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Microwaves extract tough-to-reach oil
The Patriot-News ^ | September 17, 2006 | DAVID DeKOK

Posted on 09/17/2006 6:33:24 PM PDT by thackney

If oil is the gold of the modern economy, then Frank Pringle is a 21st-century alchemist.

Instead of turning base materials into gold, Pringle turns them into oil. His philosopher's stone turns out to be microwaves. Used in a vacuum chamber, the microwaves help him pull oil from tires or oil shale rock. He can turn oil as thick as molasses into free-flowing crude. And he believes he can extract much of the oil remaining in capped wells.

Geologists said about 65 percent of oil in the ground is unrecoverable with current technology because it is too thick. Deposits of tar sands in Canada, for example, contain billions of barrels of oil but require large amounts of water and energy to extract.

State environmental officials said they believe as many as 237,000 abandoned oil wells are in northwestern Pennsylvania. That is where Col. Edwin Drake drilled what is believed to be the country's first commercial oil well in Titusville, Crawford County, in 1859. Oil production in Pennsylvania peaked in 1891, and the industry moved to Texas and elsewhere.

Pringle is raising $15 million to do his first test well in the Keystone State. He has raised a few million and plans to seek more from private investors. His plan calls for putting an antenna into the old wells and blasting them with microwaves to soften and gasify the oil.

No water would be required, and he said the amount of energy used in the process, the so-called energy balance, will be economical. The process will be environmentally clean, he said.

"It has to do with the frequency, and it has to do with the vacuum," Pringle said. "That's where our patents are."

Or will be, he said. Mobilestream has begun the patent process but hasn't yet received one.

Pringle and his staff of seven scientists continue to test and refine the process at their laboratory in West Berlin, N.J. He is also conferring with Pennsylvania's Department of Community and Economic Development and Department of Environmental Protection about state financial incentives for a tire reprocessing plant he hopes to build at the former U.S. Steel site in Fairless Hills, Bucks County.

In a series of tests witnessed by a Patriot-News reporter on Aug. 31, Pringle extracted oil from shredded tires. He turned Valero slurry oil, which is pourable but thick, like cold Hershey's chocolate syrup, into lighter, useable oil. And he pulled oil from tan, slightly greasy-feeling oil shale rock from Estonia.

Not long afterward, Mobilestream announced it had successfully cracked resid oil, the heavy, tarlike substance that remains after the refining of crude oil. Tests in the company's mass spectrometer confirmed the results.

Pringle placed the substances in a beaker and set them in his vacuum chamber microwave, which looks somewhat like a home microwave but is far different. There are millions of microwave frequencies, and the key is to find the right ones for the right materials, he said.

Once the calculations are made and the microwave turned on, he sat back in a comfortable chair with his ever-present cigar. Pringle, 63, whose office contains ocean fishing rods and a military weapon collection, has been a mechanical engineer for all of his working life.


TOPICS: News/Current Events; US: Pennsylvania
KEYWORDS: energy; oil; oilshale; pennsylvania
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1 posted on 09/17/2006 6:33:24 PM PDT by thackney
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To: thackney

Interesting post.


2 posted on 09/17/2006 6:34:42 PM PDT by Liberal Classic (No better friend, no worse enemy. Semper Fi.)
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To: thackney
with his ever-present cigar. Pringle, 63, whose office contains ocean fishing rods and a military weapon collection

This guy should be a Freeper.

3 posted on 09/17/2006 6:35:06 PM PDT by bmwcyle (Only stupid people would vote for McCain, Warner, Hagle, Snowe, Graham, or any RINO)
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To: Liberal Classic

It is, interesting. One question, though. We can find/extract more oil, but it we can't refine more oil, then what?


4 posted on 09/17/2006 6:39:04 PM PDT by Arizona Carolyn
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To: thackney

This idea is actually closely-related to what Shell is working on for their oil shale extraction program. If they can make it economical supposedly pumped-out oilfields could become productive again. In short, the march of technology could hurt OPEC down the road.


