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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers Captain Ken Pope - Liberation of Kuwait (2/27/91) - May 14th, 2003
ArmyHistoryFnd ^ | Kevin Hymel

Posted on 05/14/2003 5:36:11 AM PDT by SAMWolf

Dear Lord,

There's a young man far from home,
called to serve his nation in time of war;
sent to defend our freedom
on some distant foreign shore.

We pray You keep him safe,
we pray You keep him strong,
we pray You send him safely home ...
for he's been away so long.

There's a young woman far from home,
serving her nation with pride.
Her step is strong, her step is sure,
there is courage in every stride.
We pray You keep her safe,
we pray You keep her strong,
we pray You send her safely home ...
for she's been away too long.

Bless those who await their safe return.
Bless those who mourn the lost.
Bless those who serve this country well,
no matter what the cost.

Author Unknown


FReepers from the The Foxhole
join in prayer for all those serving their country at this time.



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Battle on the Basra Road

When CPT Ken Pope led his troop of M1A1 Abrams tanks and M3A2 Bradley Cavalry Fighting Vehicles over a ridge west of the Basra Road on 27 February 1991, he was surprised to find over a dozen Iraqi tanks, armored personnel carriers, and assorted wheeled vehicles with supporting infantry strung out less than 1,000 meters to his front. But the Iraqis were even more surprised. Pope recalled that several Iraqis “were standing outside their vehicles” and added that “it looked like they had stopped for a quick maintenance halt.” It was the fourth day of the U.S. Army’s ground attack against Iraq, and Pope was about to begin his last battle of the Persian Gulf War.

The war resulted from Saddam Hussein’s sudden invasion of its Arab neighbor Kuwait on 2 August 1990. In response to Saddam’s blatant act of aggression, President George Bush ordered U.S. troops, aircraft, and warships to Saudi Arabia to thwart a possible invasion of that country by Iraqi forces. Five days after the invasion, the first U.S. soldiers, a brigade of the 82nd Airborne Division, flew out of Charleston AFB, SC, bound for Saudi Arabia. In time, the entire XVIII Airborne Corps, consisting of four divisions and other units, would be in Saudi Arabia, ready to defend that nation from attack.

By October, General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, commander of the U.S. Central Command and all Allied forces in Saudi Arabia, had enough troops to maintain a solid defense of Saudi Arabia. Schwarzkopf, however, soon realized that he needed more forces if the Allied coalition decided to drive the Iraqis from Kuwait. By 15 October, Schwarzkopf and his staff began formulating plans for a two corps attack. Less than a month later, President Bush announced the deployment of the U.S. Army’s VII Corps to Saudi Arabia.

By the time Desert Shield became Desert Storm, the U.S. Army had seven divisions, two armored cavalry regiments, and hundreds of other combat and support units in Saudi Arabia. In addition to the Army forces sent to Saudi Arabia, the U.S. Navy deployed six carrier battle groups with several hundred aircraft. The U.S. Air Force sent over 1,000 fighter, bomber, tanker, and transport aircraft. In all, Schwarzkopf commanded fifteen divisions, including the 1st and 2nd Marine Divisions and several Allied coalition divisions.

The powerful VII Corps was comprised of several heavy armor units, including the 1st and 3rd Armored Divisions, 1st Cavalry Division, 1st Infantry Division (the famed “Big Red One”), 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, and the British 1st Armored Division. VII Corps’ objective, once the ground war commenced, was to drive north 100 miles into Iraq and then wheel right and drive east, cutting off the Basra Road, the main route leading north from Kuwait City to Basra, Iraq, and the most likely escape route for fleeing Iraqi armor.

The XVIII Airborne Corps, on the left flank of VII Corps, would also drive north, pivot east farther north of VII Corps, and destroy what was left of the Iraqi ground forces.

As the build up of forces for Desert Shield steadily increased, MG Thomas G. Rhame prepared his 1st Infantry Division for war at Fort Riley, KS. During training, Rhame quickly realized that his cavalry squadrons were understrength and would be unable to effectively deal with Iraqi armored and mechanized forces. As a result, Rhame ordered that more armor be added to his cavalry squadrons. LTC Robert Wilson’s 1/4 Cavalry, of which CPT Pope’s Alpha Troop was a part, received M1A1 tanks while in Kansas and M3A2 Bradleys after the unit arrived in Saudi Arabia. Pope remembered the situation well: “We had formed the troop from scratch at Fort Riley six weeks prior. We were still putting personnel into the vehicles as we began the ground war.”

Alpha Troop was one of four that made up 1/4 Cavalry. Pope commanded two platoons of six Bradleys each and one platoon of two Bradleys and three M1A1s.

The U.S. Army’s doctrine for combat, better known as Air-Land Battle, called for speed and firepower coordinated with artillery and close air support. The weaponry of Pope’s Alpha Troop, along with most of the U.S. Army’s forces in Saudi Arabia, reflected this doctrine.

The M1 Abrams main battle tank and M2/3 Bradley fighting vehicles were the pride of the U.S. armored forces. First introduced to the Army in 1980, the Abrams received numerous upgrades to its weapons, armor, and electronics to ensure its superiority over Soviet armor. The A1 model included a 120mm smoothbore cannon, which replaced the original 105mm main gun, and additional armor added to the front. Another addition to the M1A1 was a new overpressure system that constantly blew air out of hatches and other openings in the tank to prevent contaminants from entering. This overpressure system was considered extremely important for the forces deployed to Saudi Arabia, since they faced an enemy that had employed chemical weapons in its war against Iran and against rebellious Kurds within its own borders. The Abrams had a crew of four: three men, the tank commander, gunner, and loader, in the turret, and one, the driver, in a compartment in the front of the tank.

The M2/3 Bradley was a companion to the Abrams. The M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) was a troop carrying version and was developed to replace the Vietnam War-era M113 APCs, which were considered too slow and too poorly armed and armored to accompany tanks directly into battle. The M3 Cavalry Fighting Vehicle (CFV) used the same chassis as the M2, but was designed as a scout/cavalry vehicle. Both carried a crew of three (commander, driver, gunner), but instead of carrying six dismounts like the M2, the M3 carried two scouts in the rear compartment, whose jobs were, explained Pope, “to dismount the Bradley in any action, check trenches or obstacles, and provide local security for the vehicles.” Both the M2 and M3 were armed with a twin tube TOW missile launcher, 25mm Bushmaster cannon that fired armor piercing and high explosive rounds, and a coaxial 7.62mm machine gun. In addition, the Bradley was also equipped with night vision sights that gave the Bradley a distinct advantage over similar Iraqi vehicles.

It was this mixed force of Bradleys and M1A1s that Pope eventually commanded in training and battle through three countries in the Middle East. On 17 January 1991, as the Allied air forces began their attacks on Iraq and enemy forces entrenched in Kuwait, Pope intensified his troop’s training. When the Allies launched the ground campaign on 24 February, he led his men through the Saddam line, Iraq’s initial defense line comprised of trenches, minefields, and other obstacles.

KEYWORDS: army; desertstorm; freeperfoxhole; kenpope; kuwait; michaeldobbs; veterans; warriorwednesday
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nce they had breached the line, the vehicles of Alpha Troop raced north. For the next three days, Pope’s men advanced rapidly, destroying Iraqi armor, capturing hundreds of prisoners, and crossing various mission phase lines with names such as Dixie, New Jersey, and Milford. On the fourth day of the ground war, MG Rhame radioed the VII Corps commander, LTG Fred Franks, and announced, “We’re facing a broken army. Contact is light.” Franks asked Rhame for his recommendation and Rhame replied, “I’d like to press east to objective Denver and cut the Basra-Kuwait City Highway.” Franks quickly approved Rhame’s request to press the attack. The mission went to CPT Pope and his troop. The units of the Big Red One were so strung out that Pope and his men would not receive artillery preparation, only advanced warning from helicopters scouting from above.

From his Bradley, Pope surveyed the positions of his troops. To his front were the six Bradleys of 1st Platoon. In the center was Pope, followed by the six Bradleys of 2nd Platoon. To the right were two Bradleys and three M1A1s of 3rd Platoon. At approximately 1630, Alpha Troop crested a ridge a spotted Iraqi armor. The lead Iraqi vehicle, a Soviet made BMP IFV, attempted to flee, but a Bradley, commanded by SSG Gerald Broennimann, opened fire and knocked it out of action. “I didn’t have to give the command to fire,” said Pope. The Americans opened up instinctively in an effort to eliminate the Iraqis before they could respond. Within seconds, the air was streaked with tracer rounds as Bradleys and M1s concentrated their fire on the Iraqis.

After the first Iraqi vehicle exploded, Pope’s gunner attempted to engage an Iraqi T-55 tank with a TOW missile. As Pope observed the tank, he caught the flash of a TOW fired by another Bradley in the corner of his commander’s sight. The missile struck the Iraqi tank, destroying it. The Iraqis appeared to have been taken by surprise, and according to Pope, “there were three Iraqis standing on the tank. I think they heard the missile connect because they all turned and looked in our direction.” The entire action was over within forty minutes. Dozens of Iraqi tanks and other vehicles were destroyed. Fiery explosions erupted as the ammunition within the wrecked enemy vehicles cooked off.

