied Germany. But the talks go nowhere.

THE PLAN

Marshall formally announces what will become known as the European Recovery Program during a ceremony at Harvard University. The Marshall Plan offers billions of dollars in U.S. aid to European countries -- including those under Soviet occupation.



Soviet spies in London keep Moscow up to date on the Marshall Plan, which the Kremlin views with growing suspicion. Stalin orders his foreign minister, Vyacheslav Molotov, to pull out of a Paris conference designed to frame Europe's response to the Marshall Plan.

As Molotov leaves Paris, he accuses the West of working to divide Europe into two hostile camps. In fact, Czechoslovakia considers attending the Paris conference on the Marshall Plan -- only to be told in no uncertain terms that Moscow is against it.

COUP

In September 1947, as the Marshall Plan gets under way, the Soviets set up the Cominform, the Communist Information Bureau. They also establish Comecon, the Warsaw Pact's version of an economic trading bloc.


President Benes is signing - under the supervision of Communist Klement Gottvald - the appointing of the new government on the 25th February 1948.


But these new ties among European communists mean an end to Eastern European hopes for different types of socialist governments on the continent. That reality is driven home in February 1948 -- when a communist coup topples the government of Czechoslovakia.

AID TO EUROPE

Just weeks after the communist coup in Czechoslovakia, the U.S. Congress approves the first $5 billion in Marshall Plan aid. Twenty percent of the aid is in loans, 80 percent in grants. The first shipments are food and fertilizer, followed by machinery.


A shipment of U.S. wheat arrives in the Netherlands.


In the four years of the plan, the Marshall agency spends $13.5 billion in 16 countries. In turn, Europe's purchase of U.S. goods and machinery brings many Marshall Plan dollars back into the American economy, fueling a postwar boom.

One of the European countries most desperate for aid is Greece -- devastated by years of Nazi occupation and civil war. One novel and successful program sent big U.S. mules to Greek farmers.

FEAR AND RESPONSE

The Soviet Union urges its communist colleagues in Western Europe to take action against the Marshall Plan. In response, a series of strikes and demonstrations sweep through Italy and France. Threats by the United States to withdraw Marshall Plan aid have an impact, though, and the strikes eventually fail.


Marshal Tito


Fears that Italy's Communist Party would win the 1948 elections bring about a propaganda campaign in the United States, as well as a campaign of covert operations from the newly formed CIA. Following the Christian Democrats' victory in Italy, Washington unleashes a wave of aid, reviving the Italian economy. Meanwhile, Yugoslavia under Marshal Tito breaks with Moscow after several years of uneasy alliance. Those nations that remain within the Soviet embrace would eye the West for 40 years -- and wonder.

Additional Sources:

www.cnn.com
www.4to40.com
www.mohonasen.org
worldatwar.net
www.curme.co.uk
library.thinkquest.org
www.iupui.edu
www.multied.com
www.rb-29.net
www.opb.org
www.informationwar.org
www.upress.state.ms.us
www.bbc.co.uk
www.grunts.net
iws.ccccd.edu
www.turnerlearning.com
www.kssursee.ch
www.marshallfoundation.org
www.politika.co.yu

2 posted on 09/19/2004 7:45:48 PM PDT by SAMWolf (ACK! Who turned reality back on?)
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To: All
Once allies against Hitler, the Soviet Union and the United States confront each other at the end of World War II. Looming over the postwar landscape is the awesome, mushroom-shaped cloud of the atomic bomb.

In the months following their victory in World War II, the alliance between the Soviet Union and the West quickly proves to be little more than a marriage of convenience. Suspicion clouds relations -- while a curtain descends over Europe.

With hunger and discontent plaguing postwar Europe, the U.S. proposes an aid program to rebuild the ruined continent. But the Marshall Plan also solidifies the deep ideological differences between East and West.


3 posted on 09/19/2004 7:46:14 PM PDT by SAMWolf (ACK! Who turned reality back on?)
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To: All


Veterans for Constitution Restoration is a non-profit, non-partisan educational and grassroots activist organization. The primary area of concern to all VetsCoR members is that our national and local educational systems fall short in teaching students and all American citizens the history and underlying principles on which our Constitutional republic-based system of self-government was founded. VetsCoR members are also very concerned that the Federal government long ago over-stepped its limited authority as clearly specified in the United States Constitution, as well as the Founding Fathers' supporting letters, essays, and other public documents.





