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New Study On Peopling Of Americas Confirms Some Theories, Unsettles Others
CSFA ^ | 9-2001 | Loring Brace

Posted on 11/07/2003 4:19:11 PM PST by blam

New Study on Peopling of Americas Confirms Some Theories, Unsettles Others

The New World was populated in at least two migrations, according to a paper presented by C. Loring Brace to the National Academy of Sciences. The settlers in the first wave, who walked across the Bering Land Bridge 15,000 years ago, were the forebears of present-day inhabitants south of the U.S.-Canadian border. The ancestors of linguistically distinct peoples including the Inuit, Aleut, and Na-Dene speakers made the watery crossing from Asia about 5,000 years ago.(The people are todays American Indian/Native Americans)

The new study by Dr. Brace, professor of anthropology and curator of biological anthropology at the University of Michigan, also finds that members of the first group are only distantly related to present-day populations on the Asia mainland, but are closely linked genetically to the Ainu (the aboriginal people of the Japanese island of Hokkaido), to their prehistoric Jomon predecessors, and to today's Polynesians.(Kennewick Man, Spirit Cave Man...others)

Descendants of the second-wave migrants, on the other hand, are closely related to current mainland populations of East Asia.(Today's American Indians/Native Americans)

Brace's findings are immense in scope. He cites artifacts that date back to the Acheulean age, more than 200,000 years ago, and he traces population movements from human origins in Africa to Europe, Asia, Australia-Melanesia, and ultimately to North America. Following are just a few of the noteworthy points of his study.

Although Brace supports his theory with archaeological evidence, he bases his findings principally on statistical analysis of craniofacial metrics. These are inherited characteristics, thus indicators of genetic links, and are unaffected by environmental pressures.

Neanderthals fashioned characteristic tools in northwestern Europe toward 200,000 years ago. Use of their tools can be traced eastward to Mongolia and Siberia, but not to China or Japan or towards Southeast Asia. Although no conclusive skeletal evidence of Neanderthals has been found in Siberia, cultural continuity implies their presence.

Brace finds evidence of a continuum of late-Pleistocene humans across the northern fringe of Europe and Asia. These are the ancestors of the first migrants to North America, who are closely linked to the Jomon, Ainu, and modern Polynesians. Thus all these people can be described as Eurasian.

Brace's study is sure to cause a stir among archaeologists and anthropologists. The announcement came too late for us to cover it in depth this issue. In the next Mammoth Trumpet we hope to explore it in detail with Brace and with other authorities whose work is affected by his findings.


TOPICS: Culture/Society; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: americas; archaeology; clovis; confirms; ggg; godsgravesglyphs; history; insettles; northamerica; origins; peopling; preclovis; precolumbian; theories

1 posted on 11/07/2003 4:19:15 PM PST by blam
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To: farmfriend; RightWhale
The EuroAsians mentioned in the article (first-wave) are Paleo-Americans...the second wave of migrants are Paleo-Indians who arrived in the Americas less than 6,000 years ago.

Skeletons discovered in the Americas that are older than 6,000 years are not American Indian/Native American and should not be subject to their heritage claims.

I believe there were more than two waves, there are probably at least two waves that came down the Atlantic coast too.

2 posted on 11/07/2003 4:28:10 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
Then the remains of the "Kenniwick" man can be studied after all?
3 posted on 11/07/2003 4:31:15 PM PST by Burkeman1 ((If you see ten troubles comin down the road, Nine will run into the ditch before they reach you.))
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To: Burkeman1
"Then the remains of the "Kenniwick" man can be studied after all?"

Judge John Jelderks has ruled that they may...The Indians have appealed this ruling and I'm expecting another ruling any day on the appeal.

4 posted on 11/07/2003 4:43:15 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
The settlers in the first wave, who walked across the Bering Land Bridge 15,000 years ago, were the forebears of present-day inhabitants south of the U.S.-Canadian border. The ancestors of linguistically distinct peoples including the Inuit, Aleut, and Na-Dene speakers made the watery crossing from Asia about 5,000 years ago.
(The people are todays American Indian/Native Americans)

I assume that the parenthentical material was inserted yourself?

If so, you TOTALLY misunderstood the article and actually the parenthetical inserts are COMPETELY contradictory to the immediately preceeding text.

The Inuit and Aleut are Eskimos. Na-Dene peoples are a small portion of current American Indians (Navajos are the largest group, I believe.) The author is ACTUALLY saying MOST of the current American Indians, based on his study, came here 15,000 years ago and are more closely related to the Ainu, etc.

5 posted on 11/07/2003 4:44:16 PM PST by John H K
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To: blam
I believe there were more than two waves, there are probably at least two waves that came down the Atlantic coast too.