The Iraqi defeat was total. Miraculously, Alpha Troop had suffered no casualties. There was, however, little time to enjoy the victory. The original mission called for Alpha Troop to block enemy forces from advancing from the north. Pope’s small force now straddled the Iraqi line of retreat and had to prevent the Iraqis from retreating from the south. Pope immediately redeployed his units. He ordered 3rd Platoon to continue to block any Iraqi threat from the south and established a perimeter around the highway with 1st and 2nd Platoons. He also ordered 1st and 2nd Platoons to each deploy two Bradleys north to protect Alpha Troop from any Iraqis advancing south to support the general retreat. As the unit redeployed, Iraqi prisoners flooded the troop. By 1830, Alpha Troop had collected over 450 prisoners.

Back at the 4th Cavalry headquarters, LTC Wilson realized the danger to Alpha Troop, which was sticking out ahead of the rest of the 1st Infantry Division and virtually isolated from support. In order to reinforce Alpha’s position, Wilson ordered CPT Mike Bills’ Bravo Troop to deploy to the western side of the Basra Road while Alpha force secured the eastern side. Pope received orders to secure the highway and block the Iraqi escape route. Bravo Troop soon arrived, and the two units quickly established a strong defensive perimeter to answer threats from any direction. As darkness fell over the battlefield, Pope continued to inspect and improve the perimeter. He ordered his men not to go walking around outside it, and to be careful when moving within it. According to Pope, “everything to the sides, and for that matter inside the perimeter, had mines, cluster submunitions, or any kind of unexploded ordnance.” Pope knew what these hidden dangers could do.

During the course of the ground war, almost all of his tanks and Bradleys had hit mines and other unexploded ordnance. On one occasion, a tank even picked up an antitank mine and rolled it over its rear sprocket, where it exploded.

Throughout the night, as the sounds of war rumbled over the desert landscape, the two troops continued watch to collect prisoners. The lull in the fighting allowed Pope the time to assess the strengths and weaknesses of his Iraqi foes. He had clashed with Soviet-supplied T-55 and T-72 tanks in a couple of engagements, and to him “the vehicles looked impressive, but did not match up to our equipment in any way.” His professional assessment of the crews was even worse. With proper training, he thought the Iraqis could have done much better. But matched against well-trained and better equipped Americans, “they never really had a chance.”

At 0400 the next morning, Pope completed his rounds and went to his troop command post to try to catch an hour of sleep. Instead of sleep, he received some surprising news. Pope’s executive officer announced that a cease-fire was to go into effect at 0800. Pope felt more relieved than victorious. None of his men had been killed or wounded, and they had shown professionalism equal to the most difficult situations they had faced. “That was my greatest reward,” Pope conceded. He immediately got on the troop radio net and announced the good news. He then told his men how proud he was of them and how much he appreciated their efforts. The war, as it turned out, was not quite over yet.

The cease-fire was in effect, but LTC Wilson, the 1/4 Cavalry commander, received orders to secure Safwan Airfield. GEN Schwarzkopf had decided to hold a formal cease-fire ceremony with the Iraqi generals. Schwarzkopf chose Safwan because he wanted a spot deep in Iraq so there would be no question as to who were the victors and who were the vanquished. There was only one problem: Safwan was still held by the Iraqis. Because of a miscommunication, GEN Schwarzkopf assumed that the airfield had been taken by American forces. As result, the 1st Infantry Division scrambled to secure Safwan with orders to avoid casualties.

All troops of the squadron were were alerted to move out at 0615 and head north. Above them, OH-58 Kiowa Warrior scout and AH-1 Cobra attack helicopters acted as guides. The lead units of the 1/4 Cavalry reached the airfield about an hour later. They were surprised when what they saw on maps as an uncompleted highway turned out to be the Safwan airfield. At first, the area seemed to be deserted, but overhead, helicopter crews reported the dug in tanks of an entire Iraqi brigade. Pope received the order not to fire unless fired upon and to continue forward. Without firing a shot, Alpha Troop occupied the airfield under the guns of the defending Iraqis. The enemy forces Pope found turned out to be a group of demoralized, starving, and ragged Iraqis. The Americans broke out their Meals Ready to Eat (MREs) and shared them with the Iraqi defenders. Soon after they started eating, an Iraqi colonel marched up, furious that his men accepted American food and demanding that the Americans depart. Pope informed him that it was the Iraqis who would have to leave the area. He exchanged maps with the colonel and the Iraqi retreated back to his own lines to inform his superiors.

All around the perimeter, the same type of exchange was going on with different troops and LTC Wilson himself. After a short period of time the Iraqi colonel returned to Pope’s position and told him the Iraqis were not going to leave. As the tension increased, a flight of AH-64 Apache attack helicopters flew over. Pope reiterated the order, shouting over the thumping of the copters’ blades that the Americans would attack if the Iraqis did not move. The Iraqi colonel went back to tell his superiors. The negotiations were not moving fast enough for MG Rhame. He ordered his 2nd Brigade, under COL Tony Moreno, to Safwan. Once there, Moreno conferred with two Iraqi generals and a civilian official. He was waiting for an Iraqi answer when Rhame radioed him with orders that were direct and to the point. He told Moreno, “Tell the Iraqis to move or die.” When Moreno met the Iraqis for a second time, he cut off their reading of a prepared statement. Spitting a wad of blood at their feet (he had recently cut his lip) he said, “If you don’t leave by 1600 hours, we will kill you.” That ended the negotiations. The Iraqis pulled out.

Within hours, CH-47 Chinook helicopters began ferrying in tents and tables. GEN Schwarzkopf arrived soon after to sign the official Iraqi surrender.

CPT Pope had survived four days of one of the shortest but most intense and lopsided wars of the twentieth century. He had helped the U.S. Army win the war by successfully performing a vital mission that cut off the enemy deep in its own territory. When that was completed, he and his men assisted with the bloodless capture of Safwan for the armistice negotiations. He had also achieved something rare to any soldier in war: he led his men into combat and brought them all home alive.

1 posted on 05/14/2003 5:36:11 AM PDT by SAMWolf
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To: AntiJen; snippy_about_it; Victoria Delsoul; SassyMom; bentfeather; MistyCA; GatorGirl; radu; ...

The air phase of Desert Storm began on January 16. and continued until the cessation of hostilities. The allies shot down 42 Iraqi planes in aerial combat and damaged or destroyed 375 of Iraq's 594 hardened aircraft shelters. Total estimated Iraqi aircraft destruction ranges from 103 to 142 aircraft. Additionally, Iraq flew 122 aircraft to Iran for internment. Total Iraqi aircraft rendered combat ineffective during the air phase was 266 of their estimated 750 plane air force (approximately 35%). Allied losses were 90 planes (68 in combat, 22 to other causes). On 0100 24 February, the French Daguet Division, with the 2nd Brigade of the 82nd Airborne Division attached, crossed the undefended Iraqi border north of the Saudi town of Rafha. This action marked the beginning of the ground phase of Desert Storm. In most cases the Allies rapidly broke through the Saddam line. Breaching operations went sowell that General Schwarzkopf moved H-Hour forward for the other coalition forces. All the good guys had launched theirattacks by the afternoon of the 24th.

February 25. On the western flank, the 101st Air assault division airlifted a brigade to cut the last major road into the Kuwaiti theater of operations (the As Samawah-An Nasiriyah road). While the French Dauget division continued to advance north, covering the allies left flank. Due to the speed of the Allied advance Iraqi forces were unable to maneuver. The 45th and 49th Iraqi Divisions were heavily engaged by the French (Al Salam scenario) and elements of the American 24th Mechanized Division. In the center, the coalition VII Corps advanced into, and through, the Iraqi 7th Corps. The Iraqi 12th Tank Division, functioning as a mobile reserve behind the 7th Corps infantry screen was defeated in a night engagement with the British 1st Armored Division (Rats scenario) which had passed through the breach previously created by the U.S. 1st Infantry Division.

The 1st Cavalry Division, ordered to conduct a diversionary attack up the Wadi Al-Batin, appeared to be having a significant impact on the Iraqi's reaction. J-Stars surveillance indicated the Iraqi's were beginning to move their armored reserves south. The Iraqi's seemed to have no knowledge of the strong armored formations advancing up their right flank.

In the east all coalition forces completed their breaching of the Saddam line. The Marines had encountered virtually no resistance from the first line of Iraqi defenders on G-Day. The Iraqi's threw battalion and brigade sized armored formations in their path. The Iraqis were probably the divisional tank battalions of the III Corps Infantry divisions with tank brigades of the corps tank and mechanized divisions thrown in piecemeal. Marine units closed to within ten miles of Kuwait City. February 26. Saddam Hussein announced his forces were withdrawing from Kuwait. Whether the statement was issued as a ploy to attempt to get the allies to ease up or an actual execute command for the Iraq military's retreat is unclear. In the west, the French overcame the last resistance from the 45th Infantry Division and continued to screen the coalition's left flank. The 24 Mechanized Division, attached to the XVIII Airborne Corps, advanced north to An Nasiriyah, destroying the remnants of the Iraqi 49th Infantry Division.

