Free Republic
Browse · Search
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

The FReeper Foxhole's TreadHead Tuesday - 761st 'Black Panther' Tank Bn (1942-1945) - Mar. 8th, 2005
World War II Magazine | January 1998 | Joseph E. Wilson, Jr.

Posted on 03/07/2005 10:32:19 PM PST by SAMWolf


Keep our Troops forever in Your care

Give them victory over the enemy...

Grant them a safe and swift return...

Bless those who mourn the lost.

FReepers from the Foxhole join in prayer
for all those serving their country at this time.

.................................................................. .................... ...........................................

U.S. Military History, Current Events and Veterans Issues

Where Duty, Honor and Country
are acknowledged, affirmed and commemorated.

Our Mission:

The FReeper Foxhole is dedicated to Veterans of our Nation's military forces and to others who are affected in their relationships with Veterans.

In the FReeper Foxhole, Veterans or their family members should feel free to address their specific circumstances or whatever issues concern them in an atmosphere of peace, understanding, brotherhood and support.

The FReeper Foxhole hopes to share with it's readers an open forum where we can learn about and discuss military history, military news and other topics of concern or interest to our readers be they Veteran's, Current Duty or anyone interested in what we have to offer.

If the Foxhole makes someone appreciate, even a little, what others have sacrificed for us, then it has accomplished one of it's missions.

We hope the Foxhole in some small way helps us to remember and honor those who came before us.

To read previous Foxhole threads or
to add the Foxhole to your sidebar,
click on the books below.

The 761st 'Black Panther' Tank Battalion

The 761st 'Black Panther' Tank Battalion was the first African-American armored unit to see combat.

Before and during mobilization for World War II, officials in Washington, D.C., debated whether or not African-American soldiers should be used in armored units. Many military men and politicians believed that blacks did not have the brains, quickness or moral stamina to fight in a war.

Referring to his World War I experiences, Colonel James A. Moss, commander of the 367th Infantry Regiment, 92nd Division, stated, "As fighting troops, the Negro must be rated as second-class material, this primarily to his inferior intelligence and lack of mental and moral qualities." Colonel Perry L. Miles, commander of the 371st Infantry Regiment, 93rd Division, voiced a similar opinion: "In a future war, the main use of the Negro should be in labor organizations." General George S. Patton, Jr., in a letter to his wife, wrote that "a colored soldier cannot think fast enough to fight in armor."

The armed forces embraced these beliefs even though African Americans had fought with courage and distinction in the Revolutionary War and every other war and conflict ever waged by the United States. They overlooked the fact that four regiments of the 93rd Division had served with the French during World War I and that the French government had awarded the coveted Croix de Guerre to three of the four regiments and to a company of the fourth, as well as to the 1st Battalion, 367th Infantry Regiment, 92nd Division.

Aerial view of post troops section, Camp Claiborne, Louisiana, 1941. Yes, those are mostly all tents. Photo credit: US Army Signal Corps,

Lieutenant General Leslie J. McNair, chief of the U.S. Army ground forces, was the main proponent of allowing African Americans to serve in armored units. He believed his nation could ill afford to exclude such a potentially important source of manpower. The black press, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Congress of Racial Equality also placed increasing pressure on the War Department and President Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration to allow black soldiers to serve on an equal footing with white soldiers.

In the summer of 1940, Congress passed into law the Selective Training and Service Act, which said, "In the selection and training of men under this act, there shall be no discrimination against any person on account of race and color." In October, however, the White House issued a statement saying that, while "the services of Negroes would be utilized on a fair and equitable basis," the policy of segregation in the armed forces would continue.

In March 1941, 98 black enlisted men reported to Fort Knox, Ky., from Fort Custer, Mich., for armored warfare training with the 758th Tank Battalion (light). The pioneer black tankers trained in light tank operations, mechanics and related phases of mechanized warfare, as enlisted men from other Army units joined their ranks.

