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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers The Battle of Baltimore - 1814 - Mar. 3rd, 2003 ^

Posted on 03/03/2003 5:34:39 AM PST by SAMWolf

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The Battle of Baltimore
"The Star Spangled Banner"

On June 18,1812, the United States declared war on England, then the greatest power on earth, to preserve "Free Trade and Sailors' Rights." The British, while at war with France, had interfered with our trade and had boarded American ships, pressing our sailors into service on their ships.

It was not until 1814, after England had defeated Napoleon, that the British would test a stubborn, determined people in Baltimore. To attack the city successfully, the British first had to seize the key to the city's defense, Fort McHenry. Patriots were ready to risk their fortunes and their lives.

Late summer 1814 was a critical time for the United States during the War of 1812. After two years Canada still remained unconquered. One newspaper called the attempt "an unbroken series of disaster, disgrace, ruin and death." The British blockade was taking effect and trade was critically diminished. To make matters worse, war weariness had set in. Some segments of the country, particularly New England, proposed settling on a separate peace with the British. Not surprisingly, the British were looking for opportunities to inflict a major morale blow to the Americans. Such an outcome would bring a speedy end to the war in England's favor.

Of the many possible targets, Baltimore appeared the most likely. The city had openly proclaimed its hawkish anti-British stance days after war was declared. When the Federal Republican, a Federalist newspaper, criticized America's going to war an angry mob destroyed the building where it was printed and severely beat the editors. Baltimoreans also struck at the British directly. During the war years the city's economy was sustained through privateering. Swiftly sailing schooners seized British merchant ships and transported limited cargoes to foreign ports. Other cities adopted this practice, however Baltimore alone accounted for about thirty percent of all British merchant ships captured by the US during the war. Baltimore earned the nickname "nest of pirates." Although initially successful, the privateers were no substitute for the city's thriving pre-war trade. The blockade resulted in stockpiles of goods along the city's wharves. Shipbuilders avoided bankruptcy by building blockade runners and vessels for the US navy. A large frigate, the USS Java, was nearing completion in the Fell's Point Naval Yard. Potential to strike a decisive morale blow, capture goods, a frigate and settle a score may have influenced the British decision to attack Baltimore.

The city fathers foresaw a possible attack. Preparations were made as early as 1813. A committee of public supply was established to raise funds for various construction projects. Citizens began digging a huge earthen entrenchment along the outskirts of the city facing east. Large gun barges were constructed for harbor defense. The city militia was called out for periodic drill. The regular army assisted also. Col. Joseph G. Swift dispatched Capt. Samuel Babcock to supervise improvements at Fort McHenry. The improvements included: mounting a battery of 32-pound cannon along the water's edge, construction of hot shot furnaces, fortifications at Lazaretto Point, and additional gun batteries along the Patapsco River.

Unfortunately, little was done to protect Washington, D.C. General William Winder was assigned the task to mobilize the defenses. Unfortunately, he had no support from Armstrong, the Secretary of War. Armstrong prohibited Winder from calling out the militia for practice. Winder was also given no administrative staff He spent much of his time traveling from place to place inspecting outposts and discovering that the number of actual defenders was far smaller than the number on paper. The most effective fighting force in the area was the squadron of gunboats of the US Chesapeake Flotilla. The flotilla had harassed enemy ships in the Patuxent River and the British were eager to neutralize this force. It was the British attack on the flotilla that resulted in the overland campaign to seize Washington. By the time the Americans concentrated their force, it was too late. British forces defeated the Americans at the Battle of Bladensburg. Although the US troops were put to route, a stand was made by the US Chesapeake Flotilla and about 100 Marines. Following their Washington victory, the British turned their attention to Baltimore. An outline and map of the Baltimore campaign is included in the packet.

On the morning of September 12, 1814, the British landed over 3,000 troops at North Point. They marched north and west to attack the city. That night, after the Battle of North Point, they reached Hampstead Hill where 10,000 Americans blocked their path. British troops waited for the navy to subdue Fort McHenry and sail into the harbor to shell the city.

At first light on September 13, British ships of war began firing bombs, rockets and cannon balls at Fort McHenry. Above the Star Fort flew our young flag, its 15 bright stars and broad stripes waving proud defiance. The British hoped the Americans would panic, evacuate the fort and leave Baltimore defenseless. For 25 hours, as lightning flashed and rain fell, they bombarded the fort, firing between 1,500 and 1,800 rounds, causing but four deaths and 24 wounded. Major George Armistead and the 1,000 patriot defenders fired back with their cannons when the British ships sailed within range.

Realizing their attack had failed, the British sailed down river to North Point to pick up their retreating soldiers. The Battle of Baltimore was over. In this most dangerous period following the Revolutionary War, patriots faced and defeated a vengeful foreign power on our shores. The War of 1812 has been called our second War of Independence because it forged our national character and demonstrated that Americans would unite not only to win liberty, but to keep it. The courage Francis Scott Key witnessed inspired him to write the words we sing today as our National Anthem. Fort McHenry, home of the "Star-Spangled Banner," still flies the 15-star flag proudly every hour of every day above its ramparts.

KEYWORDS: baltimore; foretmchenry; francisscottkey; freeperfoxhole; starspangledbanner; veterans; warof1812
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The British Attack on Baltimore

On September 12, General Robert Ross and his troops land at North Point and begin the 12-mile trek to Baltimore. At the same time, Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane sails up the Patapsco River to try and reduce Fort McHenry, an important part of Baltimore’s defense. The British soldiers soon encounter a small force of Americans sent out to delay their advance. When Ross rides forward to see what’s happening, a sniper’s bullet kills him.

Colonel Arthur Brooke takes over command of the British troops and meets the enemy forces again at Boulden’s Farm. After a short but intense engagement, the Americans are beaten back. This is a costly victory for the British, who have 46 killed and 300 wounded.

Meanwhile, Cochrane has been busy getting his lighter ships over the Patapsco River shoals. His larger ships simply cannot make it, so he will have to make do with five bomb ships, a rocket ship, four light frigates, and six brigs and sloops of war. Shortly after dawn on September 13, he’s in position to bomb Fort McHenry. He opens fire from two miles away. By 2 pm, thinking that the fort must have been considerably damaged, Cochrane moves closer to the target. His vessels are immediately hit with such intense fire that he has to call them back and resume the long-range attack.