In the center, the armored spearhead of the coalition'sVII corps encountered it's first serious opposition. The U. S. 1st Armored Division would destroy the Iraqi 26thInfantry Division, while the U.S. 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment (ACR) became heavily engaged with the Republican Guard Tawakalna Mechanized Division, and two brigades of the Iraqi 12th Armored Division which were attempting to withdraw to the north. The 2nd ACR fought off numerous uncoordinated Iraqi attacks for nearly six hours until relieved by the 1st Armored, 3rd Armored and 1st Infantry Division.

Further south the British 1st Armored division engaged numerous Iraqi units attempting to retreat from the border. In the east, the 1st Marine Division fought a victorious pitched tank battle against the Iraqi 3rd Armored Division for Kuwaiti International Airport and entered the outskirts of Kuwait City. The 2nd Marine Division cut the road north of Kuwait City, and with the help of Tacair, destroyed over 2000 Iraqi vehicles.

By now, Baghdad was aware of the approximate position of VII Corps. The Republican Guard maneuvered to prevent the complete encirclement of the units remaining in Kuwait. Designated units, such as remnants of the 3rd Armored Division, were functioning as the Iraqi's rear guard. February 27th. The Iraqi's had fled Kuwait City, there would be no significant fighting as the Kuwaitis liberated their capital. In the center the climatic battle of the war occurred as elements of the U.S. VII Corps engaged and decisively defeated the remaining Iraqi Tank reserves (Madinah scenario). The Iraqi reserves consisted of the Republican Guard Madinah, Hammurabi Armored Divisions, remnants of the Tawakalna, and Adan Infantry Divisions supported by elements of the regular armies 52nd, 17th, and 12th Armored Divisions(the 12th had a long war). These reserves were tasked with blocking the final withdraw route out of Kuwait and despite losing the battle, did, in fact, enable the several Iraqi mechanized units to escape Kuwait.

At 0800 on 28 February, with the U.S. VII Armored and XVIII Airborne Corps posed to crush the remaining Iraqi forces, the cease fire went into effect.

Additional Sources:

2 posted on 05/14/2003 5:37:13 AM PDT by SAMWolf ((A)bort (R)etry (S)acrifice to random Goddess????)
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To: All
'First, we’re going to cut it off, and then we’re going to kill it.'

-- General Colin Powell
referring to the Iraqi Army in Kuwait.

3 posted on 05/14/2003 5:37:32 AM PDT by SAMWolf ((A)bort (R)etry (S)acrifice to random Goddess????)
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To: All
The State of the Union is Strong!
Support the Commander in Chief

Click Here to Send a Message to the opposition!

4 posted on 05/14/2003 5:38:08 AM PDT by SAMWolf ((A)bort (R)etry (S)acrifice to random Goddess????)
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To: All

5 posted on 05/14/2003 5:38:39 AM PDT by SAMWolf ((A)bort (R)etry (S)acrifice to random Goddess????)
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To: All

Capt. Jim Landsberger, right, and his wife, Patty, kiss following Landsberger's arrival Tuesday, May 13, 2003, at Ellsworth Air Force Base, S.D. Landsberger was one of 24 crew members with the 28th Bomb Wing who returned with six B-1 bombers Tuesday. (AP Photo/Doug Dreyer)

6 posted on 05/14/2003 5:51:49 AM PDT by SAMWolf ((A)bort (R)etry (S)acrifice to random Goddess????)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; HiJinx; AntiJen; *all
Good morning Sam, everyone. Have a wonderful day.
7 posted on 05/14/2003 5:58:08 AM PDT by Soaring Feather
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To: SAMWolf
*Tell the Iraqis to move or die*. OOH-RAH! LOL.