Tank crew at Camp Claiborne (National Archives)

The 758th trained on the M-5 light tank, which carried a crew of four. Powered by twin Cadillac engines, it could reach a maximum speed of 40 mph and had an open-road cruising range of 172 miles. It was armed with a .30 caliber machine gun mounted to fire along the same axis as the tank's main armament, a 37mm cannon. When the tracer bullets from the .30 caliber registered on a target, the cannon would be fired, hopefully scoring a direct hit. The M-5 was also armed with two more .30-caliber machine guns, one on the turret and one in the bow. The light tank was employed to provide fire support, mobility and crew protection in screening and reconnaissance missions.

The 5th Tank Group, commanded by Colonel LeRoy Nichols, was to be made up of black enlisted personnel and white officers. With the 758th Tank Battalion in place, two more tank battalions were needed to complete the 5th Tank Group.

On March 15, 1942, the War Department ordered the activation of the 761st Tank Battalion (light) at Camp Claiborne, La., with an authorized strength of 36 officers and 593 enlisted men. (The final battalion--the 784th--would be activated on April 1, 1943.) On September 15, 1943, the 761st Battalion moved to Camp Hood, Texas, for advanced training; there they changed from light to medium tanks.

Cleaning the equipment (photo from National Archives)

On July 6, 1944, one of the 761st's few black officers, Lieutenant Jackie Robinson, was riding a civilian bus from Camp Hood to the nearby town of Belton. He refused to move to the back of the bus when told to do so by the driver. Court-martial charges ensued but could not proceed because the battalion commander, Lt. Col. Paul L. Bates, would not consent to the charges. The top brass at Camp Hood then transferred Robinson to the 758th Tank Battalion, whose commander immediately signed the court-martial consent.

The lieutenant's trial opened on August 2 and lasted for 17 days, during which time the 761st departed Camp Hood. Robinson was charged with violating the 63rd and 64th Articles of War. The first charge specified, "Lieutenant Robinson behaved with disrespect toward Captain Gerald M. Bear, Corps Military Police, by contemptuously bowing to him and giving several sloppy salutes while repeating, O'kay Sir, O'kay Sir, in an insolent, impertinent and rude manner." The second charge stipulated, "Lieutenant Robinson having received a lawful command by Captain Bear to remain in a receiving room at the MP station disobeyed such order." Robinson was eventually acquitted, and he was not charged for his actions on the bus. Three years later, Robinson was riding buses in the major leagues after breaking baseball's color barrier.

In October 1944, after two years of intense armored training, the 761st Tank Battalion, known as the "Black Panthers," landed in France. The tankers received a welcome from the Third Army commander, Lt. Gen. George S. Patton, Jr., who had observed the 761st conducting training maneuvers in the States: "Men, you're the first Negro tankers to ever fight in the American Army. I would never have asked for you if you weren't good. I have nothing but the best in my Army. I don't care what color you are as long as you go up there and kill those Kraut sons of bitches. Everyone has their eyes on you and is expecting great things from you. Most of all your race is looking forward to you. Don't let them down and damn you, don't let me down!"

Major General J. Lesley McNair

On November 8, 1944, the Black Panthers became the first African-American armored unit to enter combat, smashing into the towns of Moyenvic and Vic-sur-Seille. During the attack, Staff Sgt. Ruben Rivers, in Able Company's lead tank, encountered a roadblock that held up the advance. With utter disregard for his personal safety, he courageously climbed out of his tank under direct enemy fire, attached a cable to the roadblock and removed it. His prompt action prevented a serious delay in the offensive and was instrumental in the success of the attack.

On November 9, Charlie Company ran into an anti-tank ditch near Morville. The crack German 11th Panzer Division began to knock out tanks one by one down the line. The tankers crawled through the freezing muddy waters of the ditch under pelting rain and snow while hot shell fragments fell all around them. When German artillery began to walk a line toward the ditch, the tankers' situation looked hopeless.

After exiting his burning tank, 1st Sgt. Samuel Turley organized a dismounted combat team. When the team found itself pinned down by a counterattack and unable to return fire, Turley ordered his men to retreat, climbed from the ditch and provided covering fire that allowed them to escape.