5 posted on 09/17/2006 6:39:47 PM PDT by RayChuang88
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To: Arizona Carolyn
You have a distinct point. More potential upstream capacity is good news, but in the future (if not today) we will need more downstream capacity as well.
6 posted on 09/17/2006 6:42:19 PM PDT by Liberal Classic (No better friend, no worse enemy. Semper Fi.)
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To: Arizona Carolyn
One question, though. We can find/extract more oil, but it we can't refine more oil, then what?

We could nearly triple our domestic oil production and not meet the capacity of our existing refineries. But we would be refining US crude instead of crude oil that pays royalty and taxes to our enemies.

7 posted on 09/17/2006 6:43:59 PM PDT by thackney (life is fragile, handle with prayer)
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To: thackney

Wow! I love the possibilities.


8 posted on 09/17/2006 6:48:20 PM PDT by wouldntbprudent (If you can: Contribute more (babies) to the next generation of God-fearing American Patriots!)
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To: thackney; Arizona Carolyn
We could nearly triple our domestic oil production and not meet the capacity of our existing refineries. But we would be refining US crude instead of crude oil that pays royalty and taxes to our enemies.

But we still need to diversify the geography of our refining capacity. We came very close last year to having both the New Orleans and Houston refineries out due to hurricanes. Adding more gulf coast refineries doesn't do anything to diverisify against risk of natural disasters disrupting product supply.

9 posted on 09/17/2006 6:55:22 PM PDT by Paleo Conservative
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To: thackney

How does the energy input compare with the oil extract?


10 posted on 09/17/2006 6:56:24 PM PDT by fso301
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To: Paleo Conservative

A group has been trying to bring a refinery to fruition in Yuma for four or five years now. Latest setback was Mexico saying they could no longer guarantee oil for the refinery so it will have to be brought by pipeline and ship from Canada (and much greater cost).


11 posted on 09/17/2006 7:02:04 PM PDT by Arizona Carolyn
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To: thackney

That is the part I like the best.. return to refining our own oil.


12 posted on 09/17/2006 7:03:05 PM PDT by Arizona Carolyn
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To: Arizona Carolyn

Considering the amounts of fresh water needed by refineries, I don't think Arizona would be a good place for one. They are usually located on sea coasts near rivers so they can take advantage of low shipping costs and fresh water nearby.


13 posted on 09/17/2006 7:11:20 PM PDT by Paleo Conservative
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To: Paleo Conservative
But we still need to diversify the geography of our refining capacity.

Don't buy into all the media hype. We do need to add refining capabilities and in more than one area. But we have refining in most areas of the US.

Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2006

14 posted on 09/17/2006 7:16:00 PM PDT by thackney (life is fragile, handle with prayer)
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To: bmwcyle

He sounds a lot like one of my uncles.


15 posted on 09/17/2006 7:22:12 PM PDT by Farmer Dean (Every time a toilet flushes,another liberal gets his brains.)
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To: fso301
How does the energy input compare with the oil extract?

Not a lot of detail given, but the subject was touched upon.

the amount of energy used in the process, the so-called energy balance, will be economical

16 posted on 09/17/2006 7:27:05 PM PDT by thackney (life is fragile, handle with prayer)
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To: thackney
Yep refineries all around but the Gulf Coast has a larger concentration of capacity......

U.S. Refineries Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity
(Barrels per Calendar Day)