Sounds reasonable. It should be remembered that over even a hundred years of history, let alone thousands, an awful lot happens. A large group of people who were living in a certain place in 2800 BC might have been living 3,000 miles away in 2700 BC, then been almost wiped out by 2600 BC, and then come to dominate a continent by 2500 BC. Sometimes there was little intermarriage, sometimes lots. If anything, lack of a stable government like we have in the US today would have made for greater instability than we see today. Sadly, the study of preliterate people can only result in the crudest appoximations of what was really happenning.

6 posted on 11/07/2003 4:47:20 PM PST by Steve Eisenberg
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To: blam
The settlers in the first wave, who walked across the Bering Land Bridge 15,000 years ago, were the forebears of present-day inhabitants south of the U.S.-Canadian border

Does this say that Mexicans of Indian ancestry aren't Indians but from a variety of other Asian groups?

7 posted on 11/07/2003 4:47:25 PM PST by RightWhale (Close your tag lines)
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To: blam
I believe there were more than two waves,..

I believe you're right, IMHO. I have been around a lot of "Oriental Asians" (?), Native Americans and Latin Americans of limited European ancestry when they are infants. In a nursery, only their mothers could tell them apart. The common genetic relationship of these peoples is remarkable. I would guess that the Eastern NA Indian Tribes were a migration on their own. Perhaps related to the other two, but distantly.

Nevertheless, it's an interesting subject that has future implications. Especially for education.

8 posted on 11/07/2003 4:53:35 PM PST by elbucko
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To: RightWhale
Does this say that Mexicans of Indian ancestry aren't Indians but from a variety of other Asian groups?

Back up. According to statistical geneology, everyone living today is probably a decendent of every person living just 1,500 years ago (except for those people living 1,500 years ago who have no decendents today living). Have people live apart from others for a few hundred years, and the separated groups will soon having distinctive language, appearance, etc. Appearance will be related to predominent genetic backgrounds. But to say that today's this or that group of people is descended from some group living thousands of years ago is way overstated.

9 posted on 11/07/2003 4:53:53 PM PST by Steve Eisenberg
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To: John H K
It is confusing. The Eskimos are clearly different physically and socially from the Athabascan. Did the Athabascan come over first-wave or second-wave?
10 posted on 11/07/2003 4:56:03 PM PST by RightWhale (Close your tag lines)
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To: RightWhale
btt
11 posted on 11/07/2003 4:57:37 PM PST by tracer
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To: John H K
"I assume that the parenthentical material was inserted yourself?"

Yes.

The article is a little consfusing and I admit I have a pre-disposition to read it the way I've described it...based on loads of other articles I've read.

"The ancestors of linguistically distinct peoples including the Inuit, Aleut, and Na-Dene speakers made the watery crossing from Asia about 5,000 years ago."

Doesn't this statement confirm my 'reading' of the article? If I'm wrong...I'll be the first to admit it. I don't presently think I'm wrong.

12 posted on 11/07/2003 4:57:37 PM PST by blam
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To: RightWhale
Does this say that Mexicans of Indian ancestry aren't Indians but from a variety of other Asian groups?

Indians, of the North American kind, are Asians that moved at some time to North America. Mexicans have no excuse to do poorly in mathematics.

13 posted on 11/07/2003 4:58:31 PM PST by elbucko
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To: Steve Eisenberg
"According to statistical geneology, everyone living today is probably a decendent of every person living just 1,500 years ago (except for those people living 1,500 years ago who have no decendents today living)."

I don't believe this statement...

14 posted on 11/07/2003 5:03:44 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
Maybe if they add the six degrees of relation so cousins are included.
15 posted on 11/07/2003 5:06:58 PM PST by RightWhale (Close your tag lines)
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To: blam
Give America BACK to the Eurasians!!!
16 posted on 11/07/2003 5:10:52 PM PST by Map Kernow ("First...take a deep breath....then start yelling!")
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To: blam
For whatever it is worth, there is a "cultural" link (seemingly) between the Ainu, living on the offshore islands of Japan, and the "Iroquois" in NY state.

Both have/had a New Year's tradition involving the ritual sacrifice of a household pet. With the Ainu, it was a bear cub; with the Iroquois, a white dog.Both would strangle the pet, and burn the carcass,for the same reason: the spirit of the sacrificed animal was supposed to tell the other animals how well it had been treated by its human hosts; thus insuring a good hunting season.

There was a secondary item, having to do with the fletching
of arrows, and the carving of a spiral around arrow shafts.
(Presumably it was believed this would impart a slight spin to the arrows, making them more accurate.) This was practiced by the Ainu,the woodland "Sioux", and the Iroquois.

ps: Although we use the names Iroquois and Sioux these days,both names were originally uncomplimentary nicknames bestowed by other tribes.If memory serves, both names suggest they were thought of as "dangerous vipers".
17 posted on 11/07/2003 5:11:30 PM PST by genefromjersey (So little time - so many FLAMES to light !!)
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To: John H K; blam
The Inuit and Aleut are Eskimos. Na-Dene peoples are a small portion of current American Indians (Navajos are the largest group, I believe.) The author is ACTUALLY saying MOST of the current American Indians, based on his study, came here 15,000 years ago and are more closely related to the Ainu, etc.

Seriously, folks, see the thesis of the late Joseph H. Greenberg's "Indo-European and its Closest Relatives," positing a Eurasiatic super-language family, encompassing Indo-European, Finno-Ugric (Uralic), Altaic (Turkic etc.), Nivkh (Gilyak), Chukchi-Koryak-Kamchadal, Japanese-Korean, and Eskimo-Aleut. The Amerind languages (first wave of migrants as opposed to second) are in turn the languages most closely related to the languages of this "Eurasiatic superfamily," according to Greenberg.

18 posted on 11/07/2003 5:18:35 PM PST by Map Kernow ("First...take a deep breath....then start yelling!")
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To: elbucko; RightWhale
"Indians, of the North American kind, are Asians that moved at some time to North America. Mexicans have no excuse to do poorly in mathematics."

Australian?

First Americans Were Australian

19 posted on 11/07/2003 5:20:47 PM PST by blam
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To: Map Kernow
Eurasiatic super-language family, encompassing Indo-European, Finno-Ugric (Uralic), Altaic (Turkic etc.), Nivkh (Gilyak), Chukchi-Koryak-Kamchadal, Japanese-Korean, and Eskimo-Aleut.

Sounds like an early split between cold-climate groups and warm-climate groups.

20 posted on 11/07/2003 5:34:15 PM PST by RightWhale (Close your tag lines)
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To: RightWhale
This research fascinates me. Thanks for the post.

It will be very interesting to see how all of this bears on native american land claim issues if it is proven that they, too, usurped this land.
21 posted on 11/07/2003 5:50:39 PM PST by JBBooks
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To: JBBooks; blam
Blam posted this just as he has posted a lot of ancient peoples articles. Knowledge is growing rapidly; textbooks are being revised; 4000, 6000 years ago is not so long ago after all.
22 posted on 11/07/2003 5:57:28 PM PST by RightWhale (Close your tag lines)
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To: JBBooks
Then we have this 'gaggle' of folks down in Florida.

Bye, Bye Beringia (8,000 Year Old Site In Florida)(Windover)

European DNA Found In 7-8,000 Year Old Skeleton In Florida(Windover)

I'm still trying to kind out what is meant by European DNA.

23 posted on 11/07/2003 6:01:26 PM PST by blam
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To: RightWhale
The way the research is going there ain't no specific native americans.
24 posted on 11/07/2003 6:06:06 PM PST by Little Bill ("Roosevelt was the first Dictator of the United States"...My Grandfather)
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To: blam
I don't believe this statement...

On common human ancestry, see: The Royal We. This stuff can't be absolutely proven but seems highly likely.

25 posted on 11/07/2003 6:25:53 PM PST by Steve Eisenberg
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To: blam; *Gods, Graves, Glyphs; Alas Babylon!; annyokie; bd476; BiffWondercat; Bilbo Baggins; billl; ..
Gods, Graves, Glyphs
List for articles regarding early civilizations , life of all forms, - dinosaurs - etc.

Let me know if you wish to be added or removed from this ping list.

For real time political chat - Radio Free Republic chat room

26 posted on 11/07/2003 11:47:41 PM PST by farmfriend ( Isaiah 55:10,11)
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To: blam
I tend to agree with you...as always. LOL
27 posted on 11/07/2003 11:50:55 PM PST by nopardons
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To: Steve Eisenberg
It would be likely if mating was completely random, but we are much more inbred than that.
28 posted on 11/07/2003 11:54:05 PM PST by gd124
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To: blam
Australian? "Crikey! And all along I thought me mates and me were Indians!"

I think they meant Australiods-Aborigines. They never found any Fosters cans or cricket bats in any dig I know of, LOL!

29 posted on 11/08/2003 6:01:40 AM PST by Alas Babylon!
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To: blam
I think you've got your labelling backward. The descendents of the folks from 15,000 years ago are the ones we'd call native Americans. The descendents fo the folks from 5,000 years ago we lump together as Eskimos.
30 posted on 11/08/2003 7:15:59 AM PST by Junior ("Your superior intellects are no match for our puny weapons!")
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To: genefromjersey
"There was a secondary item, having to do with the fletching of arrows, and the carving of a spiral around arrow shafts."