KEYWORDS: 761sttankbn; armor; blackpanthers; europeantheater; freeperfoxhole; tanks; treadhead; veterans; wwii
Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first previous 1-2021-4041-6061-80 ... 141-145 next last
To: SAMWolf

Such incredibly excellent soldiers! Thanks for sharing their story. The fellas from WWII gave us all a military heritage we can be VERY proud of!

21 posted on 03/08/2005 7:12:18 AM PST by Bombardier (That's the life of an outlaw. Tough, ain't it?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Aeronaut

Morning Aeronaut

22 posted on 03/08/2005 7:24:04 AM PST by SAMWolf (For people who like peace and quiet: a phoneless cord.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: E.G.C.

Morning E.G.C.

I thiink spring is finally here. The weather has been great.

23 posted on 03/08/2005 7:26:27 AM PST by SAMWolf (For people who like peace and quiet: a phoneless cord.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 8 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf

On This Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on March 08:
1075 Abu 'l-Kasim Mahmud ibn Omar al-Zamachshari Arab theologist
1495 Juan de Dios Portugal/Spain, saint/founder (Brothers of Mercy)
1787 Karl Ferdinand von Grafe help create modern plastic surgery
1836 Matthew Calbraith Butler Major General (Confederate Army)
1841 Oliver Wendell Holmes Massachusetts, 59th Supreme Court justice (1902-32)
1865 Frederick William Goudy US, printer/type designer
1879 Otto Hahn German physicist/chemist (Nobel 44, radiothorium/actinium, co-discoverer-nuclear fission)
1911 Elsie Agnes Giorgi physician/humanitarian
1914 Jacob B Bakema urban developer (St Louis MO)
1918 Alan Hale [MacKahan] Jr Los Angeles CA, actor (Skipper Jonas Grumby-Gilligan's Island)
1921 Cyd Charisse [Tula Ellice Finklea] Amarillo TX, dancer/actress (East Side West Side, Brigadoon)
1939 Jim Bouton Newark NJ, pitcher (New York Yankees)/author (Ball Four)
1940 Leslie Isben Rogge one of FBI's most wanted
1945 Keith Jarrett pianist/composer
1945 Mickey Dolenz Los Angeles CA, actor (Circus Boy) singer/drummer (Monkees)
1952 Vladimir Vladimirovich Vasyutin USSR, cosmonaut (Soyuz T-14)
1963 Kathy Ireland model/actress (Alien From LA, Side Out)
1970 Jason Elam NFL kicker (Denver Broncos-Superbowl 32)
1973 Nanette Pearson Pleasant Grove UT, Miss America-Utah (1996)

Deaths which occurred on March 08:
0883 Albumasar [Ahmad Aboe M Gafar al-Balkhi], Arabic astronomer, dies
1144 Celestine II [Guido], Italian Pope (1143-44), dies in battle
1403 Bajezid I Jildirim 4th sultan of Turkey (1389-1403), dies at 42
1709 William Cowper/Cooper English anatomist, dies at about 62
1862 Nat Gordon last pirate, hanged in New York NY for stealing 1,000 slaves
1874 Millard Fillmore 13th President (1850-53), dies of at 74
1917 Ferdinand von Zeppelin Dutch count/air pioneer, dies at 78
1930 William Howard Taft 27th US President (1909-13)/Chief Justice, dies at 72
1951 The Honeymoon Killers (Martha Beck & Raymond Fernandez) die in electric chair
1967 John F Bothwell actor (Freckles-Our Gang), dies at 46
1971 Harold Lloyd US comic/actor (Why Worry), dies of cancer at 77
1973 Ron "Pigpen" McKernan rocker (Grateful Dead, Grass Roots), dies at 27
1977 Henry Hull actor (Werewolf of London, Boys Town), dies at 86
1985 Thomas Creighton US heart patient (3 implants in 46 hours), dies at 33
1993 Billy Eckstine jazz singer (Fools Rush In), dies at 78 of stroke
1997 Alexander Salkind producer (Superman), dies at 75
1998 James McDougal of whitewater fame dies at 57
1999 Joe DiMaggio, (The Yankee Clipper), died at age 84


[03/27/73 RELEASED BY PRG, DECEASED 11/20/97]

POW / MIA Data & Bios supplied by
the P.O.W. NETWORK. Skidmore, MO. USA.