as of January 1, 2006

Rank COMPANY NAME STATE SITE Barrels per Calendar Day
1 EXXONMOBIL REFINING & SUPPLY CO Texas BAYTOWN 562,500
2 EXXONMOBIL REFINING & SUPPLY CO Louisiana BATON ROUGE 501,000
3 BP PRODUCTS NORTH AMERICA INC Texas TEXAS CITY 437,000
4 CITGO PETROLEUM CORP Louisiana LAKE CHARLES 429,500
5 BP PRODUCTS NORTH AMERICA INC Indiana WHITING 410,000
6 EXXONMOBIL REFINING & SUPPLY CO Texas BEAUMONT 348,500
7 SUNOCO INC (R&M) Pennsylvania PHILADELPHIA 335,000
8 DEER PARK REFINING LTD PARTNERSHIP Texas DEER PARK 333,700
9 CHEVRON USA INC Mississippi PASCAGOULA 330,000
10 CONOCOPHILLIPS COMPANY Illinois WOOD RIVER 306,000
11 Flint Hills Resources LP Texas CORPUS CHRISTI 288,126
12 Motiva Enterprises LLC Texas PORT ARTHUR 285,000
13 Flint Hills Resources LP Minnesota SAINT PAUL 279,300
14 LYONDELL CITGO REFINING CO LTD Texas HOUSTON 270,200
15 BP West Coast Products LLC California LOS ANGELES 260,000
16 CHEVRON USA INC California EL SEGUNDO 260,000
17 PREMCOR REFINING GROUP INC Texas PORT ARTHUR 260,000
18 CONOCOPHILLIPS COMPANY Louisiana BELLE CHASSE 247,000
19 CONOCOPHILLIPS COMPANY Texas SWEENY 247,000
20 MARATHON PETROLEUM CO LLC Louisiana GARYVILLE 245,000
21 CHEVRON USA INC California RICHMOND 242,901
22 CONOCOPHILLIPS COMPANY Louisiana WESTLAKE 239,400
23 EXXONMOBIL REFINING & SUPPLY CO Illinois JOLIET 238,500
24 CONOCOPHILLIPS COMPANY New Jersey LINDEN 238,000
25 Motiva Enterprises LLC Louisiana CONVENT 235,000
26 TOTAL PETROCHEMICALS INC Texas PORT ARTHUR 232,000
27 Motiva Enterprises LLC Louisiana NORCO 226,500
28 BP West Coast Products LLC Washington FERNDALE (CHERRY POINT) 225,000
29 MARATHON PETROLEUM CO LLC Kentucky CATLETTSBURG 222,000
30 VALERO REFINING CO TEXAS Texas TEXAS CITY 213,750
31 FLINT HILLS RESOURCES ALASKA LLC Alaska NORTH POLE 210,000
32 CONOCOPHILLIPS COMPANY Oklahoma PONCA CITY 194,000
33 MARATHON PETROLEUM CO LLC Illinois ROBINSON 192,000
34 Chalmette Refining LLC Louisiana CHALMETTE 188,160
35 VALERO REFINING NEW ORLEANS LLC Louisiana NORCO 185,003
36 CONOCOPHILLIPS COMPANY Pennsylvania TRAINER 185,000
37 PREMCOR REFINING GROUP INC Delaware DELAWARE CITY 181,500
38
PREMCOR REFINING GROUP INC
Tennessee
MEMPHIS
180,000
39 SUNOCO INC Pennsylvania MARCUS HOOK 175,000
40 PDV Midwest Refining LLC Illinois LEMONT (CHICAGO) 167,000
41 TESORO REFINING & MARKETING CO California MARTINEZ 166,000
42 SUNOCO INC Ohio TOLEDO 160,000
43 VALERO REFINING CO NEW JERSEY New Jersey PAULSBORO 160,000
44 VALERO ENERGY CORPORATION Texas SUNRAY 158,327
45 CITGO REFINING & CHEMICAL INC Texas CORPUS CHRISTI 156,000