Actually, according to my reading, there were no arrows in the Americas until 600 AD, which I believe is a critical insight if true (implying perhaps they came over with european incursions). Instead the arrowhead points were actually atlatl points from a small version. Of course, I may be smoking dope, but I think this is the case.

31 posted on 11/08/2003 8:27:45 AM PST by FastCoyote
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I'm sorry, but I saw the movie BoyZ N the Hood.

We all originate from Africa.

32 posted on 11/08/2003 8:36:39 AM PST by Jakarta ex-pat
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To: Junior
"I think you've got your labelling backward. The descendents of the folks from 15,000 years ago are the ones we'd call native Americans."

Nope.

According to James Chatters (...Of Kennewick Man fame), no-one has ever found a skeleton of a Native American/American Indian in the Americas that is older than 6,000 years old. Skeletons found that are older than that are different people...and most are like Kennewick Man. This is supported by professor Christy Turner's dendro (teeth) study too.
Walter Neves work is further support.

There is one skeleton dubbed 'Stick Man' that is unlike anyone anywhere.

33 posted on 11/08/2003 8:42:37 AM PST by blam
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To: blam
It needs repeating over and over:

Skeletons discovered in the Americas that are older than 6,000 years are not American Indian/Native American and should not be subject to their heritage claims.

All right, how do we go about undoing this cute bit of "control over the white man" BS?
Yes, even indians can play the "what can we do to screw them" because we can?

34 posted on 11/08/2003 8:46:54 AM PST by Publius6961 (40% of Californians are as dumb as a sack of rocks.)
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To: Junior
Immigrants From The Other Side (Clovis Is Solutrean)
35 posted on 11/08/2003 8:56:15 AM PST by blam
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To: Junior
Narrow Skulls Clues To First Americans
36 posted on 11/08/2003 9:00:30 AM PST by blam
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To: genefromjersey
If you really want to freak people out start looking for "cultural links" between the Vikings and the Seneca.

It doesn't produce nearly as many howls as it used to but you can still get some yelps.

37 posted on 11/08/2003 9:14:18 AM PST by Harmless Teddy Bear (No matter how subtle the wizard, a knife between the shoulder blades will seriously cramp his style)
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To: JudyB1938
Check the two links in post #23. The Windover site (IMO) is one of the most exciting finds during your absence.
38 posted on 11/08/2003 3:25:49 PM PST by blam
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To: blam; farmfriend
Thanks for the ping to those two links. I think I enjoy the interchange of ideas just about as much as the articles themselves. It may have something to do with the fact that farmfriend is making sure truly-interested and knowledgeable people find their way to your postings.

Farmfriend, please add me to the ping list. It's nice of you to take care of us. Appreciated!!
39 posted on 11/08/2003 10:31:29 PM PST by JudyB1938 (It's a wild world. There's a lot of bad and beware.)
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To: blam
I wonder how this fits in with Cherokee indians that arrived here, what? About a thousand years ago from an island off S. America? Makes me wonder if there were a whole lot of influences other than Asian.

I watched a documentary that maintained, and pretty much proved that people would get together from different places in Europe and the middle east and join together to come here in their reed boats.

One cave was obviously set up for Druid worship with a mixture of symbols in both egyptian and durid and there was writing on the wall from a teenager that basically said something like "Johnny was here".
40 posted on 11/08/2003 10:41:45 PM PST by MissAmericanPie
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To: MissAmericanPie
"I wonder how this fits in with Cherokee indians that arrived here, what? About a thousand years ago from an island off S. America? Makes me wonder if there were a whole lot of influences other than Asian."

Don't know about the Indians from an island. Do you have links to any articles?

41 posted on 11/09/2003 8:01:15 AM PST by blam
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To: JudyB1938
Thanks you for your compliment. Consider yourself added to the list. If you ever change your mind, just let me know.
42 posted on 11/09/2003 10:05:32 AM PST by farmfriend ( Isaiah 55:10,11)
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Not a ping, just a GGG update.
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43 posted on 01/05/2005 10:29:08 PM PST by SunkenCiv (the US population in the year 2100 will exceed a billion, perhaps even three billion.)
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Just updating the GGG information, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list. Thanks.
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44 posted on 05/27/2007 8:16:24 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Time heals all wounds, particularly when they're not yours. Profile updated May 26, 2007.)
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45 posted on 07/17/2011 1:26:53 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Yes, as a matter of fact, it is that time again -- https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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