On this day...
1702 England's Queen Anne ascends throne upon death of King William III
1722 Afghan monarch Mir Mahmud occupies Persia
1746 Cumberland's troops occupy Aberdeen
1801 British drive French forces from Abukir, Egypt
1838 US mint in New Orleans begins operation (producing dimes)
1854 US Commodore Matthew C Perry's 2nd trip to Japan
1855 1st train crosses 1st US railway suspension bridge, Niagara Falls
1861 St Augustine FL surrenders to Union armies
1862 Battle of Elkhorn Tavern ends with Confederate withdrawal

1862 Confederate ironclad "Merrimack" launched
1862 Naval Engagement at Hampton Roads VA: CSS Virginia, Jamestown & Yorktown vs USS Cumberland, Congress & Monitor

1865 Battle of Kingston NC (Wilcox's ridge, Wise's Forks)
1887 Everett Horton, Connecticut, patents fishing rod of telescoping steel tubes
1894 New York passes 1st state dog license law
1896 Volunteers of America forms (New York NY)
1900 National League decides to go with 8 teams They exclude Baltimore, Cleveland, Louisville & Washington (in 1953 Boston Braves move to Milwaukee)
1908 Collingwood Elementary (Cleveland) burns, kills 173 kids & 2 teachers
1910 Baroness Raymonde de Laroche of Paris France becomes 1st licensed female pilot
1911 International Women's Day (1st celebrated)
1913 Internal Revenue Service begins to levy & collect income taxes
1915 1st US navy minelayer, Baltimore, commissioned
1916 US invades Cuba for 3rd time, this to end corrupt Menocal regime
1917 Russian revolution breaks out (in Petrograd/St Petersburg)
1924 Coal mine explosion kills 171 at Castle Gate UT
1927 Pan American Airlines incorporates
1930 Babe Ruth signs 2-year contract for $160,000 with New York Yankee GM Ed Barrow, wrongly predicts "No one will ever be paid more than Ruth"
1930 Mahatma Gandhi starts civil disobedience in India
1934 Edwin Hubble photo shows as many galaxies as Milky Way has stars
1941 1st baseball player drafted into WWII (Hugh Mulcahy, Phillies)
1942 Japanese forces captures Rangoon Burma
1943 Limited gambling legalized in Mexico
1945 Phyllis M Daley is 1st black nurse sworn-in as US Navy ensign
1946 1st helicopter licensed for commercial use (New York NY)
1950 1st woman medical officer assigned to naval vessel (BR Walters)
1950 Marshall Voroshilov of USSR announces they developed atomic bomb
1951 International Table Tennis Federation bans Egypt (for refusing to play Israel)
1957 Israeli troops leave Egypt; Suez Canal re-opened for minor ships
1957 USSR performs atmospheric nuclear test
1958 Silky Sullivan comes from 40 lengths back to win by 3 at Santa Anita
1958 William Faulkner says US schools degenerated to become babysitters
1959 Groucho, Chico & Harpo's final TV appearance together
1959 Pro-Egyptian coup fails in Mosul Iraq
1961 US nuclear submarine Patrick Henry arrives at Scottish naval base of Holy Loch from South Carolina in a record underseas journey of 66 days 22 hours
1963 Syrian Arab Republic Revolution Day: Military coup in Syria

1965 1st US combat forces arrive in South Vietnam (3,500 Marines)