Actively seeking volunteers to provide this valuable service to Veterans and their families.


UPDATED THROUGH APRIL 2004




The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul

Click on Hagar for
"The FReeper Foxhole Compiled List of Daily Threads"

4 posted on 09/19/2004 7:46:43 PM PDT by SAMWolf (ACK! Who turned reality back on?)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; Matthew Paul; Professional Engineer; All

Good morning everyone!

5 posted on 09/19/2004 7:49:41 PM PDT by Soaring Feather (~Poetry is my forte. ~)
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To: SAMWolf

You are early. I'm not even caught up yet.


6 posted on 09/19/2004 8:25:17 PM PDT by Samwise (Kerry's convoluted speaking style correlates with his convoluted thought processes.)
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To: bentfeather

I love that eagle!


7 posted on 09/19/2004 8:34:19 PM PDT by Samwise (Kerry's convoluted speaking style correlates with his convoluted thought processes.)
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To: bentfeather

Morning Feather


8 posted on 09/20/2004 2:52:36 AM PDT by SAMWolf (ACK! Who turned reality back on?)
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To: Samwise

Sorry. :-(

We're on East Coast time this week.


9 posted on 09/20/2004 2:54:15 AM PDT by SAMWolf (ACK! Who turned reality back on?)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; All

September 20, 2004

If Doubtful, Don't!

Read: Romans 14:14-23

He who doubts is condemned if he eats, because he does not eat from faith; for whatever is not from faith is sin. —Romans 14:23

Bible In One Year: Ecclesiastes 4-6; 2 Corinthians 12


In his book Illustrations of Bible Truth, H. A. Ironside tells about a man who was getting ready to attend a banquet. He wanted to put on a white shirt he had worn on a previous occasion, so he was inspecting it carefully to see if it was too dirty. His wife noticed what he was doing and called out, "Remember, dear, if it's doubtful, don't." The issue was settled. The man threw the shirt into the laundry hamper.

That wife's advice reminds me of the principle in today's text. It's a principle that can be applied to questionable matters of conscience. If doubtful, don't.

The doubtful things the apostle Paul wrote about in Romans 14 had to do with meat and wine considered to be "unclean" by some but not by others (vv.14,21). He indicated that if we have doubts about whether an action is right or wrong and we do it anyway, our action is not from faith and is therefore a sin (v.23). He also pointed out that it is wrong to do anything by which a brother in Christ "stumbles or is offended or is made weak" (v.21). We must never give another Christian a reason to violate his or her conscience.

When faced with questionable practices and a troubled conscience, we would do well to make this our guideline: If it's doubtful, don't! —Richard De Haan

There is a treasure you can own
That's greater than a crown or throne;
This treasure is a conscience clear
That brings the sweetest peace and cheer. —Isenhour

One little word can spare us a lot of trouble. It's NO.

10 posted on 09/20/2004 4:41:47 AM PDT by The Mayor (It is easier to resist the first evil desire than to satisfy all the ones that follow.)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it

Back from the Body and Fender Shop Bump for the Foxhole.

Hope everything is going well out back East for y'all.

Regards

alfa6 ;>}


11 posted on 09/20/2004 5:30:25 AM PDT by alfa6
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To: bentfeather; Samwise; snippy_about_it
Good morning ladies. Flag-o-gram.


12 posted on 09/20/2004 6:34:31 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Grand Poobah~Benevolent & Protective Order of Irascible Fellows. That's right, I'm a Curmudgeon.)
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To: Professional Engineer

G'morning PE!


13 posted on 09/20/2004 6:36:06 AM PDT by Samwise (Kerry's convoluted speaking style correlates with his convoluted thought processes.)
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To: SAMWolf

On this Day In History



Birthdates which occurred on September 20:
0357 BC Alexander III the Great, king of Macedonia, emperor
1810 Alpheus Starkey Williams Bvt Major General (Union volunteers)
1820 George Washington Morgan Brig General (Union volunteers)
1820 John Fulton Reynolds Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1863
1842 Lord James Dewar, physician who invented the vacuum flask and cordite, the first smokeless powder.
1878 Upton Sinclair novelist (Jungle)
1885 Ferdinand Lamenthe (Jelly Roll Morton), jazz pianist, composer and singer, one of the first to orchestrate jazz music.
1902 Kermit Maynard Vevey Ind, cowboy actor (Saturday Roundup)
1917 Arnold "Red" Auerbach NBA coach/GM (Boston Celtics)
1920 Alexander Thereat
1928 Dr Joyce Brothers NYC, pop psychiatrist ($64,000 question winner)
1929 Anne Meara Bkln NY comedian/actress (Stiller & Meara, Archie's Place)
1934 Sophia Loren Rome, actress (Desire Under the Elms, Black Orchid)
1938 Tom Tresh NY Yankee (1962 AL Rookie of the Year)
1941 Dale Chihuly Tacoma Wash, artist in glass (Louis Tiffany Award 1967)
1951 Guy LaFleur Quebec, NHL right wing (Montreal, NY Rangers)
1954 Silvio Leonard Cuba, 100m sprinter (Olympic-silver-1980)
1957 Fran Drescher NYC, actress (The Nanny)



Deaths which occurred on September 20:
0019BC The Roman poet Virgil
1168 Paschal III, [Guido di Crema], Italian anti-Pope, dies
1327 King Edward II of England was murdered under the connivance of the queen.
1586 Anthony Babington, page/conspirator to Mary Stuart, executed at 24
1803 Robert Emmet, Irish nationalist, executed
1863 Jakob Grimm, writer, dies at 78 (Grimms Brothers)
1947 Fiorello La Guardia (Mayor-R-NYC), dies
1957 Jean Sibelius Finnish composer, dies at 91
1959 Olin Howlin actor (Swifty-Circus Boy), dies at 63
1973 Jim Croce singer/songwriter (Time In A Bottle, Bad Bad Leroy Brown), dies in a plane crash at 30
1973 Glenn Strange actor (Sam the Bartender-Gunsmoke), dies at 74
1974 Gail A. Cobb, a member of the Metropolitan Police Force of Washington, D.C., became the first female police officer to be killed in the line of duty.


Reported: MISSING in ACTION
1965 BLACK ARTHUR N. BETHLEHEM PA.
[02/12/73 RELEASED BY DRV, ALIVE AND WELL 98]
1965 CURTIS THOMAS J. HOUSTON TX.
[02/12/73 RELEASED BY DRV, ALIVE AND WELL 98]
1965 FORBY WILLIS E. ONAKA SD.
[02/12/73 RELEASED BY DRV, ALIVE IN 98]
1965 HAWKINS EDGAR LEE LAMESA TX.
1965 MARTIN DUANE W. DENVER CO.
[REPORTED KILLED BY NATIVES]
1965 ROBINSON WILLIAM A. ROBERSONVILLE NC.
[02/12/73 RELEASED BY DRV, ALIVE AND WELL 98]
1965 SMITH PHILIP E. ROODHOUSE IL.
[03/15/73 RELEASED BY CHINA, ALIVE IN 98]
1966 BLOOM RICHARD MCAULIFFE SAN FRANCISCO CA.
1972 LESTER RODERICK B. MORTON WA.

POW / MIA Data & Bios supplied by
the P.O.W. NETWORK. Skidmore, MO. USA.


On this day...
0480 BC Themistocles and his Greek fleet win one of history's first decisive naval victories over Xerxes' Persian force off Salamis.
0451 General Aetius defeats Attila the Hun at Chalons-sur-Marne
0622 Mohammad's Hegira
1519 Magellan starts 1st successful circumnavigation of the world
1565 Spaniards capture Fort Caroline Fla & massacre the French
1664 Maryland enacts 1st anti-amaglmation law to prevent widespread intermarriage of English women & black men
1777 Paoli, PA massacre of sleeping Continental troops by British Dragoons
1792 French defeat Prussians at Valmy
1784 Packet and Daily, the first daily publication in America, appears on the streets.

1797 US frigate Constitution (Old Ironsides) launched in Boston

1830 1st National Black convention meets (Phila)
1850 Slave trade abolished in DC, but slavery allowed to continue
1854 British & French defeat Russians at Alma, in the Crimea
1859 Patent granted on the electric range
1860 1st British royalty to visit US, Prince of Wales (King Edward VII)
1863 Battle of Shepardstown VA
1863 Civil War Battle of Chickamauga, near Chattanooga, Tenn, ends
1873 Panic sweeps NY Stock Exchange (railroad bond default/bank failure)
1881 Chester A Arthur sworn in as president
1884 Equal Rights Party nominates female candidates for Pres & VP
1927 NY Yankee Babe Ruth hits record 60th HR of season off Tom Zachry
1932 Gandhi begins hunger strike
1944 Nijmegen free
1944 Polish forces free Terneuzen Neth
1945 German rocket engineers begin work in US
1946 Churchill argues for a "US of Europe"
1948 Mexican Baseball league disbanded
1949 Tennis player Pancho Gonzales turns professional
1951 Swiss males votes against female suffrage
1951 1st North Pole jet crossing
1951 Ford Frick elected commissioner of baseball
1954 1st FORTRAN computer program run
1954 1st National People's Congress adopts Chinese constitution
1958 Martin Luther King Jr stabbed in chest by a deranged black woman in NYC
1960 UN General Assembly admit 13 African countries & Cyprus (96 nations)
1961 After 84 1/3 innings Bill Fischer gives up a base on balls
1961 Roger Maris hits home run # 59 & barely misses # 60 in game 154 of the season. Yanks clinch pennant #26
1962 James Meredith is blocked from entering Miss U as its 1st black
1966 US Surveyor B launched toward Moon; crashed Sept 23
1968 Mickey Mantle hits final career homer # 536
1970 Luna 16 lands on Moon's Mare Fecunditatis, drills core sample
1972 Police find cannabis growing on Paul & Linda McCartney's farm
1973 Billy Jean King beats Bobby Riggs in battle-of-sexes tennis match
1973 Willie Mays announces retirement at end of 1973 season
1975 Gary Sentman draws a record 176 lb longbow to a maximum 28¬" draw
1976 Playboy releases Jimmy Carter's interview that he lusts for women
1977 Voyager 2 launched for fly-by of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
1979 Bloodless coup in Central African Rep overthrows Emperor Bokassa I
1979 NASA launches HEAO
1980 Plaque dedicated in Thurman Munson's memory at Yankee Stadium
1980 Spectacular Bid runs in Belmont alone as 3 horses drop out
1982 NFL players begin a 57 day strike
1983 3,112 turn out to see the Pirates play the NY Mets at Shea Stadium
1984 Suicide car bomb attacks US Embassy annex in Beirut
1985 Walt Disney World's 200-millionth guest
1986 Wichita State blow a 35-3 lead; lose 36-35 to Morehead State
1987 Walter Payton scores NFL record 107th rushing touchdown
1990 Both Germanys ratify reunification
1990 Saddam Hussein demands US networks broadcast his message
1991 On Capitol Hill, Senate hearings on the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the U.S. Supreme Court concluded.
1992 French voters narrowly approved the Maastricht Treaty on European unity.
2000 Independent Counsel Robert Ray announced the end of the Whitewater investigation, "insufficient evidence to warrant charges against President Clinton and first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton".
2001 America demanded that Afghanistan hand over Osama bin Laden, the suspected mastermind in the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks. Otherwise, he said, the Taliban wouild share his fate.
2001 Gov. Tom Ridge of Pennsylvania was named by President Bush to head the new Office of Homeland Security.


Holidays
Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Laos : Thanksgiving
Birthday of Quetzacoatl (Incan holiday).
Pleasure Your Mate Month


Religious Observances
Ang, RC : Ember Day
RC : Commemoration of St Eustace & his companions/martyrs
RC : Mem of SS Andrew Kim, Paul Chong & companions, Korean martyrs
Ang : St John Coleridge Patteson, Bishop of Melanesia/companions


Religious History
1378 The Great Schism in the Catholic Church began. It was touched off when Gregory XI died, shortly after returning the papal seat from Avignon, in France, to Rome. Continuing for nearly 40 years (until 1417), the Schism at one point produced three concurrent popes!
1883 Birth of Albrecht Alt, German Lutheran Old Testament scholar. "Biblia Hebraica" (13th ed., 1962), which Alt edited with Rudolph Kittel, became a standard critical Hebrew text of the Old Testament among students of the Bible for years.
1932 Four branches of Methodism in England united to form the Methodist Church of Great Britain and Ireland. These were the Wesleyan Methodists (founded 1784), the Primitive Methodists (1811), the United Methodist Free Churches (1857) and the United Methodists (1907).
1947 English apologist C.S. Lewis wrote in a letter: 'Those who suffer the same things from the same people for the same Person can scarcely not love each other.'
1948 American missionary Jim Elliot -- eight years before his martyrdom at the hands of the Auca Indians of Ecuador -- penned in his journal: 'I am Thine at terrible cost to Thyself. Now Thou must become mine -- as Thou didst not attend to the price, neither would I.'

Source: William D. Blake. ALMANAC OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1987.


Thought for the day :
"Common sense and a sense of humor are the same thing, moving at different speeds. A sense of humor is just common sense....dancing."


Things You Wouldn't Hear a Southerner Say...
We're vegetarians.


How Many Dogs Does it Take to Change Light Bulb?
Greyhound: It isn't moving. Who cares?


The Ultimate Scientific Dictionary...
Bunsen Burner:
A device invented by Robert Bunsen (1811-1899) for brewing coffee in the laboratory, thereby enabling the chemist to be poisoned without having to go all the way to the company cafeteria.


What's Your Business Astrological Sign?...
PARTNER, PRESIDENT, CEO
You are brilliant or lucky. Your inability to figure out complex systems such as the fax machine suggest the latter


14 posted on 09/20/2004 7:04:42 AM PDT by Valin (I'll try being nicer if you'll try being smarter.)
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To: Professional Engineer

GM, PE!!

Nice Flag-o-gram today! Thank you!


15 posted on 09/20/2004 8:10:19 AM PDT by Soaring Feather (~Poetry is my forte. ~)
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To: All

Where's snippy and Sam????!!!
How many days now??LOL

16 posted on 09/20/2004 8:11:51 AM PDT by Soaring Feather (~Poetry is my forte. ~)
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Comment #17 Removed by Moderator

Comment #18 Removed by Moderator

To: SAMWolf

Iron Curtain bump


19 posted on 09/20/2004 10:11:07 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Grand Poobah~Benevolent & Protective Order of Irascible Fellows. That's right, I'm a Curmudgeon.)
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To: Samwise

Hiya miss Wise. How's Middle Earth today?


20 posted on 09/20/2004 10:13:03 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Grand Poobah~Benevolent & Protective Order of Irascible Fellows. That's right, I'm a Curmudgeon.)
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To: Valin; bentfeather; msdrby
1797 US frigate Constitution (Old Ironsides) launched in Boston

HUZZAH!!

Yesterday, digging in the garage, I found two prints of her I bought when I visited in 1999. One is a sail plan, the other is a painting. I'll try to post some pics soon.

21 posted on 09/20/2004 10:18:53 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Grand Poobah~Benevolent & Protective Order of Irascible Fellows. That's right, I'm a Curmudgeon.)
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To: bentfeather

Hi miss Feather. It's ONLY supposed to be in the 80's here today.


22 posted on 09/20/2004 10:21:44 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Grand Poobah~Benevolent & Protective Order of Irascible Fellows. That's right, I'm a Curmudgeon.)
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To: Matthew Paul

Thanks Matthew, I've never seen these images before.


23 posted on 09/20/2004 10:23:43 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Grand Poobah~Benevolent & Protective Order of Irascible Fellows. That's right, I'm a Curmudgeon.)
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To: Professional Engineer

Great. Look forward to them.


Back tonight....maybe remember it's monday and that's always an....adventure.


24 posted on 09/20/2004 10:25:18 AM PDT by Valin (I'll try being nicer if you'll try being smarter.)
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To: Valin

25 posted on 09/20/2004 10:41:23 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Grand Poobah~Benevolent & Protective Order of Irascible Fellows. That's right, I'm a Curmudgeon.)
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To: Professional Engineer

"Hiya miss Wise. How's Middle Earth today?"

Well, another freeper just called me a "wag" and I have no idea what it means. Does't sound nice, though.

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1221387/posts?page=194#194


26 posted on 09/20/2004 11:01:14 AM PDT by Samwise (Kerry's convoluted speaking style correlates with his convoluted thought processes.)
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To: Samwise

I can't make heads or tails of the context.


27 posted on 09/20/2004 11:41:55 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Grand Poobah~Benevolent & Protective Order of Irascible Fellows. That's right, I'm a Curmudgeon.)
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To: Professional Engineer

Maybe he can't spell Hobbit. :^)


28 posted on 09/20/2004 12:16:09 PM PDT by Samwise (Kerry's convoluted speaking style correlates with his convoluted thought processes.)
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To: Samwise

LOL


29 posted on 09/20/2004 12:30:06 PM PDT by Professional Engineer (Grand Poobah~Benevolent & Protective Order of Irascible Fellows. That's right, I'm a Curmudgeon.)
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To: Professional Engineer

Have you heard, CBS has admitted they cannot prove the documents are real!!Big news on John Gibson FOXNEWS now.


30 posted on 09/20/2004 2:18:17 PM PDT by Soaring Feather (~Poetry is my forte. ~)
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To: Matthew Paul

Great post Matt, thank you so much. I'm making my way through the music. Will check out the links as well.


31 posted on 09/20/2004 2:22:48 PM PDT by Soaring Feather (~Poetry is my forte. ~)
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To: bentfeather

DOH!


32 posted on 09/20/2004 2:46:45 PM PDT by Professional Engineer (Grand Poobah~Benevolent & Protective Order of Irascible Fellows. That's right, I'm a Curmudgeon.)
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To: Professional Engineer

Sweating at CBS!!!!! WOO HOO!


33 posted on 09/20/2004 2:47:35 PM PDT by Soaring Feather (~Poetry is my forte. ~)
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To: SAMWolf

Today's classic warship, USS Oyster Bay (AGP-6)

Barnegat class torpedo boat tender

Displacement. 1,766 t.
Lenght. 311'8"
Beam. 41'1"
Draft. 13'6"
Speed. 20 k.
Complement. 215
Armament. 1 5"; 1 quad 40mm; 2 dual 40mm; 4 dual 20mm

USS Oyster Bay (AGP-6) was laid down as AVP-28, a small seaplane tender, on 17 April 1942 at Lake Washington Shipyard, Houghton, Wash. launched 7 September 1942; sponsored by Mrs. William K. Harrill; Reclassified AGP-6 on 1 May 1943, converted to a PT boat tender and commissioned 17 November 1943, Lt. Comdr. W. W. Holroyd, USNR, in command.

Oyster Bay departed Seattle 7 December for shakedown at San Diego, and got underway from San Diego 2 January 1944 steaming to Brisbane enroute to Milne Bay for tender operations. Oyster Bay serviced 2 squadrons of motor torpedo boats from 28 February and, on 9 March, got underway escorting 15 PT boats to Seeadler Harbor, Admiralty Islands.

The spring was an active one for Oyster Bay. On 14 March she bombarded the enemy shore installations on Pityilu Island for the Army; on the 20th she was underway for Langemak, New Guinea, with 42 wounded soldiers for evacuation to Base Hospital, Finsehhafen. After returning to Seeadler Harbor on the 31st, she bombarded Ndrilo Island to the east of Seeadler Harbor preparatory to the landing there by Army ground forces.

Oyster Bays hifted to Dreger Harbor 19 April. Allied forces moved on Aitape the 22nd, and on the 24th, two days after D-day, Oyster Bay departed for the area with 15 PT boats. Japanese planes attacked the convoy on the 27th, but, while 1 boat was hit, Oyster Bay escaped damage. In May, the ship proceeded to Hollandia, an area of heated Allied action. Air raid alerts were frequent, but no attacks ensued.

Oyster Bay got underway to Wakde Island 5 June with 2 squadrons of PT boats. After Allied forces had invaded this island to capture a major Japanese air base 17 May, the Japanese continued to hammer away at the newly acquired airstrip. Later in June, Oyster Baybombarded shore installations on the Wieki River and at Samar Village, preparatory to Army attacks.

Leaving Mios Woendi Island 12 July, the ship reported to Brisbane for availability. A R.A.F. plane struck the top of the ship's mast, carried away her antennae and damaged her navigation lights 22 July, but hasty repairs permitted Oyster Bay to depart for Mios Woendi 16 August.

The tender then steamed on to Morotai, needed as a staging area for the Philippine campaign. As the beaches were assaulted in October, Oyster Bay set out for Leyte Gulf. The enemy planes let loose but U.S. Navy planes and anti aircraft fire took a heavy toll.

In November, Oyster Bay went to general quarters 221 times, but was not attacked. She shifted to San Juanico Straits the 21st and three days later, while taking on gas, the ship was attacked by two Kates that were driven off by heavy AA fire. Two Zekes dived on the ship the 26th, but intense AA fire splashed both.

In January 1945, Oyster Bay got underway for Hollandia then returned to Leyte Gulf for tender operations 8 February. Departing for the invasion of Zamboanga 6 March she arrived two days before D-day and remained with the bombardment group until the landings. Oyster Bay next rendezvoused with PT boats in Sarangani Bay, Mindoro 24 April and supported them during night raids against the Japanese positions in Davao Gulf. In May, Oyster Bay reported to Leyte Gulf, thence steaming to Samar. She departed 18 May for Tawi Tawi, where she continued tender operations until she returned to Guinan Harbor 6 August.

The ship turned homeward 10 November and steamed into San Francisco Bay the 29th. Decommissioning 26 March 1946, the ship was struck from the Naval Vessel Register 12 April 1946 and transferred to the Maritime Commission 12 August 1946. The ship returned to the Navy 3 January 1949 was re-designated AVP-28, 16 March 1949, and was berthed at Stockton, where she remained in the Pacific Reserve Fleet until 1957.

She was transferred to the Government of Italy 23 October 1957. She became the Italian special forces tender Pietro Cauezzale (A-5301). She served in the Italian Navy for over 35 years, finally being decommissioned in October 1993 and scrapped in February 1996.

Oyster Bayreceived 5 battle stars for World War II service.

34 posted on 09/20/2004 4:07:11 PM PDT by aomagrat (Where arms are not to be carried, it is well to carry arms.")
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To: The Mayor

Good Evening Mayor.


35 posted on 09/20/2004 4:40:02 PM PDT by SAMWolf (ACK! Who turned reality back on?)
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To: alfa6

Evening alfa6.

Finished our first day of class today and met all the "home office" staff. Got a lot of good info and had a lot of questions answered. Weather has turned gorgeous. :-)


36 posted on 09/20/2004 4:42:04 PM PDT by SAMWolf (ACK! Who turned reality back on?)
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To: Professional Engineer

Evening PE.

Love those old patriotic posters. :-)


37 posted on 09/20/2004 4:42:48 PM PDT by SAMWolf (ACK! Who turned reality back on?)
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To: Samwise

Hey Samwise!


38 posted on 09/20/2004 4:43:15 PM PDT by SAMWolf (ACK! Who turned reality back on?)
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To: Valin
1797 US frigate Constitution (Old Ironsides) launched in Boston


39 posted on 09/20/2004 4:48:18 PM PDT by SAMWolf (ACK! Who turned reality back on?)
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To: bentfeather

LOL! Don't pay the ransom, we escaped!! :-)


40 posted on 09/20/2004 4:48:52 PM PDT by SAMWolf (ACK! Who turned reality back on?)
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To: Matthew Paul
Evening Matt.

Thanks for all the additional info and graphics.

Labor in the USSR Is a Matter of Honor, Courage, and Heroism

Sounds a lot like the "slogans" the Germans used; "Arbeit Macht Frei"


41 posted on 09/20/2004 4:52:57 PM PDT by SAMWolf (ACK! Who turned reality back on?)
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To: Matthew Paul

Thanks Matt.

Those countries that never gave up hope helped the United States to defeat the "Evil Empire"


42 posted on 09/20/2004 4:55:00 PM PDT by SAMWolf (ACK! Who turned reality back on?)
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To: Professional Engineer

LOL!


43 posted on 09/20/2004 4:55:41 PM PDT by SAMWolf (ACK! Who turned reality back on?)
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To: aomagrat

Evening aomagrat.

1943 to 1993, not a bad career.


44 posted on 09/20/2004 4:57:07 PM PDT by SAMWolf (ACK! Who turned reality back on?)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; PhilDragoo; All
Evening all!


45 posted on 09/20/2004 5:51:09 PM PDT by Victoria Delsoul (Kerry's testimony before the Senate was instrumental to America's defeat in the Vietnam War)
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To: bentfeather

oooh. I like this eagle and flag graphic. I've borrowed it for our 'collection'. :-)


46 posted on 09/20/2004 6:05:35 PM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: The Mayor

Good evening Mayor.


47 posted on 09/20/2004 6:07:41 PM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: alfa6

Good evening alfa6.


48 posted on 09/20/2004 6:08:56 PM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: Professional Engineer

Wow. Neat flag-o-gram. You're finding the best graphics.


49 posted on 09/20/2004 6:09:29 PM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: bentfeather

LOL. It must seem like we've been abducted by aliens. Now we have to play catch up in the evenings.


50 posted on 09/20/2004 6:12:24 PM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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