Shortly before midday, Brooke emerges into open country outside of Baltimore and finds himself confronted by the Loudenslager Hill fortifications. To attack, the British will have to cross two miles of open ground and ford a steep-banked creek under enemy fire. After a few probing attacks, Brooke decides he cannot carry off a frontal advance. But he has already formed another plan: Cochrane’s marines will make a night time diversionary attack on “Roger’s Bastion” at the southern end of Loudenslager Hill. While this is taking place, Brooke’s troops will silently form up on the Philadelphia Road opposite the northeast angle of the Loudenslager line. If the marines’ attack is successful, then Brooke’s men will launch a silent bayonet attack on the unsuspecting Americans.

It is a bold plan. Unfortunately for the British, Cochrane’s marines are spotted by the Americans and don’t even get a chance to land. Shortly after 2 am, when Brooke realizes Cochrane has failed, he orders a retreat. The British have lost General Robert Ross and failed to neutralize Fort McHenry. Outnumbered and facing the daunting defenses of the Loudenslager Hill fortifications, the decision to call off the Chesapeake campaign is a prudent one.

This failure to take Baltimore will ultimately have repercussions at the Ghent peace negotiations taking place in Belgium. The British negotiators are counting on military successes to improve their bargaining position. Without these victories the British give up their territorial demands at the talks

1 posted on 03/03/2003 5:34:40 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: MistyCA; AntiJen; Victoria Delsoul; SassyMom; bentfeather; GatorGirl; radu; souris; SpookBrat; ...
The American Defense of Baltimore

It is now obvious that Baltimore will be the next British target. The citizens of Baltimore decide to take defense of their city into their own hands and form a, “Committee of Vigilance and Safety.” This committee decides that every able-bodied man will contribute to the defense effort in one way or another: if they can’t fight they will be put to work wielding shovels. Revolutionary war veteran and militia officer Samuel Smith is invited to command the army. The Baltimore volunteers are soon building a long earthen wall along the top of Loudenslager Hill on the outskirts of town. These defensive works are fortified with artillery and will effectively protect the eastern and northeastern approaches to the city.

Smith guesses the British will choose the quickest and simplest route to Baltimore: a march overland from North Point. Alexander Cochrane, meanwhile, is likely to sail his naval force up the Patapsco River and try to silence Fort McHenry’s batteries. Smith reinforces Fort McHenry and sends out his best troops to delay the land advance. The 3rd Brigade, under Brigadier General John Stricker, takes up position near Bread and Butter Creek, about half way between North Point and Baltimore. On September 12, Robert Ross’s British troops land at North Point as Smith had guessed they would.

Stricker sends a small force ahead to harass the redcoats with a bit of hit-and- run firing. This stalls the British advance long enough that Ross rides forward to see what’s happening. A sniper’s bullet kills him.

Stricker’s detachment delays the advancing British for the best part of the afternoon before retreating to the Baltimore side of Bread and Butter Creek. When the British decide to make camp rather than pursue the withdrawing Americans, Stricker’s force retreats all the way back to Baltimore.

Click on the picture to hear the "Star Spangled Banner"

The following day, the defenders of Baltimore repel several minor British attacks on the city’s defenses. During the night of September 13, people in Baltimore watch the terrible fireworks as the British Navy bombs Fort McHenry.

Unable to bomb Fort McHenry into submission and facing a superior force protected by well-built defenses, the British decide to retreat.

After the humiliating sack of the nation’s capital, the successful defense of Baltimore becomes an important source of pride for the United States.
2 posted on 03/03/2003 5:35:31 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: All
It was at this moment on September 14, 1814, that Francis Scott Key, aboard an American truce vessel several miles from Fort McHenry, saw an inspiring sight: despite the heavy British bombardment, the fort's mammoth American flag still waved, "o'er the ramparts."

"Then, in the hour of deliverance and joyful triumph, my heart spoke: 'Does not such a country and such defenders of their country deserve a song?'" Key later remembered.

Some have argued that the Battle of Baltimore would be remembered only as one of a few American victories during the War of 1812—a mere footnote in history—had it not been for The Star-Spangled Banner.

Key responded to that notion modestly: "Let the praise, then, if any be due, be given, not to me, who only did what I could not help doing, but to the inspirers of the song!"

3 posted on 03/03/2003 5:35:59 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: All
The State of the Union is Strong!
Support the Commander in Chief

Click Here to Send a Message to the opposition!

4 posted on 03/03/2003 5:36:23 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: All

Thanks, Doughty!

5 posted on 03/03/2003 5:36:43 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: All
Good Morning Everybody.

Chow time!
NG's and ER's to the front of the line.
Standing Operating Procedures state:
Click the Pics

Click here to Contribute to FR: Do It Now! ;-) There Candy Sloopy Chewing Gum

6 posted on 03/03/2003 5:37:03 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: SAMWolf
Good morning, SAM.
7 posted on 03/03/2003 5:39:14 AM PST by CholeraJoe
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To: All

8 posted on 03/03/2003 5:39:51 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: CholeraJoe
Morning CholeraJoe.