1966 An IRA bomb destroyed Nelson's Column in Dublin
1966 Casey Stengel elected to Hall of Fame
1968 6 year old Tommy Moore scores hole-in-one in golf (Hagerstown MD)
1968 Fillmore East opens
1968 Students demonstrate in Warsaw
1969 Marriage of 12 year old Marcella Rosciglione in Palermo Italy
1971 Joe Frazier beats Muhammad Ali at Madison Square Garden (New York NY)in 15, retains heavyweight boxing title
1971 Milwaukee Bucks win their 20th straight NBA game (team record)
1973 Eisenhower Tunnel, world's highest/US longest, opens
1973 Paul & Linda McCartney are fined £100 for growing cannabis
1976 1,774 kg (largest observed) stony meteorite falls in Jilin, China
1979 1st extraterrestrial volcano discovered (Jupiter's satellite Io)
1983 House Foreign Affairs Committee endorses nuclear weapons freeze with USSR
1983 IBM releases PC DOS version 2.0

1983 President Reagan calls the USSR an "Evil Empire"

1986 4 French TV crew members are abducted in west Beirut Lebanon
1986 Japanese probe Suisei passes Halley's Comet at 109,800 km
1986 Martina Navratilova is 1st tennis player to earn $10 million
1987 FBI apprehends most wanted Claude L Dallas, Jr in California
1990 NYC's Zodiac killer shoots 1st victim, Mario Orosco
1991 17th People's Choice Awards: Julia Roberts, Bill Cosby, Pretty Woman
1994 Defense Department announces smoking ban in workplaces
1995 -26ºF (-32.2ºC) in Bismarck ND
2000 Israel the supreme court rules that the government may no longer allocate land based on religion or ethnicity and may no longer prevent Arab citizens from living where they choose.
2001 A new AIDS vaccine was reported to be successful in monkeys
2002 The Holy Land Foundation filed suit against the US Departments of Justice, Treasury and State for violation of its civil rights and putting it out of business as a suspected conduit for terrorist funds (Boo Hoo Hoo)
2003 FORMER US president and Nobel Peace Prize winner Jimmy Carter condemned preparations for a unilateral US attack on Iraq
2003 An Argentine judge asked Interpol to arrest four Iranian diplomats, accusing them of responsibility in a deadly terrorist attack that destroyed a Jewish community center in Buenos Aires in 1994
2004 China's parliament began discussing a constitutional amendment that would protect private property for the first time since the 1949 communist revolution
2004 Abul Abbas (56), the Palestinian who planned the 1985 hijacking of the Achille Lauro passenger ship in which a wheelchair-bound American tourist was killed and thrown overboard, died of natural causes in Baghdad while in U.S. custody.
2004 Syrian authorities broke up a rare protest by human rights activists demanding political and civil reforms on the 41st anniversary of the ruling party's accession to power

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

China, Cuba, Mauritania, Mongolia, USSR : International Women's Day
Egypt, Libya, Syria : Syrian Revolution Day (1963)
Memphis TN : Cotton Carnival (held for 5 days)
New Mexico : Arbor Day - - - - - (Friday)
US : Aardvark Week (Day 2)
US : Federal Employees Recognition Week (Day 2)
US : Skunks Mating Day
Humorists Are Artists Month

Religious Observances
Roman Catholic : Memorial of St John of God, confessor (optional)

Religious History
1698 The first meeting convened of the British group which later formed the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK).
1711 In this date's edition of "The Spectator," English essayist Joseph Addison wrote: 'To be an atheist requires an infinitely greater measure of faith than to receive all the great truths which atheism would deny.'
1740 Colonial revivalist Gilbert Tennent, 37, preached his famous sermon, "The Danger of An Unconverted Ministry." The message, assaulting opponents of the Great Awakening, contributed to the first schism within the American Presbyterian Church between the Old Side and New Side. (In 1758 the two divisions were reunited.)
1887 Death of Henry Ward Beecher, 73, American clergyman and social reformer. His last words were: 'Going out into life" that is dying.'
1921 The United Evangelical Lutheran Church in Australia was organized at Ebenezer, in South Australia. In 1966 the UELCA united with the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Australia (ELCA) to form the Lutheran Church of Australia (LCA).