46 Shell Oil Products US California MARTINEZ 155,600
47 EXXONMOBIL REFINING & SUPPLY CO California TORRANCE 149,500
48 PREMCOR REFINING GROUP INC Ohio LIMA 146,900
49 CONOCOPHILLIPS COMPANY Texas BORGER 146,000
50 Shell Oil Products US Washington ANACORTES 145,000
51 SUNOCO INC New Jersey WESTVILLE 145,000
52 VALERO REFINING CO CALIFORNIA California BENICIA 144,000
53 VALERO REFINING CO TEXAS Texas CORPUS CHRISTI 142,000
54 CONOCOPHILLIPS COMPANY California WILMINGTON 139,000
55 BP PRODUCTS NORTH AMERICA INC Ohio TOLEDO 131,000
56 MURPHY OIL USA INC Louisiana MERAUX 120,000
57 Tesoro West Coast Washington ANACORTES 120,000
58 WESTERN REFINING COMPANY LP Texas EL PASO 116,000
59 COFFEYVILLE RESOURCES LLC Kansas COFFEYVILLE 112,000
60 FRONTIER EL DORADO REFINING CO Kansas EL DORADO 106,000
61 MARATHON PETROLEUM CO LLC Michigan DETROIT 100,000
62 PASADENA REFINING SYSTEMS INC Texas PASADENA 100,000
63 Shell Oil Products US California WILMINGTON 98,500
64 CONOCOPHILLIPS COMPANY Washington FERNDALE 96,000
65 TESORO HAWAII CORP Hawaii KAPOLEI 93,500
66 VALERO ENERGY CORPORATION Texas THREE RIVERS 90,000
67 SUNOCO INC Oklahoma TULSA 85,000
68 VALERO REFINING CO OKLAHOMA Oklahoma ARDMORE 83,640
69 VALERO REFINING CO TEXAS Texas HOUSTON 83,000
70 NCRA Kansas MCPHERSON 81,200
71 ULTRAMAR INC California WILMINGTON 80,887
72 CHEVRON USA INC New Jersey PERTH AMBOY 80,000
73 Shell Chem LP Alabama SARALAND 80,000
74 VALERO REFINING CO LOUISIANA Louisiana KROTZ SPRINGS 80,000
75 CONOCOPHILLIPS COMPANY California RODEO 76,000
76 NAVAJO REFINING CO New Mexico ARTESIA 75,000
77 MARATHON PETROLEUM CO LLC Ohio CANTON 73,000
78 MARATHON PETROLEUM CO LLC Texas TEXAS CITY 72,000
79 TESORO PETROLEUM CORP Alaska KENAI 72,000
80 SINCLAIR OIL CORP Oklahoma TULSA 70,300
81 LION OIL CO Arkansas EL DORADO 70,000
82 MARATHON PETROLEUM CO LLC Minnesota SAINT PAUL PARK 70,000
83 ALON USA ENERGY INC Texas BIG SPRING 67,000
84 BIG WEST OF CALIFORNIA California BAKERSFIELD 66,000
85 SINCLAIR OIL CORP Wyoming SINCLAIR 66,000
86 UNITED REFINING CO Pennsylvania WARREN 65,000
87 SUNCOR ENERGY (USA) INC Colorado COMMERCE CITY 62,000
88 EXXONMOBIL REFINING & SUPPLY CO Montana BILLINGS 60,000
89 GIANT YORKTOWN REFINING Virginia YORKTOWN 58,600
90 CONOCOPHILLIPS COMPANY Montana BILLINGS 58,000
91 DELEK REFINING LTD Texas TYLER 58,000
92 Tesoro West Coast North Dakota MANDAN 58,000
93 Tesoro West Coast Utah SALT LAKE CITY 58,000
94 PLACID REFINING CO Louisiana PORT ALLEN 56,000
95 Cenex Harvest States Coop Montana LAUREL 55,000
96 Shell Chem LP Louisiana SAINT ROSE 55,000
97 CHEVRON USA INC Hawaii HONOLULU 54,000
98 WYNNEWOOD REFINING CO Oklahoma WYNNEWOOD 54,000
99 PARAMOUNT PETROLEUM CORPORATION California PARAMOUNT 50,000
100 PETRO STAR INC Alaska VALDEZ 48,000
101 FRONTIER REFINING INC Wyoming CHEYENNE 47,000
102 CHEVRON USA INC Utah SALT LAKE CITY 45,000
103 CONOCOPHILLIPS COMPANY California ARROYO GRANDE 44,200
104 CALUMET SHREVEPORT LLC Louisiana SHREVEPORT 42,000
105 US OIL & REFINING CO Washington TACOMA 37,850
106 HUNT REFINING CO Alabama TUSCALOOSA 34,500
107 MURPHY OIL USA INC Wisconsin SUPERIOR 34,300
108 CITGO ASPHALT REFINING CO New Jersey PAULSBORO 32,000
109 SUNCOR ENERGY(USA)INC Colorado DENVER 32,000
110 CALCASIEU REFINING CO Louisiana LAKE CHARLES 30,000
111 BIG WEST OIL CO Utah NORTH SALT LAKE 29,400
112 CITGO ASPHALT REFINING CO Georgia SAVANNAH 28,000
113 EDGINGTON OIL CO INC California LONG BEACH 26,000
114 KERN OIL & REFINING CO California BAKERSFIELD 26,000
115 HOLLY CORP REFINING & MARKETING Utah WOODS CROSS 24,700
116 LITTLE AMERICA REFINING CO Wyoming EVANSVILLE (CASPER) 24,500
117 COUNTRYMARK COOPERATIVE INC Indiana MOUNT VERNON 23,000
118 ERGON REFINING INC Mississippi VICKSBURG 23,000
119 GIANT REFINING CO New Mexico GALLUP 20,800
120 ERGON WEST VIRGINIA INC West Virginia NEWELL (CONGO) 20,000
121 PETRO STAR INC Alaska NORTH POLE 17,000
122 GIANT INDUSTRIES INC New Mexico BLOOMFIELD 16,800
123 GULF ATLANTIC OPERATIONS LLC Alabama MOBILE 16,700
124 SAN JOAQUIN REFINING CO INC California BAKERSFIELD 15,000
125 CONOCOPHILLIPS ALASKA INC Alaska KUPARUK 14,000
126 CALUMET LUBRICANTS CO LP Louisiana COTTON VALLEY 13,020
127 BP EXPLORATION ALASKA INC Alaska PRUDHOE BAY 12,500
128 WYOMING REFINING CO Wyoming NEWCASTLE 12,500
129 AGE REFINING INC Texas SAN ANTONIO 12,200
130 HUNT SOUTHLAND REFINING CO Mississippi SANDERSVILLE 11,000
131 Silver Eagle Refining Utah WOODS CROSS 10,250
132 AMERICAN REFINING GROUP INC Pennsylvania BRADFORD 10,000
133 Greka Energy California SANTA MARIA 9,500
134 LUNDAY THAGARD CO California SOUTH GATE 8,500
135 CALUMET LUBRICANTS CO LP Louisiana PRINCETON 8,300
136 MONTANA REFINING CO Montana GREAT FALLS 8,200
137 CROSS OIL REFINING & MARKETING INC Arkansas SMACKOVER 7,200
138 VALERO REFINING CO CALIFORNIA California WILMINGTON 6,200
139 HUNT SOUTHLAND REFINING CO Mississippi LUMBERTON 5,800
140 SOMERSET REFINERY INC Kentucky SOMERSET 5,500
141 GOODWAY REFINING LLC Alabama ATMORE 4,100
142 Silver Eagle Refining Wyoming EVANSTON 3,000
143 TENBY INC California OXNARD 2,800
144 FORELAND REFINING CORP Nevada EAGLE SPRINGS 2,000

Source: Refinery Capacity Data by individual refinery as of January 1, 2006

17 posted on 09/17/2006 7:33:28 PM PDT by deport (The Governor, The Foghorn, The Dingaling, The Joker, some other fellar...... The Governor Wins)
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To: thackney

Just in case... ;)

18 posted on 09/17/2006 7:38:05 PM PDT by freedumb2003 (The state board will meet in closed session to discuss whether it violated an open meetings law)
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To: thackney
"It has to do with the frequency, and it has to do with the vacuum," Pringle said. "That's where our patents are."

Frequency I understand, and vacuum in a laboratory is no problem, but how do you pull a vacuum (how much of a vacuum?) in an underground area the size of an oil well ?

19 posted on 09/17/2006 7:41:01 PM PDT by FairWitness
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To: Liberal Classic
Let me guess. 2.4 GHz. Like WISPS need yet another source of RF pollution. In Texas. Now.

/johnny

20 posted on 09/17/2006 7:43:52 PM PDT by JRandomFreeper (They want to be die in jihad. I'm here to help, in whatever small way I can.)
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To: FairWitness
how do you pull a vacuum

With a vaccuum pump. A big one. That sucks, and is supposed to. The RF Noise sucks louder.

/johnny

21 posted on 09/17/2006 7:47:20 PM PDT by JRandomFreeper (They want to be die in jihad. I'm here to help, in whatever small way I can.)
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To: Arizona Carolyn

Ship it to Europe and the Carib, have them refine it and send it back.


22 posted on 09/17/2006 7:47:27 PM PDT by appeal2
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To: thackney

Great, now the enviros can complain about stray microwaves frying us all.


23 posted on 09/17/2006 7:52:12 PM PDT by Larry Lucido
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To: Paleo Conservative

Yuma is where the Colorado River empties into the Gulf of California. Water isn't an issue for the project.


24 posted on 09/17/2006 7:56:49 PM PDT by Arizona Carolyn
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To: appeal2

And that is more affordable than doing it here?


25 posted on 09/17/2006 7:57:43 PM PDT by Arizona Carolyn
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To: JRandomFreeper
With a vaccuum pump. A big one.

O.K., I asked for that. What I really was wondering is, whether most oil wells are that much of a "closed system", without "cracks" and passages wandering off in all directions that would make it impractical to pull a serious vacuum?

26 posted on 09/17/2006 8:00:14 PM PDT by FairWitness
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To: thackney

ping for later


27 posted on 09/17/2006 8:10:45 PM PDT by rface ("...the most schizoid freeper I've ever seen" - New Bloomfield, Missouri)
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To: Arizona Carolyn

Except that every drop of the Colorado River is overallocated.


28 posted on 09/17/2006 8:17:17 PM PDT by Paleo Conservative
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To: FairWitness
Depends on the location.

Some days you can pull a large vacuum. Some days, you can't. Most days you can.

/johnny

29 posted on 09/17/2006 8:40:27 PM PDT by JRandomFreeper (They want to be die in jihad. I'm here to help, in whatever small way I can.)
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To: thackney

A somewhat related subject : growing mounds of old rubber tires. Once in a Popular Science(or Mechanics)article, I read about a couple of guys down south somewhere that had worked out this process : cut the tires up into small chunks, then drop them into a bath of liquid lead. The steel cords drop to the bottom and the rubber molecules, as froth, come to the top. Thus you skim off the froth as feed stock for new tires. Sounded like it might work as a rubber tire recycling process, instead of just burying them in these ever growing mountains of old tires. Recycling old tires, like old oil fields is GREAT, if it's economically viable. Does anyone here know any thing more about this idea?


30 posted on 09/17/2006 8:40:50 PM PDT by timer
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To: FairWitness
serious vacuum?

-3 psi would pull this house to the ground. With malice aforethought. Here and now sux, but not that badly.

/johnny (happily single for several years)

31 posted on 09/17/2006 8:44:44 PM PDT by JRandomFreeper (They want to be die in jihad. I'm here to help, in whatever small way I can.)
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To: timer

Yes there is. Search "microwave oil shale" and you will find some companies working on tires as well as shale.


32 posted on 09/17/2006 8:49:27 PM PDT by thackney (life is fragile, handle with prayer)
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To: thackney

Thanks, I will. It's always ticked me off to have to pay $1 to just GET RID of an old tire when they should be either taking it away for free or paying you something like 25 cents for it. Some people grumble about these "tire mountains" as eyesores and mosquito breeding grounds but "microwave oil shale", as it refers to rubber tires, still has to be viable economically to work. Don't expect santa claus, the tooth fairy, the easter bunny to solve the problem for FREE.....Do you know about RIS(Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy)? It does with precisely tuned lasars/wavelengths just about what MOS technology does to "dead oil". It converts garbage into pure isotopes.


33 posted on 09/17/2006 9:13:57 PM PDT by timer
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To: thackney

It is interesting. And it is more evidence that Yankee ingenuity will prevail, *if* the idiot guberment will just quit getting in the way.


34 posted on 09/17/2006 9:16:40 PM PDT by ChildOfThe60s (If you can remember the 60s...you weren't really there.)
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To: Paleo Conservative

The Gulf of California isn't complaining, yet


35 posted on 09/17/2006 9:19:28 PM PDT by HiTech RedNeck
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To: thackney
237,000 abandoned oil wells

Geez. If commercial quantities of oil could be recovered from a majority of those wells, I would think we'd be looking at some significant reserves. Particularly if we extapolate that to include abandoned wells in the rest of the country.

36 posted on 09/17/2006 9:20:18 PM PDT by ChildOfThe60s (If you can remember the 60s...you weren't really there.)
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To: timer
"...A somewhat related subject : growing mounds of old rubber tires. Once in a Popular Science(or Mechanics)article, I read about a couple of guys down south somewhere that had worked out this process : cut the tires up into small chunks, then drop them into a bath of liquid lead. The steel cords drop to the bottom and the rubber molecules, as froth, come to the top. Thus you skim off the froth as feed stock for new tires. Sounded like it might work as a rubber tire recycling process, instead of just burying them in these ever growing mountains of old tires. Recycling old tires, like old oil fields is GREAT, if it's economically viable. Does anyone here know any thing more about this idea?..."

Careful. Rubber, as in tires, is a vulcanized product, and is not able to be recycled back into rubber for new tires. Rubber is actually a Thermoset Plastic, rather than a Thermoplastic Plastic.

That means that as it is heated or aged, it becomes harder and harder, until it is brittle and useless for nothing but landfill.

Here's a simplified version of the process of making tires:

Raw Latex rubber (a milky coloured sticky mass like pine sap) is put in a mixer (called a mill) and mixed with chemicals (yellow sulfur, carbon-black, and other stuff) to form a less-sticky, soft, black substance.
That stuff (a measured amount) is then placed in a mold that has the shape of a tire.
The mold is heated to about 650 degrees F for a while, and vulcanization (solidification)begins.
The mold is then cooled quickly after a specified time, to room temperature, and the tire is removed for use. It's soft or hard, depending on the time spent at the hot temperature - short time=soft, long time=hard.

Vulcanization, once started, never stops, but only slows down. After about 20-30 years, a brand new tire is useless, because it will have hardened to being brittle.

That's why old tires get cracks in them, and the process cannot be reversed. Hope this helps............FRegards

Addenda:
Yellow sulfur-primary vulcanization agent
Carbon Black-UV protection, and it looks cool

37 posted on 09/18/2006 1:22:24 AM PDT by gonzo (.........Good grief!...I'm as confused as a baby in a topless club!.........)
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To: timer
Additionaly, I remember a trial road being paved with a mix of asphalt, ground-up old tires, and gravel. They tried it as a means of using-up old tires, knowing the vulcanization process would continue! (Political boondogle)

They had to replace the road after 5 years.............FRegards

38 posted on 09/18/2006 1:29:00 AM PDT by gonzo (.........Good grief!...I'm as confused as a baby in a topless club!.........)
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To: Paleo Conservative

But not the Gulf of California and they have a desalinization plant, that they don't use, in Yuma to desalt the Colorado River.


39 posted on 09/18/2006 8:51:48 AM PDT by Arizona Carolyn
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To: gonzo

Thanks so much for the info, I KNEW I'm not an expert on rubber tires. Have you heard about this new "memory metal" discovery : a rubber-metal alloy with the same properties as the crash debris found at the Roswell UFO crash site?


40 posted on 09/18/2006 12:35:36 PM PDT by timer
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To: gonzo

In addition : in 1970 I spent winter quarter with my fellow architecture students in mexico. Funniest sight : brand new retread tires on all the cars but the SIDEWALLS were rotted down to the cords. The mexican government had decreed that NO foreign(american/others)rubber tires could be sold in mexico, HOPING that they could make their own rubber tires/industry. Mexican INDIANS competing with american/european/japanese engineering genius??!! Thus they had Taller retread stations all over the place : brand new retreads and rotted away sidewalls was all they had. Hydrogen and stupidity : the 2 most common elements in the universe....