I really enjoyed reading this today Sam, thanks.
8 posted on 05/14/2003 6:08:23 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Pray for our Troops)
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To: SAMWolf
On this Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on May 14:
1316 Charles IV king of Bohemia (1346-78)/emperor (1355-78)
1652 Johann Philipp Fortsch composer
1679 Peder [Nielsen] Horrebow Danish astronomer
1686 Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit Germany, inventor (thermometer)
1707 Antonio Teixeira composer
1710 Adolf Frederik king of Sweden (1751-70)
1727 Thomas Gainsborough England, baptized, artist (The Blue Boy)
1771 Robert Owen England, factory owner/socialist
1780 Auguste De Polignac premier France (Réponse à mes adversaires)
1781 Friedrich von Raumer German historian/parliamentarian
1798 Frantisek Palacky Czechoslovakia, historian
1805 Johann Peter Emilius Hartmann composer
1816 Gualtiero Sanelli composer
1830 George Pierce Doles Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1864
1836 James Patrick Major Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1877
1846 Arnold Kerdijk Dutch liberal politician/founder (Social Weekly newspaper)
1846 Pieter W A Cort van de Linden Dutch premier (1913-18)
1864 Eleanor Everest Freer composer
1867 Kurt Eisner German premier of revolutionary Bavaria (1918-19)
1870 Zygmunt Denis Antoni Stojowski composer
1881 Ed Walsh pitcher, whose lifetime ERA of 1.82 is the lowest ever
1881 Julian Eltinge [William Dalton] Newtonville MA, vaudeville star/greatest female impersonator
1883 Jan Olieslagers Belgian aviation pioneer (Antwerp Devil)
1885 Otto Klemperer Breslau Germany, conductor/composer (Das Ziel)
1888 Miles Mander Wolverhampton England, actor (Tower of London)
1891 Egon Kornauth composer
1892 Arthur Vincent Lourie composer
1892 Felix Petyrek composer
1893 Ivan Alexandrovich Vishnegradsky composer
1895 Lew Lehr Philadelphia PA, comedian (Stop Me if I heard this One)
1895 Renato Lunelli composer
1897 Sidney Bechet US, jazz clarinetist/saxophonist/band leader
1898 Bonifacio Gil Garcia composer
1898 Zutty Singleton US jazz drummer
19-- Eric Peterson rocker (Testament-Souls of Black)
1900 Billie Dove [Lilian Bohny] New York NY, actress (Black Pirate, Stolen Bride)
1900 Leo Smit composer
1906 Hastings Kamuzu Banda President of Malawi (1964-94)
1906 James Flavin Portland ME, actor (Man With a Camera)
1907 Dick Bentley entertainer
1907 Mohammed Ayub Khan general/premier/President (Pakistan)
1909 Vladimir Alatortsev USSR, International Chess Master (1950)
1911 Hans Vogt composer
1911 J Borremans Belgian politician (communist)/MP
1912 Marguerite Fawdry museum curator
1915 Harry Joseph Chick Daugherty trombonist (Spike Jones & City Slickers)
1917 Herta Ryder literary agent
1917 Lou Harrison Portland OR, composer (Rapunzel)
1918 Arthur McIntyre cricket wicket-keeper (England 3 times early 50's)
1919 Heloise columnist (Heloise & her helpful hints)
1919 Maarten Vrolijk Dutch socialist-democrat party minister (CRM 1965-66)
1922 Agha Hasan Abedi banker
1922 Richard Deacon actor (Mel Cooley-Dick Van Dyke Show)
1923 Diane Arbus [Nemerov] New York NY, photographer (Vogue/Harper's Bazaar, Nudists)
1924 Joly Braga Santos composer
1925 Patrice Munsel Spokane WA, soprano (Patrice Munsel Show)
1925 Tristram Ogilvie Cary composer
1926 Cestmir Gregor composer
1926 Eric Morecambe London, comedian (Morecambe & Wise, Picadilly Palace)
1927 Shirley Spork LPGA golfer
1929 Vladimir Antoshin USSR, International Chess Grandmaster (1964)
1930 Edward V "Ned" Regan Planfield NJ, (Controller-R-NY, 1978- )
1930 Phillipo Seed social work academic
1931 Alvin Augustus Lucier Jr composer
1933 John Mortimore cricketer (England off-spinner 1959-64)
1933 Lajos Kovacs Hungary, actor (Wings of Desire)
1934 Frederik von Pallandt singer
1936 Bobby Darin [Walden Waldo Cassotto] Bronx NY, singer (Mack the Knife)
1937 Dick Howser shortstop (Kansas City A's), manager (Kansas City Royals)
1937 Eric Herfst Dutch cabaret performer/actor (Floris)
1937 Peter Frederic Williams composer
1939 M N Fathulin cosmonaut
1940 Chay Blyth English sailor (Alone in Order to the World)
1941 Nasim-ul-Ghani cricketer (Pakistan left-handed all-rounder 1958-73)
1942 Byron L Dorgan (Representative-D-ND, 1981- )
1942 Gerald Mark Shapiro composer
1942 Lord McAlpine English contractor/multi-millionaire
1942 Tony Perez baseball player
1943 Alan B Mollohan (Representative-D-WV, 1983- )
1943 Dereck "Lek" Leckenby Leeds England, guitarist (Herman's Hermits-There's a Kind of Hush, Mrs. Brown You've Got a Lovely Daughter)
1943 Elizabeth Ray Marshall NC, congressman Wilbur Mills' lover
1943 Jack Bruce Lanarkshire Scotland, bassist (Cream-White Room)
1944 Francesca Annis London England, actress (Madame Bovary, Dune, Cleopatra, Flipper's New Adventures)
1944 Gene Cornish Ottawa, rock bassist/vocalist (Fotomaker, Rascals)
1944 George Lucas Modesto CA, director (Star Wars, Indiana Jones)
1944 Troy Shondell rocker (Many Sides of Troy Shondell)
1946 Alan David Marks pianist/composer
1946 Robert Jarvik surgeon/inventor (Jarvik 7 artificial heart)
1947 Al Ciner Chicago IL, rock guitarist (American Breed)
1947 Dick "Dirt" Tidrow baseball pitcher (New York Yankees)
1947 Karin Struck writer
1947 Tamara Dobson Baltimore MD, actress (Amazons, Cleopatra Jones)
1948 Bob Woolmer cricketer (England batsman mid-70's)
1948 Dave LaRoche baseball pitcher (New York Yankees)
1948 Robert Zemeckis director (Forrest Gump, Back to the Future)
1948 Walter Olkewicz Bayonne NJ, actor (Last Resort, Wizards & Warriors)
1950 Mark Blum Newark NJ, actor (Worth Winning, Blind Date, Presidio)
1951 Jay Beckenstein saxophonist (Spyro Gyra-Morning Dance)
1951 Season (Susan) Hubley New York NY, actress (PrettyKill, Vice Squad, Hardcore)
1952 David Byrne Dunbartin Scotand, rock guitarist/singer (Talking Heads-Psycho Killer)
1952 Donald R McMonagle Flint MI, Major USAF/astronaut (STS 39, 54, 66)
1952 M J Smith LPGA golfer
1953 Bill Meek Upland PA, prone rifle (Olympics-1996)
1953 Tom Cochrane Toronto Canada, rock vocalist/guitarist (Red Rider)
1955 [Jose] Dennis Martinez Nicaragua, pitcher (Orioles, Expos, Indians)
1955 Peter Kirsten cricketer (South African middle-order batsman)
1956 Gillian [Marucha] Bradshaw US, sci-fi author (Hawk of May)
1956 Steve Hogarth Kendal England, vocals (Marillion-Clutching at Straws)
1957 William G Gregory Lockport NY, Major USAF/Astronaut (STS 67)
1959 Connie Brighton Wichita Falls TX, playmate (Sept, 1982)
1959 Mike Quick NFL wide receiver (Philadelphia Eagles)
1959 Patrick Bruel Algerian/French actor/rock vocalist (Coup of Sirocco)
1960 Carlyle Best cricketer (West Indies batsman late 80's)
1960 Frank Nobilo Auckland New Zealand, Australasia golfer
1961 Tim Roth London England, actor (Reservoir Dogs, Vincent & Theo)
1962 C C Deville rocker (Poison-Talk Dirty to Me)
1962 Ian Astbury Heswall Merseyside England, rock vocalist (Cult-Fire Woman)
1962 Martin Rongen Dutch pop drummer (Rowwen Hèze-Boem)
1963 Pat Borders Columbus OH, catcher (California Angels)
1964 James M Kelly Burlington IA, Captain USAF/astronaut
1964 Nancy Sorel actress (Generations, Black Foix)
1965 Curt Harnett Toronto Ontario, sprint cyclist (Olympics-bronze-92/96)
1965 Dave Widell NFL center/guard (Jacksonville Jaguars)
1965 Joey Cora Caguas Puerto Rico, infielder (Seattle Mariners)
1965 Kelvin Martin NFL wide receiver (Philadelphia Eagles)
1966 Fab[rice] Marvan France, Lip Syncher (Milli Vanilli)
1966 Leroy Blugh CFL defensive end (Edmonton Eskimos)
1966 Mark Jackson NBA guard (Indiana Pacers)
1966 Pooh Richardson NBA guard (Los Angeles Clippers)
1967 Natasha Elaine Kaiser-Brown Des Moines IA, 400 meter runner
1967 Shaun Creighton Australian distance runner (Olympics-96)
1967 Tony Siragusa NFL defensive tackle (Indianapolis Colts, Baltimore Ravens)
1967 Valeria Marini Rome Italy, sports commentator (Italian Soccer)
1968 Hiroshi Matsuura hockey forward (Team Japan 1998)
1969 David William Wood Boston MA, rocker (New Kids-Lovin' You Forever)
1970 Natasha Ryan Los Angeles CA, actress (Amy-Ladies' Man)
1970 Sylvester Stanley WLAF defensive tackle (Rhein Fire)
1971 Raphael Wiggins Oakland CA, rapper (Lifelines)
1972 Chad Cascadden NFL linebacker (New York Jets)
1973 John Davis WLAF tight end (Amsterdam Admirals, Tampa Bay Buccaneers)
1973 Shanice [Wilson] Pittsburgh PA, vocalist (Discovery, Loving You)
1973 Voshon Lenard NBA guard (Miami Heat)
1974 Ken Belanger Sault-Ste-Marie CA, NHL left wing (New York Islanders)
1974 Keram Malichi-Sanchez actor (No Contest, Catwalk, Boulevard)
1975 Carmen Klomp Australian rower (Olympics-96)
1976 Terrance Cauthen Trenton NJ, lightweight boxer (Olympics-bronze-96)
1977 Anca Barna Cluj Romania, tennis star (semifinals 1995 ITF Poland)
1977 Cesarina Mejia Miss Dominican Republic Universe (1997)
1977 Jayna Hefford ice hockey forward (Canada, Olympics-98)
1978 Heather Brink Lincoln NE, gymnast (Olympics-96)
1983 Amber Tamblyn Santa Monica CA, actress (Emily Bowen-General Hospital)

Deaths which occurred on May 14:
0347 Pachomius Egyptian monastery founder/abbot (Coenobieten), dies
0649 Theodore Greek Pope (642-49) (excommunicated by Paul II), dies
0964 John XII [Octavianus] Pope (955-64), dies
1565 Nicolaus von Amsdorf German reform theologist, dies
1610 Henry IV 1st Bourbon-king of France (1572, 89-1610), murdered at 56
1643 Louis XIII king of France (1610-43), dies at 41
1667 Georges de Scudéry French writer (Alaric ou Rome Vaincue), dies at 65
1726 John B Wellekens poet/painter (Wedding Guests), dies
1726 Moshe Darshan Rabbi/author (Torat Ahsam), dies
1742 Dominique Marie Valet French Roman Catholic/old-catholic bishop, dies at 64
1761 Thomas Simpson English mathematician (rule of Simpson), dies at 50
1801 Johann Ernst Altenburg composer, dies at 66
1820 Paul Friedrich Struck composer, dies at 43
1832 John van Speijk Dutch heroic sailor, buried
1833 Johann Wilhelm Cornelius von Konigslow composer, dies at 88
1847 Fanny Cacilia Mendelssohn Hensel composer, dies at 41
1863 Emile Racine Gauthier Prudent composer, dies at 46
1864 William N Green Jr Union Brigadier-General, dies
1870 Ramon Vilanova y Barrera composer, dies at 69
1877 John Roberts composer, dies at 54
1893 Earnest E Kummer German mathematician (surface of Kummer), dies at 83
1893 Johan T Buys Dutch lawyer, dies at 65
1904 Richard Hol Dutch composer/organist/conductor, dies at 78
1912 August Strindberg Swedish writer (Deaddans), dies at 63
1912 Frederik VIII King of Denmark (1906-12), dies at 68
1925 Henry Rider Haggard English writer (Dawn, She), dies
1936 Edmond Allenby English fieldmarshal in Egypt, dies at 74
1936 Samuel Pl'h Naber spy/librarian, dies at 71
1938 Jacobus C J "Jacques" Hermans actor (Ghetto), dies at 81
1940 Eddy [Charles E] du Platform writer/poet, dies
1940 Emma Goldman US anarchists/feminist/author (Living My Life), dies
1940 Jacob van Gelderen economist/sociologist/SDAP-2nd-Chamber, dies at 49
1940 Menno ter Braak Dutch writer (Forum, New Elite), suicide at 38
1947 John Ray Sinnock US chief engraver (1925-47), dies at 59
1953 Yasuo Kuniyoshi Japans/US painter/etcher, dies at 59
1955 Betty Ann Davies dies at 44
1959 Sidney Bechet US jazz clarinetist/saxophonist/bandleader, dies at 62
1965 Frances Perkins US 1st female minister of Labor (1933-45), dies at 83
1966 Georgia Camp Johnson US poet/playwright, dies at 88
1966 Megan Lloyd George English politician, dies at 64
1968 Husband Edward Kimmel commandant US Ocean fleet WWII, dies at 86
1969 Enid Bennett silent film actress (Skippy, Hairpins), dies at 75
1970 Billie Burke comedienne (Glinda-Wizard of Oz), dies at 84
1976 Keith Relf rock vocalist (Yardbirds), electrocuted while tuning his guitarat 33
1978 William Powell Lear inventor of Lear Jet, dies in Reno NV
1979 Paul van 't Veeer Dutch journalist/writer (Vrije Volk), dies at 57
1980 Hugh Griffith actor (Passover Plot, Ben Hur, Tom Jones), dies at 67
1980 Wilhelm Weismann composer, dies at 79
1982 Baron Mariel-Henri Jaspar Belgian minister/ambassador, dies
1982 Hugh Beaumont actor (Ward-Leave it to Beaver), dies at 73
1983 Miguel Aleman Valdes attorney/President of México (1946-52), dies at 80
1984 Larry Stock songwriter (Blueberry Hill), dies
1985 Mohammed Munir Indonesian worker's union leader, executed
1985 Selma Diamond comedienne (Selma-Night Court), dies at 64
1987 Rita Hayworth actress (Gilda), dies of Alzheimer's disease at 68
1988 Willem Drees PM of Netherlands (1948-58), dies at 101
1990 Andre Ameller composer, dies at 78
1991 Ast Fonteyne Flemish lecture artist, dies
1991 Herman Niels Flemish radio director, dies
1991 Jiang Qing widow of Chinese leader Mao Tse Tung, commits suicide
1991 John Edward Craven dies
1991 Shintaro Abe minister of Exterior of Japan (1982-86), dies
1992 Lyle Alzado NFL defense linesman (Raiders), dies of cancer at 43
1993 Patrick Haemers Belgian criminal, commits suicide at 40
1993 William Randolph Hearst US newspaper magnate (Pulitzer), dies at 85
1994 Leonard Teale Australian actor/reciter (Homicide), dies
1995 Maezumi Hakuyu Taizan Koun teacher (Zen Buddhism), dies at 64
1996 Edqard John Gurney politician, dies at 82
1996 Qazaleh Alizadeh writer, dies at 48
1996 Sritharan Jeganathan cricketer, 1st Sri Lankan Test player to die
1996 Vera Chapman writer, dies at 98
1997 Harry Blackstone Jr magician, dies of cancer at 62
1997 Laurie Lee writer, dies at 42
1997 Princess Caradja-Kretzulesco descendant of Dracula, dies at 76
1997 Thelma Carpenter singer, dies at 76
1998 Frank [Francis Albert] Sinatra singer/actor, dies from heart & kidney disease, bladder cancer, senility at 82








POW / MIA Data & Bios supplied by
the P.O.W. NETWORK. Skidmore, MO. USA.

On this day...
0649 Theodore I ends his reign as Catholic Pope
1004 Henry II the Saint crowned as king of Italy
1027 Robert II, the Vrome, names son Henry I, king of France
1264 Baron's War fought in England
1264 Battle at Lewes: Simon van Leicester beats English king Henry III
1509 Battle of Agnadello, French beat Venitians in Northern Italy
1576 Dutch Council of State replaced by Council of Beroerten
1590 Battle at Ivry: French king Henri IV beats Catholic League
1607 1st permanent English settlement in New World, Jamestown VA
1638 Admiral Adam Westerwolt conquerors Batticaloa, Ceylon
1643 Louis XIV (4) becomes king of France
1664 Turkish great Köprülü attacks 120,000 Donau soldiers
1702 England & Netherlands declares war on France & Spain
1702 Swedish troops under King Charles XII occupy Warsaw
1767 British government disbands Americans import duty on tea
1787 Delegates gather in Philadelphia to draw up US constitution
1796 1st smallpox inoculation administered, by Edward Jenner
1800 Friedrich von Schiller's "Macbeth" premieres in Weimar
1804 Lewis & Clark set out from St Louis for the Pacific Coast
1811 Paraguay gains independence from Spain (National Day)
1832 Felix Mendelssohn's "Hebrides" premieres
1835 Charles Darwin reaches Coquimbo in Northern Chile
1842 1st edition of London Illustrated News
1845 Utrecht-Arnhem Railway opens
1853 Gail Borden patents his process for condensed milk
1862 Adolphe Nicole of Switzerland patents the chronograph
1863 Battle of Jackson MS
1864 Battle of Reseca GA -Atlanta- (2nd day)
1874 Harvard beats University of McGill (Montréal) in football, 3-0
1878 Vaseline is 1st sold (registered trademark for petroleum jelly)
1884 Anti-Monopoly party forms in the US
1885 11th Kentucky Derby: Babe Henderson aboard Joe Cotton wins in 2:37¼
1886 12th Kentucky Derby: Paul Duffy aboard Ben Ali wins in 2:36½
1888 14th Kentucky Derby: George Covington aboard MacBeth II wins in 2:38¼
1890 16th Kentucky Derby: Isaac Murphy aboard Riley wins in 2:45
1892 Vitesse 1892 soccer team forms in Arnhem
1894 Fire in the Boston bleachers spreads to 170 adjoining buildings
1896 Lowest US temperature in May recorded (-10ºF - Climax CO)
1897 Great-Britain signs treaty with emperor Menelik II of Abyssinia
1903 President Theodore Roosevelt visits San Fransisco
1904 1st Olympics in the US are held (St Louis)
1905 2nd official international soccer match, Netherlands beats Belgium 4-0
1906 Flagpole at the White Sox ballpark breaks during pennant-raising
1908 1st passenger flight in an airplane
1910 Canada authorizes issuing of silver dollar coins
1913 French Hals museum opens in Harleem Netherlands
1913 Washington Senator Walter Johnson ends record scorless streak at 56 innings
1914 Chicago's Jim Scott no-hits Cleveland, gives up 2 hits in 10th & loses 1-0
1918 Indians' Stan Coveleski sets club record for most innings pitched (19)
1918 Sunday baseball is made legal in Washington DC
1919 45th Preakness: Johnny Loftus aboard Sir Barton wins in 1:53
1919 Pope Benedictus XV publishes encyclical In hac tanta
1920 Giants inform Yankees that the lease allowing them to play in the Polo Grounds will not be renewed at end of 1920 season
1920 Washington Senator Walter Johnson wins his 300th game vs Detroit
1921 Florence Allen is 1st woman judge to sentence a man to death
1921 Mussolini's fascists obtains 29 parliament seats
1927 "Ain't She Sweet?" hits #1 on the pop singles chart by Ben Bernie
1927 53rd Kentucky Derby: Linus McAtee aboard Whiskery wins in 2:06
1928 John McGraw is knocked down by a taxicab & suffers a broken leg
1932 "We Want Beer!" parade in New York
1935 Los Angeles' Griffith Planetarium opens, 3rd in US
1935 Plebiscite in the Philippines ratifies independence agreement
1938 64th Preakness: Maurice Peters aboard Dauber wins in 1:59.8
1938 English soccer team beats Nazi-Germany, 6-3
1940 Admiral Furstner departs to England
1940 Boston's Jimmie Foxx homerun goes over Comiskey Park's left field roof
1940 German breakthrough at Sedan
1940 Lord Beaverbrook appointed British minister of aircraft production
1940 Nazi bombs Rotterdam (600-900 dead), Netherlands surrender to Germany
1941 3,600 Parisian Jews arrested
1942 US Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) is founded
1944 91 German bombers harass Bristol
1944 British troops occupy Kohima
1945 Kamikaze-Zero strikes US aircraft carrier Enterprise
1945 US offensive on Okinawa, Sugar Loaf conquered
1946 Paul Hindemith's "For Those We Love" premieres
1948 Israeli Radio Station Kol Yisrael's 1st broadcast
1948 Jordan's Arab League captures Atarot, north of Jerusalem
1948 PM David Ben-Gurion establishes State of Israel
1948 US grants Israel de facto recognition
1948 US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Enwetak
1948 WBEN (now WIVB) TV channel 4 in Buffalo NY (CBS) begins broadcasting
1949 "Love Life" closes at 46th St Theater NYC after 252 performances
1949 75th Preakness: Ted Atkinson aboard Capot wins in 1:56
1949 Truman signs bill establishing a rocket test range at Cape Canaveral
1950 Pittsburgh Johnny Hopp goes 6 for 6 including 2 homeruns
1951 Ernie Kovacs Show, TV Variety debut on NBC
1951 Sammy Fain/EY Harburg's musical "Flahooley" premieres at Broadhurst Theater NYC for 40 performances
1954 Belgium shortens military conscription from 20 to 18 months
1955 US performs nuclear test in Pacific Ocean
1955 Warsaw Pact is signed by the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland & Romania
1957 Bob Merrill's musical "New Girl in Town" premieres at 46th St Theater NYC for 432 performances
1960 "At the Drop of a Hat" closes at John Golden NYC after 216 performances
1960 USSR launch 1st (unmanned) space capsule
1960 Virgil Thomson's "Missa Pro Defunctis" premieres in Pottstown NY
1961 Bus with 1st group of Freedom Riders bombed & burned in Alabama
1961 Mickey Wright wins LPGA Columbus Golf Open
1962 Ex-President Milovan Djilas sentenced to 5 years
1962 Princess Sophia of Greece weds Don Juan Carlos of Spain
1962 US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Christmas Island
1963 Kuwait is 111th member of the United Nations
1964 Underground America Day is 1st observed
1965 2nd Chinese atom bomb explodes
1965 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1966 "A Lover's Concerto" by Mrs Miller hits #95
1966 1st reported monitoring of pirate radio station WBBH (New Jersey)
1967 Mickey Mantle's 500th homerun off Oriole's Stu Miller
1967 Pirate Radio Station 270 (England) closes down
1968 Beatles announce formation of Apple Corp
1968 Czechoslovakian Government announces liberalizing reforms under Alexander Dubcek
1968 RAF-leader Andreas Baader sentenced to 3 years in West Berlin
1969 Abortion & contraception legalized in Canada
1969 Last Chevrolet Corvair built
1970 Cops kill 2 students in racial disturbance (Jackson State University, Mississippi)
1970 Harry A Blackmun appointed to the Supreme Court
1970 NYC local newspaper "Our Town" begins publishing
1970 RAF-leader Andreas Baader freed after serving 2 years in West Berlin
1972 24th Emmy Awards: All in the Family, Carrol O'Conner & Jean Stapleton
1972 In Willie Mays 1st game as a New York Met his homer beats the San Fransisco Giants, 5-4
1973 Gold hits record $102.50 an ounce in London
1973 Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In, last airs on NBC-TV
1973 Skylab launched, the 1st Space Station
1973 US Supreme court approves equal rights to females in military
1974 Symbionese Liberation Army destroyed in shoot-out, 6 killed
1975 Dynamo Kiev wins 15th Europe Cup II
1975 French press reports massive deportation from Cambodia
1975 US forces raid Cambodian island of Koh Tang to free Mayaguez ship
1975 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1976 Lowell Thomas ends 46 years as radio network reporter
1976 Oil tanker Urqui Ola explodes off Spanish coast
1977 English football international Bobby Moore retires
1977 Kansas City Royals Jim Colborn no-hits the Texas Rangers, 6-0
1977 Netherlands State Delta Kappa Gamma Society forms
1977 Stanley Cup: Montréal Canadiens sweep Boston Bruins in 4 games
1978 "Working" opens at 46th St Theater NYC for 25 performances
1978 Nancy Lopez wins LPGA Greater Baltimore Golf Classic
1980 "Musical Chairs" opens at Rialto Theater NYC for 15 performances
1980 Bucky Dent hits an inside the park homerun, Royals walk 14 Yankees including 5 with bases loaded, Yankees win 16-3
1980 Department of Health & Human Services begins operation
1980 Valencia wins 20th Europe Cup II
1981 35th NBA Championship: Boston Celtics beat Houston Rockets, 4 games to 2
1981 NASA launches space vehicle S-192
1982 Guinea adopts constitution
1983 "She Blinded Me with Science" by Thomas Dolby hits #5
1983 Rosa Mota runs female world record 20k (1:06:55.5)
1984 19th Academy of Country Music Awards: Alabama wins
1986 Institute for War documents publishes Anne Franks complete diary
1986 Reggie Jackson hit his 537th homerun passing Mickey Mantle into 6th place
1987 "Little Shop of Horrors" is released in Germany
1987 Colt revolver (Peacemaker) of 1873 sells for $242,000
1988 "Mail" closes at Music Box Theater NYC after 36 performances
1988 1st non-pitcher (Jose Oquendo) in 20 years to get a decision in a baseball game, he & St Louis Cardinals lose to the Atlanta Braves 7-5 in 19 innings
1989 "Moonlighting", TV Crime Drama, last airs on ABC
1989 1st time since 1948 a player hit 6 consecutive doubles (Kirby Puckett)
1989 1st Tour de Trump bicycle race run (Atlanta)
1989 Cindy Rarick wins LPGA Chrysler-Plymouth Golf Classic
1989 Demonstration for democratic reforms in Beijing's Tiananmen square
1989 Final TV episode of "Family Ties" airs
1990 46th time opposing pitchers hit homerun, Valenzuela (Dodgers)/Gross (Expos)
1990 Dow Jones average hits a record 2,821.53
1991 42 die in a train collision is Japan
1991 Robert M Gates becomes head of CIA
1991 Winnie Mandela sentenced to 6 years for complicity in kidnapping & beating of four youths, one of whom died, She is freed pending appeal
1991 World's Largest Burrito created at 1,126 lbs
1992 WIBC Bowling Queens won by Cindy Coburn-Carroll
1994 Dave Winfield passes Frank Robinson for 12th on RBI list with 1,617
1994 FA cup final at Wembley Stadium London
1994 Mayflower Madame Sydney Biddle Barrows (42) weds Darnay Hoffman (46)
1995 "My Thing of Love" closes at Beck Theater NYC after 16 performances
1995 41st McDonald's LPGA Championship won by Kelly Robbins
1995 Dalai Lama proclaims 6-year-old Gedhun Choekyi Nyima 11th reincarnation of Panchen Lama, Tibet's 2nd most senior spiritual leader
1995 Eddie Murray of Indians hits his 463rd career homerun (ties for 18th)
1996 New York Yankee Dwight Gooden no-hits Seattle Mariners 2-0
1997 Baseball's Exec Council suspends New York Yankee owner George Steinbrenner
1998 Last episode of Seinfeld on NBC (commercials are $2 million for 30 seconds)

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Guinea : Guinea Democratic Party Anniversary
Liberia : Unification Day/Integration Day
Malawi : Kamuzu Day
Paraguay : Independence Day (1811)
Philippines : Carabao Festival/Constitution Day/Feast of St Isidro
US : Mother's Day, give her a call today - - - - - ( Sunday )
Ireland : Feis Ceoil music festival (1897) - - - - - ( Monday )
US : Native American/Indian Day - - - - - ( Saturday )

Religious Observances
Christian : St Matthias, apostle
Roman Catholic : Commemoration of St Boniface, martyr

Religious History
1607 In Virginia, on the first Sunday after the arrival of the Jamestown Expedition, Anglican priest Robert Hunt, 39, held the first Anglican service in the New World. Named chaplain of the expedition to Jamestown, Hunt was also the first Anglican priest to come to America.
1932 Death of John Hughes, 59, Welsh rail official and church worker. During his life, Hughes composed a number of hymns, including CWM RHONDDA, to which the Church today still sings "Guide Me, O Thou Great Jehovah."
1948 After nineteen centuries of enforced exile, the Jewish people regained their homeland when the State of Israel was formally proclaimed in Tel Aviv. On this same date, the U.S. became the first world nation to recognize the newly-refounded state of Israel.
1950 American missionary and martyr Jim Elliot wrote in his journal: 'To believe is to act as though a thing were so. Merely saying a thing is so is no proof of my believing it.'
1974 In the Anglican Church in England, the Rev. F. Donald Coggan, 64, was named the 101st Archbishop of Canterbury by Queen Elizabeth II, succeeding former Archbishop Michael Ramsey.

Thought for the day :
"There is nothing new under the sun but there are lots of old things we don't know."
9 posted on 05/14/2003 6:16:04 AM PDT by Valin (Age and deceit beat youth and skill)
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To: bentfeather
Good morning. You have a good day, too.
10 posted on 05/14/2003 6:36:13 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Pray for our Troops)
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To: bentfeather
Good Morning Feather.
11 posted on 05/14/2003 6:37:35 AM PDT by SAMWolf ((A)bort (R)etry (S)acrifice to random Goddess????)
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To: snippy_about_it
Good Morning Snippy.

When Moreno met the Iraqis for a second time, he cut off their reading of a prepared statement. Spitting a wad of blood at their feet (he had recently cut his lip) he said, “If you don’t leave by 1600 hours, we will kill you.” That ended the negotiations. The Iraqis pulled out.

Ya gotta love that line.

12 posted on 05/14/2003 6:39:20 AM PDT by SAMWolf ((A)bort (R)etry (S)acrifice to random Goddess????)
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To: SAMWolf

Wednesday's weird warship, HMS Nelson

Nelson class battleship
Displacement. 34,44o t.
Lenght. 660'
Beam. 106'
Draft. 31'6"
Speed. 23 k.
Complement 1314
Armament. 9 16"; 12 6"; 6 4.7" (as built)

HMS Nelson was built by Armstrong and launched in September 1925. During the Second World War, Nelson was in the Home fleet from 1939-1942, and in 1943 she was in Force "H". Nelson was mined off the Scottish coast in December of 1939 and was under repair until June of 1940. She was struck by an Italian aerial torpedo on 27th September 1941 and under repair until April 1942. HMS Nelson saw service in he Mediterranean up to 1943, she again saw service off Normandy where she was again mined on 18th June 1944. Repairs were carried out in Philadelphia, HMS Nelson then saw service in the Indian Ocean in operations off the Malayan coast, returning home in November 1945 she was scrapped on 15 March 1949 at Inverkeithing.

When the Washington Naval Treaty was signed, only the United States and Japan had 16 inch gunned battleships. Britain was therefore allowed to build two 16in gunned battleships, but their maximum standard displacement was fixed at 35,360 tonnes. The HMS Nelson and HMS Rodney were the result. The three 16in triple turrets were mounted forward, and the bridge moved aft to shorten the hull, armour belt and deck to save weight. The beam was restricted to 106ft by the dimensions of existing drydocks. For the first time on a British battleship an all-or-nothing protection system was adopted and the inclined armour belt was fitted about 25ft inboard, above the torpedo bulkhead. The outer part of the hull could be filled with water to improve the shock loading, and restrict damage. The secondary armament was concentrated aft, and consisted of six twin 6in turrets. For the period a powerful AA armament was mounted. To save weight a twin-screw arrangement was adopted, and although Nelson and Rodney had a small turning circle, the use of twin-screws, the long fo'c's'le and the tall tower bridge (adopted for the first time in a battleship) made them very unhandy ships. Also the triple 16in turrets proved troublesome, and the 16in gun itself was something of a disappointment when compared with the excellent British 15in gun. However, Nelson and Rodney were very powerful ships.

The all big gun forward arrangement was never repeated in British or any other navy's battleships, except for the french, who adopted it for all of their post WWI battleships. Go figure.

Big guns in action!

13 posted on 05/14/2003 6:41:43 AM PDT by aomagrat (IYAOYAS)
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To: Valin
1509 Battle of Agnadello, French beat Venitians in Northern Italy

The french fought a war with Venus??

14 posted on 05/14/2003 6:43:08 AM PDT by SAMWolf ((A)bort (R)etry (S)acrifice to random Goddess????)
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To: aomagrat
The Nelson and Rodney sure did look strange.

Leave it to the french to take someone else's bad idea and make it standard.
15 posted on 05/14/2003 6:47:04 AM PDT by SAMWolf ((A)bort (R)etry (S)acrifice to random Goddess????)
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To: SAMWolf

16 posted on 05/14/2003 6:59:34 AM PDT by GailA (Millington Rally for America after action
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To: GailA
Good Morning GailA. Another nice one today.
17 posted on 05/14/2003 7:05:28 AM PDT by SAMWolf ((A)bort (R)etry (S)acrifice to random Goddess????)
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To: *all

Air Power
McDonnell Douglas F-15E Strike Eagle

Although the slogan of the F-15's original design team was "Not a pound for air-to-ground," the F-15 has long been recognized as having superior potential in the ground attack role. In 1987 this potential was realized in the form of the F-15E Strike Eagle. The F-15E became the newest fighter in Tactical Air Command when the 405th Tactical Training Wing, Luke Air Force Base, Ariz., accepted delivery of the first production model in April 1988. The 4th Fighter Wing at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, N.C., was the first operational F-15E Strike Eagle wing in the Air Force.

While new to the operational inventory, F-15E Strike Eagles were among the first airframes tasked to react to events in the Persian Gulf in August 1990. The 4th Fighter Wing deployed two F-15E squadrons to Southwest Asia in August and December of that year, and spearheaded an attack on Iraqi forces Jan. 16, 1991. The war was brought to a swift and successful conclusion in late February 1991.

Unlike previous models, the F-15E uses two crew members, a pilot and a weapon systems officer. The two engine dual role fighter capable of speeds up to MACH 2.5. It is capable of carrying an external payload of up to 24,500 pounds, to include fuel tanks, weapons pylons, missiles, and bombs. The maximum takeoff weight ofthe F- 15E is 81,000 pounds. The basic empty weight is 36,500 pounds. Considered to be the most advanced tactical fighter aircraft in the world, the F-15E is the fifth version of the Eagle to come off the McDonnell Douglas assembly line in St. Louis, Mo., since 1972. While retaining the best features of its predecessors, the "E" model is equipped with an array of new avionics and electronics systems.

The mission of the Strike Eagle is as succinct as that of its air-to-air cousin: to put bombs on target. While previous models of the Eagle are assigned air-to-air roles, the "E" model is a dual-role fighter. It has the capability to fight its way to a target over long ranges, destroy enemy ground positions, and fight its way back out. The F-15E performs day and night all weather air-to-air and air-to-ground missions including strategic strike, interdiction, OCA and DCA. Although primarily a deep interdiction platform, the F-15E can also perform CAS and Escort missions. The F-15E is especially configured for the deep strike mission, venturing far behind enemy lines to attack high value targets with a variety of munitions.

The Strike Eagle accomplishes this mission by expanding on the capabilities of the air superiority F-15, adding a rear seat WSO (Weapon Systems Operator) crewmember and incorporating an entirely new suite of air-to-ground avionics.

One of the most important additions to the F-15E is the rear cockpit, reserved for a weapon systems officer (WSO). On four television-like screens, the WSO can display information from the radar, electronic warfare or infrared sensors, monitor aircraft or weapon status and possible threats, select targets, and use an electronic "moving map" to navigate. Two hand controls are used to select new displays and to refine targeting information. Displays can be moved from one screen to another, chosen from a "menu" of display options.

In addition to three similar screens in the front seat, the pilot has a tranparent glass screen (head-up display) at eye level that displays vital flight and tactical information. The pilot doesn't need to look down into the cockpit, for instance, to check weapon status. At night, the screen is even more important because it displays a video picture, generated by the forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor, that is nearly identical to a daylight view of the world.

Strike Eagles are equipped with LANTIRN, enhancing night PGM delivery capability. The F-15E outbord and inboard wing stations and the centerline can be loaded with various armament. The outboard wing hardpoint are unable to carry heavy loads and are assign for ECM pods. The other hardpoints can be employed for various loads but with the use of multiple ejection racks (MERs). Each MER can hold six Mk-82 bombs or "Snakeye" retarded bombs, or six Mk 20 "Rockeye" dispensers, four CBU-52B, CBU- 58B, or CBU-71B dispensers, a single Mk-84 (907 kg) bomb F- 15E can carry also "smart" weapons, CBU-10 laser quided bomb based on the Mk 84 bomb, CBU-12, CBU-15, or another, laser, electro-optical, or infra-red guided bomb (including AGM-G5 "Maverick" air-to-ground) missiles. For air-to-ground missions, the F-15E can carry most weapons in the Air Force inventory. Italso can be armed with AIM 7F/M Sparrows, AIM-9M Sidewinders, and AIM-120 advanced medium range air-to-air missiles (AMRAAM) for the air-to-air role. The "E" model also has an internally mounted 20mm gun which can carry up to 450 rounds.

Advanced avionics systems give the F-15E the capability to fight at low altitude, day or night, and in bad weather. An inertial navigation system, developed by Honeywell, uses a laser gyro to continuously monitor the aircraft's position and provide information to the central computer and other systems, including a digital moving map in both cockpits.

At the heart of the F-15E is the APG-70 radar. In the air-to-air mode, the APG-70 can provide range, altitude, airspeed, and other information on aircraft at ranges exceeding 100 miles. The Hughes Aircraft Company APG-70 radar system allows aircrews to detect ground targets from longer ranges. For example, the crew can pick out bridges and airfields on the radar display from more than 80 miles away, while at closer ranges targets as small as vehicles can be easily detected. One feature ofthis system is that after a sweep of a target area, the image on the screen can be frozen while the radar itself is turned off to avoid enemy detection systems. The APG-70 can produce near photo quality images of the ground by using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. SAR imaging is made possible by enhancing the radar returns received from the process known as the Doppler Shift. One job of the APG-70 is to locate aircraft flying close to the ground while the F-15E is flying well above them (20,000 - 30,000 feet above them for example). A pulse radar looking down on the earth would see EVERYTHING -- mountains, buildings, lakes, and the aircraft. This would make it difficult (or impossible) to find an aircraft flying at low altitude. A continuous wave radar (or other radar using Doppler technology) will only "see" objects that are moving (the radar's computer will filter out the speed of the F-15E). Thus, the Doppler shift gives advanced radars like the APG-70 the ability to see aircraft flying at very low altitudes.

Considered the cream ofthe new avionics crop is the Low-Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night (LANTIRN) system manufactured by Martin Marietta. The system consists of two pods attached to the exterior of the aircraft. The navigation pod contains terrain-following radar which allows the pilot to safely fly at a very low altitude following cues displayed on his head up display (HUD). This system also can be coupled to the aircraft's auto pilot to provide "hands off' terrain-following capability.

The second pod, the targeting pod, contains a laser designator and a tracking system that mark an enemy for destruction from as far away as 10 miles. Once tracking has been started, targeting information is automatically handed offto infrared air-to-surface missiles or laser-guided bombs.

The LANTIRN system gives the F-15E unequaled weapons delivery accuracy during the day or night and in poor weather. According to the former commander of Tactical Air Command, Gen. Robert D. Russ, "Two F-15Es with four crew members and 12,000 pounds of conventional bombs will be able to do the same damage to a pinpoint target that only yesterday took eight F-4s, 16 crew members and 48,000 pounds of conventional bombs."

The F-15E Strike Eagle’s tactical electronic warfare system [TEWS] is an integrated countermeasures system. Radar, radar jammer, warning receiver and chaff/flare dispenser all work together to detect, identify and counter threats posed by an enemy. For example, if the warning receiver detects a threat before the radar jammer, the warning receiver will inform the jammer of the threat. A Strike Eagle’s TEWS can jam radar systems operating in high frequencies, such as radar used by short-range surface-to-air missiles, antiaircraft artillery and airborne threats. Current improvements to TEWS will enhance the aircraft’s ability to jam enemy radar systems. The addition of new hardware and software, known as Band 1.5, will round out the TEWS capability by jamming threats in mid-to-low frequencies, such as long-range radar systems. The equipment went into full production in late 1999.

The cockpit design of the F-15E is one reason it is the most versatile and capable fighter flying today. Seven programmable multi-function displays provide the aircrew with a wealth of information that no aircraft flying today can match. Most functions can be controlled by switches on the throttles and the control stick (referred to as "HOTAS" or Hands On Throttle And Stick). This allows the pilot to control the aircraft's systems without having to remove his hands from the aircraft controls (a significant advantage in demanding phases of flight like an instrument approach in the weather.) The programmable nature of the multi-purpose displays is another outstanding feature that greatly aids the aircrew. For example, the WSO has four displays available in the rear cockpit. On a night low-level mission (using the Terrain Following Radar to fly 500 feet above the ground) most WSOs will have the following information on the displays: Terrain Following Radar, Heads-Up Display (HUD), Air-to-Air radar, Moving Map display. Since each display is programmable, the aircrew can program three separate displays on each multi-function display. Therefore, the WSO can have the engine display (providing the engines' "vital" signs) on the same screen as the Moving Map display. By moving a switch on the hand controller, the engine display replaces the Moving Map display. Hitting the switch again returns the multi-function display to the Moving Map (or the third option if one was programmed).

The F-15E is powered by two Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-220 engines which incorporate advanced digital technology for improved performance. For example, with a digital electronic engine control system, F-15E pilots can accelerate from idle power to maximum afterburner in under four seconds, a 40 percent improvement over the previous engine control system. Faster engine acceleration means quicker takeoffs and crisper response while maneuvering. Each engine can produce 25,000 pounds of thrust.

Each of the low-drag conformal fuel tanks that hug the F-15E's fuselage can carry 750 gallons of fuel. The tanks hold weapons on short pylons rather than conventional weapon racks, reducing drag, and further extending the range of the Strike Eagle. Conformal Fuel Tanks were introduced with the F-15C in order to extend the range of the aircraft. The CFTs are carried in pairs and fit closely to the side of the aircraft, with one CFT underneath each wing. By designing the CFT to minimize the effect on aircraft aerodynamics, much lower drag results than if a similar amount of fuel is carried in conventional external fuel tanks. This lower drag translate directly into longer aircraft ranges, a particularly desirable characteristic of a deep strike fighter like the F-15E. As with any system, the use of CFTs on F-15s involves some compromise. The weight and drag of the CFTs (even when empty) degrades aircraft performance when compared to external fuel tanks, which can be jettisoned when needed (CFTs are not jettisonable and can only be downloaded by maintenance crews). As a result, CFTs are typically used in situations where increased range offsets any performance drawbacks. In the case of the F-15E, CFTs allow air-to-ground munitions to be loaded on stations which would otherwise carry external fuel tanks. In general, CFT usage is the norm for F-15Es and the exception for F-15C/D's.

The Strike Eagle's flight control system is among the best flying today. It provides excellent handling characteristics throughout the F-15E's vast flight envelope. This remarkable system allows the F-15E to fly at speeds ranging from Mach 2.5 to airspeeds below 150 knots. In addition, it provides exceptional maneuverability. Like most systems on the F-15E, the flight control system has two separate systems for redundancy (either system is perfectly capable of flying the aircraft by itself). The hydromechanical system (mechanical controls that are hydraulically operated) and the Control Augmentation System (CAS) work together to provide manual and automatic control of the aircraft.

The hydromechanical system provides inputs to the three primary flight controls - ailerons, rudders, and the stabilator. The ailerons and rudders act fairly conventional (see Flight Controls ); however, the stabilator works in a manner unlike conventional stabilators. A conventional stabilator is used only for pitch control. The stab on the F-15E is used for pitch as well as roll. Example: When the pilot pulls aft on the stick, the stab acts conventionally and both stabs on each side of the aircraft move together (i.e. both trailing edges go up). When the pilot moves the stick to the left in the F-15E, the stabs will move in opposite directions (acting like ailerons) to help roll the aircraft. While simple in concept, the actual workings of the stab and ailerons are extremely complex due to the flight envelope of the Strike Eagle.

In most general aviation aircraft, the ailerons and elevators are controlled by the control wheel and the rudders by pedals. The Aileron-Rudder Interconnect (ARI) mechanically links the ailerons and rudders to the control stick. This system automatically applies rudder inputs to correspond with roll inputs requested by the pilot. In simple terms, it automatically deflects the rudder for coordinated turns. Flight above the speed of sound has a different set of rules. For one, very little rudder inputs are required (as a matter of fact, at high Mach numbers rudder inputs can cause structural failure); thus, the ARI disengages above Mach 1.0. Also, when landing in a cross-wind (a wind that is not directly aligned with the runway), rudder inputs can hinder techniques to counter the wind so the ARI is disabled when the wheels on the ground and the speed is above 50 knots.

The primary responsibilities of the Control Augmentation System (CAS) system are to provide increased stability (smoothing out turbulance) and to refine the flight control inputs from the pilot provided to the hydromechanical system. It is a fly-by-wire system that overlays the hydromechanical system. It incorporates a sophisticated flight control computer with numerous motion sensors to refine the inputs to the flight control surfaces to respond to the pilot's stick inputs. In other words, it precisely deflects the flight control surfaces to provide the pilot with exactly the inputs he requested based on the amount of force used to move the stick). Again, this system has several redundant systems built within it providing outstanding reliability. The CAS system is sub-divided into 3 systems - PITCH, ROLL, and YAW. (Note: The CAS system does not provide inputs to the ailerons, it uses only differential stab inputs to roll the aircraft. The hydromechanical system provides the only inputs to the ailerons).


Primary Function: Tactical fighter.
Contractor: McDonnell Douglas Corp.
Crew: F-15A/C: one. F-15B/D/E: two.

Power Plant: Two Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-100 turbofan engines with afterburners.
Thrust: (C/D models) 25,000 pounds each engine ( 11,250 kilograms).
Length: 63 feet, 9 inches (19.43 meters).
Height: 18 feet, 8 inches (5.69 meters).
Wingspan: 42 feet, 10 inches (13.06 meters)
Speed: 1,875 mph (Mach 2.5-plus at sea level).
Ceiling: 65,000 feet (19,697 meters).
Maximum Takeoff Weight: (C/D models) 68,000 pounds (30,600 kilograms).
Range: 3,450 miles (3,000 nautical miles) ferry range with conformal fuel tanks and three external fuel tanks.

1 - M-61A1 20mm multibarrel internal gun, 940 rounds of ammunition
4 - AIM-9L/M Sidewinder and
4 - AIM-7F/M Sparrow missiles, or
combination of AIM-9L/M, AIM-7-F/M and AIM-120 missiles.

F-15E Weapon Loads:
12 CBU-52 (6 with wing tanks)
12 CBU-59 (6 with wing tanks)
12 CBU-71 (6 with wing tanks)
12 CBU-87 (6 with wing tanks)
12 CBU-89 (6 with wing tanks)
20 MK-20 (6 with wing tanks)

AN/APG-63 X-band pulsed-Doppler radar [Hughes]
AN/APG-70 X-band pulsed-Doppler radar [Hughes]
[ on F-15E, F-15C/D, F-15A/B MSIP]
AN/APX-76 IFF interrogator [Hazeltine]
AN/ALQ-135(V) internal countermeasures system
AN/ALQ-128 radar warning [Magnavox] suite
AN/ALR-56 radar warning receiver (RWR) [Loral]
AN/ALE-45 chaff/flare dispensers [Tracor]
AN/AVQ-26 Pave Tack
AN/AXQ-14 Data Link System

All photos Copyright of Global Security.Org

18 posted on 05/14/2003 7:26:18 AM PDT by Johnny Gage (We will not tire, We will not falter, We will not fail. - George W. Bush)
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To: Johnny Gage

Thanks Johnny.

The Strike Eagle is the Badest Bird in the sky.

19 posted on 05/14/2003 7:34:51 AM PDT by SAMWolf ((A)bort (R)etry (S)acrifice to random Goddess????)
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To: SAMWolf; AntiJen; snippy_about_it; Victoria Delsoul; SassyMom; bentfeather; MistyCA; GatorGirl; ...
The french fought a war with Venus??

And they STILL lost.

A long Walk (A book Review)

Do yourself a favor...READ THIS BOOK!

20 posted on 05/14/2003 7:39:39 AM PDT by Valin (Age and deceit beat youth and skill)
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