Thanks for opening the Foxhole this Monday.
9 posted on 03/03/2003 5:40:36 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: CholeraJoe; SAMWolf
Good morning FRiends! Off to school for us. Have a good day everyone. I'll be back later.
10 posted on 03/03/2003 5:42:24 AM PST by SpookBrat
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To: Pippin
Don't miss this thread today. The Battle of Baltimore!! (((hugs))) to a FRiend in "Mary" Land.
11 posted on 03/03/2003 5:43:15 AM PST by SpookBrat
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To: SpookBrat
Hiya Spooky! Off to work for me.
12 posted on 03/03/2003 5:56:58 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: SAMWolf
On This Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on March 03:
1500 Reginald Pole English Cardinal/"heretic"
1549 Henric Spieghel Dutch Renaissance poet (Hertspiegel)
1583 Edward Herbert of Cherbury English military/philosopher
1589 Gisbertus Voetius [Gijsbert Voet], Dutch reformed theologist
1606 Edmund Waller England, poet (Penshust)
1652 Thomas Otway England, dramatist/poet (Venice Preserved)
1705 Michael Schevenstuhl composer
1747 Kasamir Pulaski US General (Revolutionary War)
1756 William Godwin philosopher/political writer (Caleb Williams)
1793 Charles Sealsfield writer (The Making of America)
1809 Sophia Hawthorne writer
1811 Vissarion Belinsky Sveaborg Finland, Russian author (Literary Review)
1814 Charles Kensington Salaman composer
1820 Eduard Douwes Dekker [Multatuli], Dutch writer (Max Havelaar)
1823 Guyla Andrássy Sr premier of Hungary (1867-71)
1828 Karl Collan composer
1831 George M Pullman inventor (railway sleeping car)
1838 George W Hill US astronomer (Moon orbit)
1841 John Murray Canada oceanographer (Depths of the Ocean)
1845 Georg Cantor German mathematician (discovers transfinite numbers)
1846 Desiderio Pietri Italian baker/marathon runner Dorando's father
1847 Alexander Graham Bell Edinburgh Scotland, inventor (telephone)
1849 Jacques Oppenheim Dutch lawyer
1853 Vincent Van Gogh Dutch painter
1857 Alfred Bruneau composer
1865 Alexander Gustav Adolfovich Winkler composer
1867 Gustav Strube composer
1868 Alain [Emile-Auguste Chartier], French philosopher/writer
1869 Henry J Wood English conductor (Gentle Art of Singing, Proms)
1872 Wee Willie Keeler outfielder (Baltimore Orioles); hit .432 in 1897
1873 William Green president of American Federation of Labor (1924-52)
1877 Garrett Morgan African-American inventor
1880 Anne C Veth Dutch cartoonist/art critic
1882 Floris H L Prims Flemish priest/historian/archivist of Antwerp
1886 James Friskin composer
1886 Reginald Owen Morris composer
1889 Fritz Behrend composer
1890 Edmund Lowe San Jose CA, actor (Black Sheep, Front Page Detective,Dillinger )
1890 Norman Bethune Canada, Doctor in Spain & China
1891 Federico Moreno Torroba composer
1891 Jan Donner Dutch minister of Justice/president High Council
1892 Rui Coelho composer
1893 Beatrice Wood potter/artist/author
1893 Bill Nestell California, actor (Dangerous Venture, Buckskin Frontier)
1893 Karel Lotsy Dutch insurance director/Olympics-chief d'équipe
1895 Alexander Nicholas Voormolen Dutch composer
1895 General Matthew Ridgeway US, military leader (WWII/China/Nicaragua/Korea/NATO)
1895 Juanita Hansen Iowa, actress (Fast Company, Broadway Love)
1895 Ragnar Frisch Norway, economist (1st Nobel prize in economy-1969)
1895 Robert Gordon KS, actor (Loveless)
1897 Jose Moreno Gans composer
1899 Alfred M Gruenther US, commanding general (NATO, 1953-56)
1899 Juri Olescha writer
19-- Darnell Williams London, actor (All My Children)
19-- Denise Pence actress (Guiding Light)
19-- Judy Pioli Brooklyn NY, actress (Moose-Star of the Family)
19-- Kevin Steele rocker (Roxx Gang-Things You Never Done Before)
19-- Larry Pine Tucson AZ, actor (Roger-One Life to Live)
19-- Lonnie Vencent rocker (Bulletboys-For the Love of Money)
1900 Edna Best Hove England, actress (Key, Calendar, Escape, Intermezzo)
1902 Ruby Dandridge Memphis TN, actress (Father of the Bride)
1903 Gilbert Adrian [Greenberg], Naugatuck CT, costume designer
1903 Rabbe A Enckell Fins author/poet (Lutad about Brunnen)
1906 Artur Lundkvist Swedish writer/Swedish Academy (Agadir)
1906 Donald Novis Hastings England, actor (Monte Carlo)
1906 Krishnarao Shiva Shelvankar journalist/diplomat
1907 Aar van de Werfhorst [Pieter G Jansen], Dutch writer
1907 Canada Lee New York NY, actor (Lost Boundaries)
1907 Joy Finzi [Joyce A Black], British painter
1908 Riccardo Nielsen composer
1909 Harry Hemsley billionaire New York landlord
1909 Jay Morris Arena inventor/pediatrician
1909 Kenton Kilmer poet/translator
1911 Francesco Siciliani opera composer
1911 Jean Harlow [Harlean Carpentier] Kansas City MO, 30s' sex goddess (Dinner at 8)
1912 Joe Stydahar NFL tackle (Chicago Bears)
1913 Margaret Bonds US pianist/composer/arranger
1913 Roger Caillois French writer (Les Jeux et les Hommes)
1914 Martin Ritt actor/director (Slugger's Wife, End of the Game)
1915 George Brian Snape businessman/rugby league entrepreneur
1917 Bert van Aerschot Flemish writer (Elevator, Women)
1918 Arnold Newman photographer (Faces USA)
1918 Arthur Kornberg US biochemist (Nobel 1959)
1918 Frank Wigglesworth composer
1920 James Doohan Vancouver British Columbia, actor (Montgomery Scott-Star Trek)
1920 Julius Boros golfer (PGA Champion 1968, US Open 1952, 63)
1920 Julius Boros golfer (US Open 1952,63)
1920 Martin Ritt director (The Front, Nuts)
1921 Allen Ginsberg beat generation poet (1969 Arts & Letters Award)
1921 Diana Barrymore New York NY, actress (Nightmare, Lady Courageous, Fired Wife)
1921 Junior Parker Arkansas, blues vocalist/songwriter (Mystery Train)
1922 Kazimierz Serocki composer
1925 Enzo Stuarti Italy, singer (Yesterday)
1925 Richard Vernon Reading Berkshire England, actor (Servant, Gandhi, Hard Days Night)
1926 James Ingram Merrill US poet/author (Scripts for the Pageant)
1927 [Herman] Junior Parker rocker (Driving Wheel, In the Dark)
1927 Charles O Whitley (Representative-Democrat-NC, 1977- )
1927 Frank Singleton librarian
1927 John McLaughlin commentator (McLaughlin Report)
1928 Dave Dudley singer (Six Days on the Road)
1928 Don Gibson singer/writer (I can't Stop Loving You, Oh Lonesome Me)
1928 G Pausewang writer
1928 Joe Conley Buffalo NY, actor (Ike-The Waltons)
1929 Nicos Mamangakis composer
1931 Henk Knol Dutch 2nd chamber member (PvdA)
1931 Piet [van] Bambergen Dutch cabaretier (Mounties, Sherlock Jones)
1932 Mara Corday Santa Monica CA, playmate (October 1958)
1933 Lee Radziwell Ross New York NY, princess (Jackie O's sister)
1933 Marco Antonio Muñiz Mexico, Spanish singer (Murmullos)
1933 Princess Lee Radziwell Ross New York NY (Jackie O's sister)
1934 Gia Scala Italy, actress (Angry Hills, Don't Go Near the Water)
1935 Zhelyu Zhelev president of Bulgaria (1990- )
1936 Jim Clark Formula 1 racer (1963 Champion)
1938 Douglas Leedy composer
1938 Lew De Witt singer (Statler Brothers-Flowers on the Wall)
1938 Willie Chambers guitarist/vocalist (Chambers Brothers)
1939 Hans Pieter Verhagen poet (Hoepla/Holland's Hole)
1939 M L Jaisimha cricketer (Indian batsman of the sixties)
1942 Mike Pender Liverpool, vocalist/guitarist (Searchers-Needles & Pins)
1942 Vladimir Vasilyevich Kovolyonok USSR, cosmonaut (Soyuz 25, 29/31, T-4)
1943 Roger Swaybill actor/writer (Porky's II, Breaking Point)
1944 Janice Garfat rocker (Dr Hook)
1945 Farooq Hamid cricketer (1-107 in Test, Pakistan vs Australia 1964)
1945 Hattie Winston Greenville MS, actress (Nurse, Electric Company)
1946 James C Adamson Warsaw NY, Lieutenant Colonel USA/astronaut (STS 28, STS 43)
1947 Dave Mount Carshalton Surrey England, rocker (Mud)
1948 Byron MacGregor newscaster
1948 Reed Hundt FCC chairman
1949 Bonnie J Dunbar Sunnyside WA, PhD/astronaut (STS 61-A, 32, 50, 71, 89)
1949 James S Voss Cordova AL, Major USA/astronaut (STS 44, 53, 69)
1950 Re Styles rock vocalist (Tubes)
1950 Tim Kazurinsky Johnstown PA, comedian (Saturday Night Live, Police Academy 2, 3, 4)
1951 Sergei Aleksandrovich Yemelyanov Russian cosmonaut
1952 Robyn Hitchcock rocker (Moss Elixir)
1953 Aleksandr Viktorovich Borodin Russia, cosmonaut
1953 Dave Amato rocker (REO Speedwagon-Can't Fight this Feeling)
1954 Keith Carlton Fergus Temple TX, PGA golfer (1995 Honda Classic-8th)
1954 Merrick [Chris Hughes] rock drummer (Adam & The Ants)
1956 Jim Barton Lincoln NE, soling yachter (Olympics-bronze-1996)
1956 John F Reid cricketer (New Zealand batsman of 70's/80's)
1956 Miguel Bosé Panamá, Spanish actor (Lo Mejor del Año)
1958 Bob Bradley Montclair NJ, soccer coach (Olympics-gold-96)
1958 Miranda Richardson Southport England, actress (Damage, Crying Game)
1959 Romeo Zondervan Dutch soccer player (NAC)
1961 Mary Page Keller actress (Duet, Scared Stiff, Baby Talk)
1962 Herschel Walker WFL/NFL running back (New Jersey Generals, Dallas Cowboys)
1962 Jackie Joyner-Kersee East St Louis IL, heptathlete (Olympics-gold-88, 92)
1963 Elizabeth Chavez Santa Monica CA, WPVA volleyballer (US Open-13th-91)
1963 Jacqueline Sheen Dallas TX, playmate (July, 1990)
1963 Kelly Miller Detroit MI, NHL left wing (Washington Capitals)
1964 Arturo Huerta Mexico, Canadian walker (Olympics-96)
1964 Atif Rauf cricketer (Pakistani Test batsman vs New Zealand 1994)
1964 Laura Martinez-Herring Sinaloa Mexico, Miss USA-1985 (Texas)/(Carla-General Hospital)
1964 Lisa Ann Poggi Grand Rapids MI, actress (Jolie-Loving)
1965 A J Sager Columbus OH, pitcher (Detroit Tigers)
1966 Anthony Terrell Smith Los Angeles CA, rocker (Tone Loc-Let's Do It)
1966 Claus Boekweg Dutch soccer player (FC Groningen, FC Zwolle)
1966 Dmitri Volkov Russian swimmer (world record)
1966 Ellen Minzner Lawrence MA, rower (Olympics-96)
1966 Gary Parker WLAF kicker (Scotland Claymores)
1966 Hope Marie Carlton Riverhead NY, playmate (July, 1985)
1966 Noelle Daghe Decatur IL, LPGA golfer (1994 PING-Cellular One-21st)
1966 Tone-Loc [Anthony Terrell Smith], Los Angeles CA, rocker (Let's Do It)
1966 Wendy Fletcher Boston MA, WPVA volleyballer (National-5th-1993)
1967 Alexander Volkov Russia, tennis star
1967 Calvin Williams NFL wide receiver (Philadelphia Eagles)
1967 Elizabeth Cheshire Burbank CA, actress (Jill-Sunshine)
1968 Brian Leetch Corpus Christi TX, NHL defenseman (Team USA, New York Rangers)
1968 Diann Roffe-Steinrotter Warsaw NY, alpine skier (Olympics-gold/silver-92)
1968 Scott Radinsky Simi Valley CA, pitcher (Los Angeles Dodgers)
1969 Ronald Humphrey NFL running back (Indianapolis Colts)
1970 Donovan Bergstrom US 3K steeplechase runner
1970 Inzamam-ul-Haq cricketer (dashing Pakistani batsman)
1970 Kristine Radford Sydney Australia, tennis star (1996 ITF/Lyneham)
1970 Rick Mirer NFL QB (Seattle Seahawks)
1970 Scott Keswick Nevada, gymnast (Coca-Cola-1st-94, Olympics-96)
1970 Shawn Marie Brogan Miss Iowa-USA (1997)
1971 Terryl Ulmer CFL defensive back (Saskatchewan Roughriders)
1972 Christian Oliver actor (Baby Sitters Club, Brian-Saved by the Bell)
1972 Martin Prochazka Slany Czechoslovakia, NHL forward (Toronto, Czechoslovakia Olympics-Gold-98)
1973 Cory Raymer NFL center (Washington Redskins)
1973 James Dexter tackle (Arizona Cardinals)
1973 Jim Mills tackle (San Diego Chargers)
1973 Tisha Venturini Modesto CA, soccer midfielder (Olympics-96)
1973 Victoria Nika Zdrok Kiev Ukraine, playmate (October 1994)
1973 Winslow Oliver running back (Carolina Panthers)
1974 Jared Rushton actor (Big, Honey I Shrank the Kids)
1975 Albert Fields Gary IN, rocker (Party-Rodeo, That's Why)
1975 David Faustino California, actor (I Had 3 Wifes, Bud-Married With Children)
1977 Bas Zuiderent cricketer (Holland all-rounder 1996 World Cup)
1977 Ronan Keating Bayside Dublin Ireland, Irish singer (Boyzone)
1978 Carol Aquino Miss Guatemala-Universe (1997)
1978 Douglas Osmond Provo UT, vocalist (Osmonds 2ndG)

Deaths which occurred on March 03:
0561 Pelagius I Italian Pope (547-51, 556-61), dies
1191 Saladin [Salah ad-Din]) Yusuf sultan of Egypt/Syria, dies at 52
1459 Ausias March Catalan poet, dies
1554 Johan Frederik de Greatmoedige ruler of Saxon (1532-47), dies at 50
1580 Jacob Hillebrand Dutch mayor of Groningen, dies
1635 Philips de l'Espinoy historian/mayor of Ghent, dies
1703 Robert Hooke scientific genius, dies in London
1706 Johann Pachelbel organist/composer (Sterbens-Gedancken), dies at 52
1707 Aurangzeb Emperor of India (1658-1707), dies at 88
1717 Pierre Allix French/British theologist/vicar, dies at about 75
1766 Gregor Joseph Werner composer, dies at 73
1768 Nicola Antonio Porpora composer, dies at 81
1792 Robert Adam Scottish architect (Syon House, Middlesex), dies at 63
1800 Johann Baptist Christoph Toeschi composer, dies at 64
1822 Franz Adam Veichtner composer, dies at 81
1824 Giovanni Battista Viotti Italian violist/composer, dies at 70
1848 Heinrich Olivier German painter, dies
1858 József Bajza Hungarian author/poet/critic, dies at 54
1864 Ulric Dahlgren Union Colonel, dies in battle at 21
1889 Edward Sydney Smith composer, dies at 49
1902 Isaac D France van de Putte Dutch premier (1866), dies at 79
1921 Petrus Cuypers architect (Amsterdam museum), dies at 93
1926 Cyril Metodej Hrazdira composer, dies at 58
1928 Jan [Jean] T Toorop Dutch graphic artist (3 Brides), dies at 69
1932 Eugene Francis Charles D'albert composer, dies at 67
1934 Norman Houstoun O'Neill composer, dies at 58
1935 Neville Knox cricketer (bowled in 2 Tests for England 1907), dies
1938 Arthur Koestler writer, dies at 32
1941 Constant W L Scheurleer archaeologist/banker/art expert, dies at 59
1941 Ernst Cahn owner of Amsterdam Koco ice cream parlor, executed
1942 Amedeo Duke of Aosta, viceroy (Ethiopia), dies at 43
1943 George Thomson cricketer (all-rounder-6 Tests for England 1909-10), dies
1945 Arthur Vanderpoorten Flemish Internal minister (1940), dies at 61
1945 Koos Speenhoff Dutch singer, killed in bombing raid at 75
1948 Antonin Artaud writer, dies at 51
1956 Willem H Keesom Dutch physicist (Helium I/II), dies at 79
1959 Lou Costello comedian (Abbott & Costello), dies at 52
1960 Sammy White actor (711 Ocean Drive, Sound Off), dies at 65
1965 Carlo Gatti composer, dies at 88
1966 Alice Pearce comedienne (Gladys Kravitz-Bewitched), dies at 52
1966 William Frawley actor (Fred Mertz-I Love Lucy), dies at 89
1967 Georges Lonque composer, dies at 66
1974 Barbara Ruick actress (Carousel, Fearless Fagan), dies at 43
1974 Frank Wilcox actor (John-Beverly Hillbillies), dies at 66
1975 László Németh Hungarian physician/author (Galilei/Iszony), dies at 73
1976 Alfred Sendrey composer, dies at 92
1977 Percy Marmont actor (Secret Agent, Lisbon), dies at 93
1982 Georges Perec French writer, dies at 45
1983 Arthur Koestler Hungarian/British writer (Dialogue With Death), dies at 77
1985 Sarah Blanding 1st US fem college head (Vassar 1946-64), dies at 86
1987 Danny Kaye comedian (Danny Kaye Show), dies at 74
1988 Lois Wilson actress (Crash, Deluge, Bright Eyes), dies
1988 Sewall Wright US geneticist (evolution model), dies at 98
1990 Frans Goedhart Dutch journalist/founder (Parool), dies at 86
1990 Gerard Blitz Belgian swimmer/founder (Club Méd), dies at 88
1991 Arthur Murray dance instructor, dies at 95 of pneumonia
1991 Clara Eggink [Ebbele], Dutch poet (Life with J C Bloem), dies at 84
1992 Robert Beatty actor (Odd Man Out), dies at 82
1992 Sandy Dennis actress (Up the Down Staircase), dies of cancer at 54
1992 Ted Liss actor (Child's Play), dies of heart attack at 72
1993 Albert Sabin physician (oral polio vaccine), dies at 86
1993 Carlos Montoya flamenco guitarist, dies at 89
1993 Cyril Collard French composer/director/actor (A Nos Amours), dies at 35
1994 Anita Morris actress (Nine), dies of cancer at 50
1994 Bob Crisp cricketer (9 Tests for South Africa, 20 wickets at 37 35), dies
1994 Karel Kryl folk singer, dies at 49
1995 Gilbert Gadoffre French scholar, dies at 84
1995 Howard Hunter US leader of Mormon Church (1994-95), dies at 87
1995 Howard Yanks founder of the Philadelphia folk festival, dies at 65
1995 Pierre Tisseyre publisher (Circle du livre de France), dies at 85
1995 Shiv Verma soldier, dies at 85
1996 David Bowman trade unionist, dies at 82
1996 John Joseph Krol cardinal, dies at 95
1996 Leo Malet writer, dies at 86
1996 Ludwig Freiherr von Hammerstein-Equord journalist, dies at 76
1996 Lyle Talbot [Henderson], actor (Plan 9 From Outer Space), dies at 76
1996 Marguerite Duras writer, dies at 81
1996 Meyer Schapiro art historian, dies at 91
1997 Stanislav Shatalin Russian economist (500 Days), dies

On this day...
0078 Origin of Saka Era (India)
0468 St Simplicius elected to succeed Catholic Pope Hilarius
0493 Ostrogoten King Theodorik the Great beats Odoaker
0561 Pelagius I ends his reign as Catholic Pope
1409 Austrian civil war ends
1431 Bishop Gabriele Condulmer elected as Pope Eugene IV
1627 Piet Heyn conquerors 22 ships in Bay of Salvador Brazil
1634 1st tavern in Boston opens (Samuel Cole)
1638 Duke Bernard van Saksen-Weimar occupies Rheinfelden
1746 Bonnie Prince Charlie occupies Castle of Inverness
1776 US commodore Esek Hopkins occupies Nassau Bahamas
1791 1st Internal Revenue Act (taxing distilled spirits & carriages)
1791 Congress establishes US Mint
1794 1st performance of Joseph Haydn's 101st Symphony in D
1794 Richard Allen founded AME Church
1801 1st US Jewish Governor, David Emanuel, takes office in Georgia
1803 1st impeachment trial of a federal judge, John Pickering, begins
1805 Louisiana-Missouri Territory forms
1812 US Congress passes 1st foreign aid bill (aids Venezuela earthquake vicitims)
1813 Office of Surgeon General of the US army is established
1815 US declares war on Algiers for taking US prisoners & demanding tribute
1817 Mississippi Territory is divided into Alabama Territory & Mississippi
1820 Missouri Compromise passes, allowing slavery in Missouri
1835 Congress authorizes a US mint at New Orleans LA
1837 Congress increases Supreme Court membership from 7 to 9
1837 US President Andrew Jackson & Congress recognizes Republic of Texas
1838 Rebellion at Pelee Island, Ontario Canada
1842 1st performance of Felix Mendelssohn's 3rd "Scottish" Symphony
1842 1st US child labor law regulating working hours passed (Massachusetts)
1843 Congress appropriates $30,000 "to test the practicability of establishing a system of electro-magnetic telegraphs" by the US
1845 1st US law overriding a Presidential veto (John Tyler's)
1845 Congress authorizes ocean mail contracts for foreign mail delivery
1845 Florida becomes 27th state
1847 Post Office Department authorized to issue postage stamps
1849 Gold Coinage Act authorizes $20 Double Eagle gold coin
1849 Territory of Minnesota is organized
1849 US Department of the Interior established by Congress
1851 Congress authorizes smallest US silver coin (3¢ piece)
1853 Transcontinental railroad survey is authorized by Congress
1853 US Assay Office in New York NY authorized
1855 Congress approves $30,000 to test camels for military use
1855 Registration of letters authorized by Congress
1861 Russian Tsar Alexander II abolishes serfdom
1862 General Pope lays siege in front of New Madrid MO
1863 1st US wartime military conscription bill enacted
1863 Abraham Lincoln approves charter for National Academy of Sciences
1863 Congress authorizes a US mint at Carson City NV
1863 Federal ironclad ships bomb Fort McAllister Georgia
1863 Free city delivery replaces zone postage; 449 letter carriers hired
1863 Gold certificates (currency) authorized by Congress
1863 Idaho Territory forms
1865 Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, & Abandoned Lands established to help destitute free blacks
1869 University of South Carolina opens to all races
1871 Congress changes Indian tribes status from independent to dependent
1871 Congress establishes the civil service system
1873 Congress authorizes federal departmental postage stamps
1873 US Congress & government raise own salary, retroactively
1875 1st recorded hockey game (Montréal)
1875 Congress authorizes 20¢ coin, lasts only 3 years
1875 Georges Bizet's opera "Carmen" premieres (Paris France)
1877 Rutherford B Hayes is sworn in as the 19th President
1878 Bulgaria liberated from Turkey (Peace of San Stefano)
1879 1st female lawyer heard by Supreme Court (Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood)
1879 US geological survey director authorized in Department of the Interior
1882 New York Steam Corp begins distributing steam to Manhattan buildings
1883 Congress authorizes the 1st steel vessels in US navy
1885 1st US state (California) establishes a permanent forest commission
1885 American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T) incorporates
1885 Congress passes Indian Appropriations Act (Indians wards of federal government)
1885 US Post Office offers special delivery for 1st-class mail
1887 American Protective Association forms (anti-Catholic) in Clinton IA
1887 Anne Sullivan begins teaching 6 year old blind-deaf Helen Keller
1891 Congress creates Office of Superintendent of Immigration (Treasury Department)
1891 Congress creates US Courts of Appeal
1892 1st cattle tuberculosis test in US made, Villa Nova PA
1893 Columbian Isabella silver quarter authorized
1893 Congress authorizes 1st federal road agency, in Department of Agriculture
1894 1st Greek-language publication in US begins, "New York Atlantis"
1894 4th & last British government of Gladstone resigns
1899 Congress authorizes Lafayette silver dollar
1899 George Dewey becomes 1st in US with rank of Admiral of the Navy
1900 US Steel Corporation organizes
1901 Congress creates National Bureau of Standards, in Department of Commerce
1903 North Carolina becomes 1st state requiring registration of nurses
1905 US Forest Service forms
1906 Vuia I aircraft built by Romanian Traja Vuia tested in France
1909 Stanley Cup: Ottawa Senators beat Montréal Wanderers, 8-3
1911 1st US federal cemetery with Union & Rebel graves opens, Missouri
1913 Ida B Wells-Barnett demonstrates for female suffrage in Washington DC
1915 National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NASA forerunner) created
1917 Congress passes 1st excess profits tax on corporations
1917 Great monarch Michael resigns after 1 day as czar
1917 Nicholas II, last Russian tsar, abdicates
1918 Richard Göring's "Seeschlacht" premieres in Berlin
1918 Russia withdraws from WWI, signs Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany & Austria
1919 1st international air mail service from US, Seattle WA-Victoria BC
1919 Communist Party in Germany announces a general strike
1920 Montréal Canadiens scores NHL record 16 goals beating Québec Bulldogs
1921 Toronto's Dr Banting & Dr Best announce discovery of insulin
1922 Italian fascists occupy Fiume & Rijeka
1922 WWJ-AM in Detroit MI begins radio transmissions
1923 Time magazine publishes 1st issue
1923 US Senate rejects membership in International Court of Justice, The Hague
1924 German & Turkish friendship/trade treaty signed
1924 Sean O'Casey's "Juno & the Paycock" premieres in Dublin
1926 International Greyhound Racing Association formed (Miami FL)
1931 "Star Spangled Banner" officially becomes US national anthem
1931 Cab Calloway records "Minnie the Moocher" (Jazz's 1st million seller)
1933 German Presidential candidate Earnest Thälmann (KPD) arrested
1933 Mount Rushmore dedicated
1933 New York NY premiere of "King Kong"
1934 John Dillinger breaks out of jail using a wooden pistol
1935 Dutch Revolutionary Socialist Worker's party (RSAP), forms
1936 Grimmett ends his Test career with 13 wickets in 5th Test vs South Africa
1937 Australia snatch series against England 3-2 after being 2-0 down
1938 American Bowling Congress' largest tournament (24,765 competitors)
1940 Artie Shaw records "Frenesi" on RCA Victor label
1941 Netherlands NSB-leader Mussert visits Göring in Berlin
1942 1st combat flight for Canada's Avro Lancaster military plane
1943 Bomb fleeing crowd falls into London shelter; 173 die
1943 F Ryerson & Cohn Claues' "Harriet" premieres in New York NY
1943 US defeats Japan & wins Battle of Bismark Sea
1944 1st performance of corporal Samuel Barber's 2nd Symphony
1945 Churchill visits Montgomery's headquarter
1945 RAF bombing error hits The Hague killing 511
1945 Roermond/Venlo Netherlands, freed
1945 US & Philippine forces recaptures Corregidor
1945 US 7th Army occupies last part of Westwall
1946 US Ladies Figure Skating Championship won by Gretchen Merrill
1946 US Men's Figure Skating Championship won by Richard Button
1950 3 months as National-American Football League takes back NFL name
1951 Bill Mikvy (Temple) scores NCAA basketball record 73 points
1952 Puerto Rico approves their 1st self written constitution
1953 Boston Braves, who own Milwaukee minor league franchise, block St Louis Browns attempt to shift their franchise to Milwaukee
1953 Canadian Comet crashes at Karachi, 11 killed
1955 Elvis Presley makes his 1st TV appearance
1956 Cockie Gastelaars swims world record 100 meter freestyle (1 :4.2)
1956 Indonesian government of Harahap resigns
1956 Manhattan Borough President Hulan Jack makes plans for a new 110,000-seat stadium to entice Giants to stay in New York
1956 Morocco gains independence from France (Anniversary of throne)
1957 Corry Brokken wins Eurovision Song festival with "Just as then"
1957 Mickey Wright wins LPGA Jacksonville Golf Open
1957 World Ice Dance Championship in Colorado Springs won by June Markham & Courtney Jones (Great Britain)
1957 World Ice Pairs Figure Skating Championship in Colorado Springs won by Barbara Wagner & Robert Paul (Canada)
1957 World Ladies Figure Skating Championship in Colorado Springs won by Carol Heiss (USA)
1957 World Men's Figure Skating Championship in Colorado Springs won by David Jenkins (USA)
1958 KTVU TV channel 2 in Oakland-San Francisco CA (IND) 1st broadcast
1958 Nuri ash Said becomes premier of Iraq
1959 1st US probe to enter solar orbit, Pioneer 4, is launched
1959 British government arrests Hastings Banda of Nyasaland, ends emergency crisis
1959 San Francisco Giants rename their stadium Candlestick Park
1960 9th largest snowfall in NYC history (14.5")
1961 King Hassan II's ascends to throne of Morocco
1962 British Antarctic Territory is formed
1963 Senegal adopts constitution
1965 Temptations' "My Girl" reaches #1
1965 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1965 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan/Semipalitinsk USSR
1966 James Goldman's "Lion in Winter" premieres in New York NY
1966 Kwame Nkrumah flees Ghana to Guinée
1966 Rock group Buffalo Springfield forms (Steven Stills, Neil Young, et al)
1966 Twister hits Jackson MS; 3 minutes after 1st sighting, 57 die
1966 WRFT (now WVFT) TV channel 27 in Roanoke VA (IND) begins broadcasting
1967 Grenada gains partial independence from Britain
1967 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1967 White Sox given permission to use semi-DH in training camp with home club permission (use of pinch hitter twice in same game)
1968 "Here's Where I Belong" opens/closes at Billy Rose Theater NYC
1968 Greece, Portugal & Spain's embassies bombed in the Hague
1968 Jean Beliveau (Montréal) becomes 2nd NHLer to score 1,000 points
1969 Apollo 9 launched into 151 Earth orbits (10 days)
1971 South African Broadcasting Corp lifts its ban on the Beatles
1971 Winnie Mandela sentenced to 1 year in jail in South Africa
1972 Sculpted figures of Jefferson Davis, Robert E Lee, & Stonewall Jackson are completed at Stone Mountain GA
1973 "Shelter" closes at John Golden Theater NYC after 31 performances
1973 White Sox Dick Allen signs 3 year contract for record $750,000
1974 "Sextet" opens at Bijou Theater NYC for 9 performances
1974 Despite Billy Harris' hat trick Islanders lose 3-4
1974 George Foreman KOs Ken Norton
1974 Kathy Whitworth wins LPGA Orange Blossom Golf Classic
1974 World's worst air disaster, Turkish DC-10 crashes in Paris France (346 die)
1975 "Goodtime Charley" opens at Palace Theater NYC for 104 performances
1975 Linda McCartney is charged in US with possession of marijuana
1976 Mozambique closes border with Rhodesia
1977 Islanders allow Red Wings only 11 shots on goal
1977 Libyan Socialist Arabs People's Republic forms
1977 World Ice Dance Championship in Tokyo won by Irina Moiseeva & Andrei Minenkov (USSR)
1977 World Ice Pairs Figure Skating Championship in Tokyo won by Irina Rodnina/Alexandr Zaitsev (USSR)
1977 World Ladies Figure Skating Championship in Tokyo won by Linda Fratianne (USA)
1977 World Men's Figure Skating Championship in Tokyo won by Vladimir Kovalev (USSR)
1978 1st day of Test cricket for Desmond Haynes (West Indies vs Australia)
1978 Charles Chaplin's remains are stolen in Switzerland
1980 France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island
1981 Isle's Mike Bossy 9th & final hat trick of season-4 goals
1981 New York Islanders & Edmonton Oilers play to an 8-8 tie
1982 Senate begins debate on expulsion of Senator Harrison Williams (D-NJ)
1984 New York Islanders score their most goals (11) vs Toronto Maple Leafs (6)
1984 Peter Ueberroth is elected baseball commissioner (Effective Oct 1)
1985 "Moonlighting" with Cybill Shepard & Bruce Willis, premieres
1985 "My One & Only" closes at St James Theater NYC after 767 performances
1985 Betsy King wins LPGA Samaritan Turquoise Golf Classic
1985 National Union of Mine Workers in England end a 51 week strike
1985 Willie Shoemaker becomes 1st jockey to win $100 million
1987 Ray Dandridge, 3rd baseman in Negro Leagues, eleected to Hall of Fame
1989 Machinists strike Eastern Airlines; pilots honor picket lines
1989 Robert McFarlane gets $20,000 fine, 2 years probation for Iran-Contra
1990 Carole Gist, 20, (Michigan), 1st black crowned 39th Miss USA
1991 "Big Love" opens at Plymouth Theater NYC for 41 performances
1991 Boon completes 10th Test Cricket century, 109 vs West Indies at Kingston
1991 Iraqi generals & General Schwarzkopf meet to discuss cease fire
1991 Latvia & Estonia vote to become independent of the USSR
1991 Los Angeles Police severly beat Rodney King, captured on amateur video
1991 Merlene Ottey runs world record 200 meter indoor (22.24 seconds)
1991 Miguel Trovoada installed as President of Sao Tomé e Principal
1991 Switzerland votes on lowering voting age from 20 to 18
1991 United Airlines crashes near Colorado Springs, kills 25
1992 Charges are filed in Florida against New York Mets Darryl Boston, Vince Coleman & Dwight Gooden of rape (dropped in April)
1992 Gas explodes in coal mine at Zonguldak Turkey, 100s die
1992 Mike Bossy's #22 is 2nd number retired by New York Islanders
1992 President Bush apologizes for raising taxes after pledging not to
1993 Howard Stern radio show premieres in Boston (WBCN 104.1 FM-evenings)
1994 "Damn Yankees" opens at Marquis Theater NYC for 510 performances
1994 "Philoktetes Variations", with Ron Vawter, premieres in Brussels
1994 IRS investigates Darryl Strawberry
1995 Camilla Parker Bowles & her husband Andrew divorce
1996 26th Easter Seal Telethon
1996 Auckland beat Wellington by 9 wickets to win Shell Trophy Final
1997 Howard Stern Radio Show premieres in Fayetteville NC on WRCQ 103.5 FM
1998 Bill Gates testifies at Senate Judiciary Committee

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Arab : Mohammed's Birthday
Bulgaria : Liberation from Ottoman Rule Day (1878)
Florida : Admission Day (1845)
Grenada : Partial Independence Day (1967)
Hawaii : Japanese Girl's Day
Japan : Hina Matsuri (Doll Festival)
Malawi : Martyrs' Day
Morocco : National Day (1961)
Sudan : Unity Day
World : Day of Prayer

Religious Observances

Religious History
1547 The Seventh Session of the Council of Trent declared: 'If anyone says that one baptized cannot, even if he wishes, lose grace, however much he may sin, unless he is unwilling to believe, let him be anathema.'
1744 Colonial missionary to the American Indians, David Brainerd wrote in his journal: 'In the morning, spent an hour in prayer. Prayer was so sweet an exercise to me that I knew not how to cease, lest I lose the spirit of prayer.'
1931 American linguistic pioneer Frank Laubach wrote in a letter: 'If we only let God have his full chance he will break our hearts with the glory of his revelation. That is the privilege which the preacher can have. It is his business to look into the very face of God until he aches with bliss.'
1950 Trappist monk Thomas Merton wrote in "Sign of Jonas": 'The Christian a continual discovery of Christ in new and unexpected places. And these discoveries are sometimes most profitable when you find him in something you had tended to overlook or even despise.'
1959 By a vote taken in both bodies, the Unitarian Church and the Universalist Church, along with their fellowships __ the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church of America merged into a single denomination.

Thought for the day :
"It is Fortune, not wisdom that rules man`s life."
13 posted on 03/03/2003 5:58:53 AM PST by Valin (Age and deceit beat youth and skill)
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To: SAMWolf
Good Morning Sam!!!!!!
14 posted on 03/03/2003 6:14:07 AM PST by Soaring Feather
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To: SAMWolf
Good morning Sam, ALL. Today's graphic

15 posted on 03/03/2003 6:18:45 AM PST by GailA (THROW AWAY THE KEYS
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To: Valin
1931 "Star Spangled Banner" officially becomes US national anthem

The best National Anthem in the world.

16 posted on 03/03/2003 6:38:16 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: bentfeather
MOrning Feather.
17 posted on 03/03/2003 6:38:32 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: GailA
Morning GailA.

Very appropriate for today.
18 posted on 03/03/2003 6:39:09 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: BADKARMA; waRNmother.armyboots; USMC_tangocharlie; Pern; Don Diego; Warrior Nurse; JAWs; ...
FALL IN to the FReeper Foxhole!

To be removed from this list, please send me a blank private reply with "REMOVE" in the subject line! Thanks! Jen
19 posted on 03/03/2003 6:40:25 AM PST by Jen (The FReeper Foxhole - Can you dig it?)
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To: AntiJen
Morning Jen.
20 posted on 03/03/2003 6:42:04 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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