41 posted on 09/18/2006 2:21:34 PM PDT by timer
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To: timer
"...Have you heard about this new "memory metal" discovery : a rubber-metal alloy with the same properties as the crash debris found at the Roswell UFO crash site?..."

Rubber and metal can't form an 'alloy'. You can powder the metal, then mix it with a variety of hydrocarbon compounds, like the flexible rubber magnets on the fridge, but a true alloy just ain't possible.

I've seen 'memory-metal', though. Wierd stuff.................FRegards

42 posted on 09/18/2006 10:05:00 PM PDT by gonzo (.........Good grief!...I'm as confused as a baby in a topless club!.........)
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To: timer
"... Hydrogen and stupidity : the 2 most common elements in the universe...."

Amen............FRegards

43 posted on 09/18/2006 10:09:46 PM PDT by gonzo (.........Good grief!...I'm as confused as a baby in a topless club!.........)
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To: thackney

Dang! All I got to tell y'all is whatever you do don't cut a bike tire up and try cooking it in a bowl in your microwave thinking you'll get oil. It don't work, even when you cut a hole in the top and stick a vacuum hose in. It just makes an awful mess and you can't hardly put that tire out when it catches fire.


44 posted on 09/18/2006 11:15:19 PM PDT by TKDietz (")
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To: gonzo

Well, it was a brief article in either Popular Science or Mechanics. From what they describe, it has exactly the same characteristics described by Jesse Martel's son, who saw it in Roswell in 1947 : cigarette can't burn a hole thru it, can't cut it with scissors, wad it up like tinfoil and it doesn't crease, it just springs back to flat. Obviously no HUMAN was making this "memory metal"/rubber-metal alloy in 1947; ergo, it's alien technology, used by them for millenia. There is far more that we've discovered but I can't tell you about it here...


45 posted on 09/19/2006 12:49:54 AM PDT by timer
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To: thackney

Pyrite, hematite, limonite, ilmenite, rutile...Could be interesting down there. Hope he choses his formations carefully or the accessory minerals might make things difficult. Worth keeping tabs on, though. Thanks, thackney.


46 posted on 09/19/2006 5:55:36 PM PDT by Smokin' Joe (How often God must weep at humans' folly.)
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To: AdmSmith; AnonymousConservative; Berosus; bigheadfred; Bockscar; ColdOne; Convert from ECUSA; ...
Note: this topic is from 9/17/2006.
Thanks thackney.
State environmental officials said they believe as many as 237,000 abandoned oil wells are in northwestern Pennsylvania.

47 posted on 10/21/2011 3:58:06 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (It's never a bad time to FReep this link -- https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: SunkenCiv

Long ways away from the days of the gusher when the oil flow is so little they call it a micro wave.


48 posted on 10/21/2011 4:02:22 PM PDT by bigheadfred (But alas)
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To: FairWitness; thackney
Frequency I understand, and vacuum in a laboratory is no problem, but how do you pull a vacuum (how much of a vacuum?) in an underground area the size of an oil well ?

I suspect the vacuum would be for the magnetron or klystron tube, or whatever they're using down the hole to create the microwaves. The hole won't need a vacuum any more than your household microwave does, but the equipment to create them seemingly does. I think the down-hole pressure will be the problem.

49 posted on 10/21/2011 5:55:13 PM PDT by brityank (The more I learn about the Constitution, the more I realise this Government is UNconstitutional !!)
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To: Paleo Conservative
Considering the amounts of fresh water needed by refineries, I don't think Arizona would be a good place for one. They are usually located on sea coasts near rivers so they can take advantage of low shipping costs and fresh water nearby.

I'm not aware that large quantities of fresh water are required by refineries. There are a large number of refining centers located in relatively arid country -- e.g., Artesia, NM, Borger, TX, Big Spring, TX, Cushing, OK, Tulsa, OK, Salt Lake City, UT, El Dorado, KS etc.

By and large, refineries are located near where the oil is (or was). The concentration on the Gulf Coast is likely attributable to import (now) and export (then) needs.

50 posted on 10/21/2011 6:22:07 PM PDT by okie01 (THE MAINSTREAM MEDIA: Ignorance On Parade)
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