Source: William D. Blake. ALMANAC OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1987.

Thought for the day :
"Quit work and play for once."

24 posted on 03/08/2005 7:27:04 AM PST by Valin (DARE to be average!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: alfa6

Hi Alfa6.

It's gonna be a "wear your Treadhead T-shirt to work day" today. It's good to be the boss. :-)

25 posted on 03/08/2005 7:27:38 AM PST by SAMWolf (For people who like peace and quiet: a phoneless cord.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: GailA

Hi GailA.

26 posted on 03/08/2005 7:28:19 AM PST by SAMWolf (For people who like peace and quiet: a phoneless cord.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: The Mayor

Morning Mayor.

27 posted on 03/08/2005 7:29:31 AM PST by SAMWolf (For people who like peace and quiet: a phoneless cord.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 11 | View Replies]

To: Professional Engineer

Morning PE.

Thanks for the story of Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort.

It helps confirm that the Marines are always making the best of the other services "leftovers". ;-)

28 posted on 03/08/2005 7:31:34 AM PST by SAMWolf (For people who like peace and quiet: a phoneless cord.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

To: Professional Engineer

LOL! I wish!!!

29 posted on 03/08/2005 7:32:03 AM PST by SAMWolf (For people who like peace and quiet: a phoneless cord.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 13 | View Replies]

To: Professional Engineer; SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; Colonel_Flagg; radu; alfa6; msdrby; Wneighbor; ...

Good morning everyone.

30 posted on 03/08/2005 7:32:21 AM PST by Soaring Feather
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

To: alfa6

So who was gonna be taking the V-1 for a spin? ;-)

31 posted on 03/08/2005 7:33:27 AM PST by SAMWolf (For people who like peace and quiet: a phoneless cord.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 15 | View Replies]

To: SZonian

Morning SZonian.

I think Kareem's book is goning to help get these men some recognition.

32 posted on 03/08/2005 7:34:53 AM PST by SAMWolf (For people who like peace and quiet: a phoneless cord.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 14 | View Replies]

To: Darksheare

Morning Darksheare. That wasn't one of your gags was it?

33 posted on 03/08/2005 7:35:34 AM PST by SAMWolf (For people who like peace and quiet: a phoneless cord.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 18 | View Replies]

To: Bombardier

Morning Bombardier.

It's a shame, that because of the times, these men didn't get all the recognition they deserved until so much later.

34 posted on 03/08/2005 7:37:16 AM PST by SAMWolf (For people who like peace and quiet: a phoneless cord.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 21 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it

Spring is here too. We have sunny skies and temps in the low 50's.

35 posted on 03/08/2005 7:41:11 AM PST by E.G.C.
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 23 | View Replies]

To: Valin
1983 President Reagan calls the USSR an "Evil Empire"

They're baaaaaaaaack!

36 posted on 03/08/2005 7:42:04 AM PST by SAMWolf (For people who like peace and quiet: a phoneless cord.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 24 | View Replies]

To: bentfeather

Morning Tanker Feather. :-)

If you type "feather tank" into google images guess what's the first hit?

37 posted on 03/08/2005 7:43:49 AM PST by SAMWolf (For people who like peace and quiet: a phoneless cord.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 30 | View Replies]

To: E.G.C.

Let's keep our fingers crossed. I'm ready for Spring and Summer.

38 posted on 03/08/2005 7:44:39 AM PST by SAMWolf (For people who like peace and quiet: a phoneless cord.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 35 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf

Morning Sam. Does this mean I am famous?? LOL

39 posted on 03/08/2005 7:47:47 AM PST by Soaring Feather
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 37 | View Replies]

To: Professional Engineer

Well that is interesting!!!! Was that *your* tracked vehicle up there? :-)

40 posted on 03/08/2005 7:50:06 AM PST by Wneighbor
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 13 | View Replies]

Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first previous 1-2021-4041-6061-80 ... 141-145 next last

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794 is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson