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Hanoi John: Kerry and the Antiwar Movementís Communist Connections
Original FReeper research | 10/11/2004 | Fedora

Posted on 10/11/2004 12:27:07 PM PDT by Fedora

John Kerry’s Fellow Travellers

A 5-part series exposing John Kerry’s Communist connections.

Part 3: Hanoi John: Kerry and the Antiwar Movement’s Communist Connections

By Fedora

*NOTE: The term “fellow traveller” as used in this article series refers to someone who is not a member of the Communist Party (CP) but regularly engages in actions which advance the Party’s program. Some apparent fellow travellers may actually be “concealed party members”: members of the CP who conceal their membership. Which of these classifications is applicable to the Kerrys is a question this series leaves unresolved. This series does not argue for any direct evidence of Richard or John Kerry or other members of the Kerry family belonging to the CP. What this series does argue for is a consistent pattern of the Kerry family working with Communists and Communist fellow travellers in a way that advances the Communist program.

Introduction

Part 1 of this series, ”John Kerry’s Red Roots”, traced the roots of John Kerry’s foreign policy views to the influence of a faction of the State Department led by Dean Acheson, protégé of the Communist fellow traveller Felix Frankfurter. Part 2, "Forging a Paper Hero", exposed how Kerry managed to conceal his left-wing background by cloaking himself in the guise of a war hero. This article picks up the story with Kerry’s abuse of his stolen valor, when he came home from Vietnam and wore an American uniform while speaking on behalf of groups representing America’s Communist enemies.

John Kerry’s Antiwar Career Summarized

Summary of John Kerry’s Antiwar Allies

Individual/Group Relation to Communist movement Relation to Kerry
1969-1970+ Vietnam Moratorium Committee (VMC): Organized mass antiwar demonstrations Formed by associates of Communist front group American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) and Communist-infiltrated group SANE;

interlocked with the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam (New Mobe), an antiwar mobilization group formed following instructions from Hanoi by the Socialist Workers Party (SWP), a Trotskyite group infiltrated by the Soviets and friendly to Cuba

Peggy Kerry worked for VMC in 1969 and recruited John to fly New York VMC leader Adam Walinsky to VMC demonstrations in October 1969, while John was still on active duty;

John then asked VMC for support in his 1970 Congressional campaign and worked for them afterwords;

subsequently was supported by VMC founder Jerome Grossman throughout political career into Senate terms

1970+ Father Robert Drinan: Left-wing priest and lawyer Associate of antiwar activist Daniel Berrigan; officer in Communist front group National Lawyers Guild (NLG);

travelled to Vietnam on behalf of Communist front group Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR);

politically endorsed by Communist lawyer Ramsey Clark

1970 Congressional campaign chaired by Kerry;

as Congressman sought to pass “Kerry Amendment” lowering age requirements to allow Kerry to run for Senator in 1972;

supported Vietnam Veterans Against the War while Kerry was a VVAW member;

advised Kerry’s 2004 Presidential campaign

1970-1973+ Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW): antiwar veterans’ group Inspired by Veterans for Peace (VFP), offshoot of front group set up by the Communist Party (CP) to protest the Korean War;

initially run out of offices of Fifth Avenue Vietnam Peace Parade Committee (FAVPPC), which networked with numerous Communist front groups;

formed alliances with New Mobe and VMC;

leadership interlocked with Communist front group People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice (PCPJ);

politically allied with politicians tied to Communist lobbying groups such as George Ball, Allard Lowenstein, Eugene McCarthy, Robert and Ted Kennedy, Bella Abzug, George McGovern, Mark Hatfield, John Conyers, Ron Dellums, Charles Rangel, Michael Harrington, Paul McCloskey, etc.

financed by left-wing sources such as Jane Fonda, United Auto Workers (UAW), Edgar Bronfman, Ted Kennedy, etc.

legally represented by Communist lawyers such as Peter Weiss, Ramsey Clark, William Kunstler, Mark Lane, etc.

jointly sponsored events with various Communist-linked individuals and groups including Black Panther Party (BPP), Citizens’ Commission of Inquiry into War Crimes in Indochina (CCI), Jane Fonda, Yippies, National Peace Action Coalition (NPAC), Venceremos Brigade (VB), etc.;

met domestically and abroad with representatives of North Vietnam, Soviet Union, Cuba, European Communist groups, and Arab terrorist group Palestine Liberation Front (PLF)

Introduced to VVAW by sister Peggy; attracted VVAW attention through work for VMC and Drinan and joined group around May 1970;

served on VVAW National Executive Committee 1970-1971;

afterwords remained VVAW leader and spokesman into at least 1973;

continued to associate with former VVAW members throughout career to present day

Contrary to his current posture as someone who went to Vietnam out of “a sense of duty and responsibility” and “never considered not serving”,1 John Kerry was actually already opposed to the Vietnam War before going to Vietnam, and he tried to avoid the draft. At Yale in 1965 and 1966 he opposed the war in at least two speeches.2 He claimed in a 1970 interview that he tried unsuccessfully to persuade the draft board to let him study abroad in France before he decided to enlist in the US Naval Reserve.3 While undergoing his Naval Reserve training, Kerry wrote letters in 1968 to his friends Michael Dalby and David Thorne expressing his opposition to the war, and while he was in Vietnam, Kerry and his fellow skipper Donald Droz—whose wife Judy was already active in the antiwar movement in 1968—planned to protest the war upon their return, according to Judy’s account of Donald’s letters home.4

After being transferred out of combat duty, Kerry was restationed in New York in early 1969. By late 1969 his older sister Peggy was already involved in the antiwar movement, working for the Vietnam Moratorium Committee (VMC). That October, she recruited John as a pilot to fly Adam Walinsky, a key leader of the New York office of the VMC, to VMC-organized antiwar demonstrations.5 Kerry, who was still on active duty in the US Naval Reserve,6 later boasted that he had been “smart enough not to put down ‘Moratorium’ on the Navy signout sheet for that Tuesday and Wednesday”.7

On November 21, 1969, Kerry requested an early release from active duty so he could run for Congress on an antiwar platform. In January 1970 he was transferred to inactive duty, and his younger brother Cameron tried to recruit support for his campaign from VMC founder Jerome Grossman. Grossman, who had links to the Democratic National Committee, was a leader of a Massachusetts antiwar activist group called Massachusetts Political Action for Peace (Mass PAX, later renamed Citizens for Participation in Political Action, CPPAX), which had previously supported antiwar Presidential candidate Eugene McCarthy in 1968 and had created the VMC in 1969. Mass PAX’s coalition was now seeking an antiwar candidate to unseat prowar Congressman Philip Philbin. However by the time Cameron got in touch with Grossman, Grossman had already decided to support another, better-known antiwar candidate, Father Robert Drinan. In February 1970 Mass PAX’s caucus voted to support Drinan over Kerry, and at the urging of Grossman, who was Drinan’s campaign manager, Kerry quit his own campaign to become chairman of Drinan’s campaign.8 At the same time he was chairing Drinan’s campaign, Kerry also did work for the VMC. 9

While Grossman and Kerry were supporting the VMC and Drinan, they began supporting a veterans’ antiwar group, the Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW). Kerry’s speaking activity for Drinan and the VMC brought him to the attention of leaders of the VVAW’s New York headquarters, and he joined the VVAW shortly after his marriage on May 23, 1970. Grossman introduced him to veterans from an antiwar group called Legal In-Service Project (LISP) which was operating out of Mass PAX’s office, and these veterans helped Kerry set up a Massachusetts branch of VVAW based in Mass PAX’s office.10 Meanwhile for their honeymoon Kerry and his wife travelled to Paris, and during their stay there they met leaders of the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG), a delegation representing the North Vietnamese government’s proposed ruling body for South Vietnam.11

Kerry emerged as the VVAW’s star spokesman during a September 1970 speech at Valley Forge for the VVAW’s Operation RAW. After Operation RAW he was appointed to the VVAW National Executive Committee by VVAW leader Al Hubbard because of his speaking ability and his contacts with the Democratic National Committee and Ted Kennedy. His prominence in the organization grew through his participation in its Dewey Canyon III rally in Washington in April 1971. Kerry remained prominent in the VVAW until at least July 1971, after which there are conflicting accounts, largely perpetrated by Gerald Nicosia, a writer friendly to Kerry. Nicosia initially wrote in a 2001 book that Kerry developed differences with Hubbard which led him to resign from the VVAW National Executive Committee at a VVAW meeting in St. Louis in July 1971.12 However, Kerry’s biographer Douglas Brinkley reported in a 2004 book that Kerry resigned from the VVAW on November 10, 1971.13 After other researchers publicized evidence that Kerry had attended a VVAW meeting in Kansas City in November 1971 during which VVAW leaders proposed kidnapping and assassinating pro-war politicians,14, Nicosia provided the media with FBI documents confirming Kerry had attended this meeting.15 The actual FBI reports on the Kansas City meeting record that on November 13 “JOHN KERRY, a VVAW national leader from Massachusetts, arrived and spoke to the committee. He resigned from the National Executive Committee of VVAW for ‘personal reasons’ but added he would still be active in VVAW and available to speak for the organization” and would be holding his office “until new members are elected in January 1972”.16 Prior to Nicosia’s release of the FBI documents, the Kerry campaign had issued statements that “Kerry was not at the Kansas City meeting” and had resigned from the VVAW “sometime in the summer of 1971”.17 After Nicosia’s release of the documents, the Kerry campaign issued statements that “Senator Kerry does not remember attending the Kansas City meeting.” VVAW members who attended the meeting have issued conflicting statements about whether or not they remember seeing Kerry there.18 Subsequent research has uncovered articles reporting Kerry speaking at VVAW events and on behalf of the VVAW as late as at least April 1972 and representing himself as a VVAW member to the press as late as October 1972,19 and a newspaper photo dated January 24, 1973 is accompanied by a caption describing Kerry as “head of Vietnam Veterans Against the War”.20 Kerry would remain associated with former VVAW members such as Chris Gregory into his Senate career,21 and in 1979 he joined former VVAW associate Bobby Muller in cofounding the Vietnam Veterans of America (VVA), which lists him as a lifetime member.22

Kerry’s Introduction to the Antiwar Movement: The Vietnam Moratorium Committee (VMC)

As the above summary indicates, Kerry’s introduction to the antiwar movement came through the Vietnam Moratorium Committee (VMC). In October 1969 Kerry’s sister Peggy recruited him as a pilot to fly Adam Walinsky, a key leader of the New York office of the VMC, to VMC-organized antiwar demonstrations.23 Peggy was at that time already working for the VMC.24 In January 1970 Cameron Kerry sought VMC support for John’s Congressional campaign,25 and after John joined Drinan’s campaign in February 1970 he did additional work for the VMC.26

The Vietnam Moratorium Committee was conceived by Jerome Grossman and grew out of Grossman’s work for Massachusetts Political Action for Peace (Mass PAX), which was in turn an outgrowth of the 1962 Massachusetts Senatorial campaign of antinuclear candidate H. Stuart Hughes. Hughes, then teaching history at Harvard, was a lifelong Communist sympathizer who had opposed the Cold War from the beginning and was described in FBI files as having “strong convictions towards communism”.27 In 1959 he had been recruited to the antinuclear group SANE (National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy) by his friend David Riesman.28 Riesman was a longtime fellow traveller who had begun his professional career under the tutelage of Felix Frankfurter and Louis Brandeis, two of the foremost front men for the US Communist movement.29 SANE likewise had numerous Communist associations, prompting investigations by the FBI and the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee in the 1960s.30 SANE and allied antiwar groups supported Hughes when he decided to run for Senator on an antinuclear platform in 1962, and Hughes went on to become SANE’s cochairman in 1963 and its chairman in 1967. In those capacities he organized opposition to the Vietnam War, prompting the FBI to place him under surveillance when it received information that he was going to visit Moscow on a trip to Paris in 1966.31

Meanwhile Hughes’ SANE activity brought him into contact with Grossman. Grossman had been recruited to the antinuclear movement in the 1950s through the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC),32 an old Communist front group,33 and had subsequently become a SANE activist.34 Through SANE’s support of Hughes in 1962, Grossman became Hughes’ campaign manager.35 After the campaign, Hughes’ organizers transformed his campaign into an ongoing antiwar organization, Massachusetts Political Action for Peace.36 Grossman continued to work with Mass PAX as it opposed the Vietnam War after 1964 and as it supported Eugene McCarthy’s Presidential campaign in 1968.37

At an April 1969 Mass PAX meeting, Grossman proposed the idea of the Vietnam Moratorium Committee: a committee to coordinate a nation-wide, grassroots-generated series of antiwar demonstrations.38 To help him organize these demonstrations, Grossman recruited the help of 1968 antiwar Presidential candidate Eugene McCarthy and former McCarthy campaign organizers Sam Brown, David Hawk, David Mixner, and Marge Sklencar.39

Through Brown, the Moratorium’s national director and principal organizer,40 the VMC joined forces with the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, or “New Mobe”,41 a national coordinating group for antiwar protests. The New Mobe was so called because it was an outgrowth of an earlier national coordinating group called the Student Mobilization Committee (SMC), or “Mobe”. The Mobe was in turn an outgrowth of the National Student Strike for Peace Conference. The National Student Strike for Peace Conference had originally been organized in 1966 by the Communist Party (CP) and the Socialist Workers Party (SWP).42

The SWP was a Trotskyite group which had been infiltrated by the Soviet Union since the 1930s and had more recently developed connections with Castro’s regime in Cuba through groups such as the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. It was accordingly designated as subversive by the Attorney General and became a high priority for FBI surveillance from 1961 on.43

The SWP element in the Mobe had become dominant by 1968, and the FBI regarded the Mobe as controlled by the SWP. A 1967 Congressional report found that “Communists are playing dominant roles in. . .the Student Mobilization Committee. . .”44

The Mobe lost momentum after the 1968 Presidential campaign and was revived by the SWP in July 1969 as the New Mobe. From its inception the New Mobe coordinated its actions with the Soviet Union and North Vietnam through the KGB-linked World Peace Council (WPC) in Stockholm. A 1970 Congressional report found that the New Mobe was under “communist domination”.45

From its beginning, the New Mobe worked in close coordination with the VMC. The VMC was represented on the New Mobe’s steering committee from the New Mobe’s first meeting; the New Mobe shared its headquarters with the VMC at 1029 Vermont Avenue NW in Washington, DC; and Sam Brown organized for the New Mobe while he directed the VMC.46

New York VMC activity was coordinated by the Fifth Avenue Vietnam Peace Parade Committee (FAVPPC, also known by various similar names). The FAVPPC had been organized by Norma Becker, a member of a Communist front group called the War Resisters League (WRL), and it operated out of the same 5 Beekman Street address as numerous inter-related Communist front groups and fellow-travelling groups, such as the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), the Committee for Nonviolent Action (CNVA), and the Catholic Peace Fellowship (CPF). It was described in a 1970 Congressional report as “dominated by communists”.47

The most prominent leader of the New York VMC was Adam Walinsky, former legal and speechwriting assistant to Robert Kennedy.48 John Kerry’s sister Peggy was also working for the New York VMC in 1969, and she recruited John to fly Walinsky around to VMC-organized demonstrations that October,49 while John was still on active duty.50 After John was transferred to inactive duty in January 1970 his brother Cameron contacted VMC founder Jerome Grossman to seek VMC support for John’s Congressional campaign. Failing to win VMC support in a February 1970 caucus, John accepted Grossman’s request to drop out of the campaign and chair the campaign of the VMC’s favored Congressional candidate, Father Robert Drinan. While chairing Drinan’s campaign, he also worked for the VMC and came to know Sam Brown, as he later recalled on the Senate floor in 1994 while defending Brown’s nomination as US ambassador to the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Grossman in return would continue to support Kerry throughout his political career, into his 2004 Presidential campaign.51

Transition from the VMC to the VVAW: Robert Drinan

In February 1970 Kerry began chairing Drinan’s campaign, which culminated in Drinan being elected to Congress that November.52 Kerry’s relationship with Drinan continued after the campaign. Kerry spoke favorably of Drinan during his 1971 Senate testimony, saying “certain individuals are in Congress today, particularly in the House, who several years ago could never have been. I would cite Representative Dellums and the Congresswoman Abzug and Congressman Drinan and people like this. I think this is a terribly encouraging sign. . .”53 Drinan in return used his Congressional position to help Kerry and the VVAW. He tried to change the law in order to let the then-28-year-old Kerry run in the 1972 Senatorial election by co-proposing a Constitutional amendment to lower the minimum age for Senator from 30 to 27, a proposal which came to be referred to as the “Kerry Amendment”.54 Drinan also supported the VVAW by calling for a Congressional follow-up to the Winter Soldier Investigation’s allegations of war crimes by US troops, and by drafting a bill authorizing government mental health-care support for Vietnam veterans diagnosed with “Post-Vietnam Syndrome” (now known as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder), a diagnosis invented by VVAW ally Robert Jay Lifton.55 After Kerry called for Nixon’s impeachment in February 197256—six months prior to the Watergate break-ins—Drinan became the first member of Congress to introduce a resolution of impeachment against Nixon on July 31, 1973.57 In 2004 Drinan has been an advisor to Kerry’s Presidential campaign.58

Father Drinan’s background was a maze of Communist connections. While studying for the priesthood in the 1940s he had been a classmate of Daniel Berrigan,59 a left-wing priest who later became active in the antiwar movement.60 After earning degrees in law and becoming a lawyer, Drinan joined the faculty of Boston College Law School and eventually was promoted to Dean. As a lawyer he supported left-wing social causes and became in 1968 national vice-president of the National Lawyers Guild (NLG),61 identified in a 1950 Congressional investigation as the “legal bulwark of the Communist Party” and linked in the late 1960s and early 1970s to Communist-connected terrorist groups like the Weather Underground Organization (WUO, also known as the Weathermen).62 In 1969 Drinan travelled to Vietnam on behalf of the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR),63 a Communist front group64 which his old classmate Daniel Berrigan vice-chaired.65 Drinan spoke at a New Mobe event in March 1970,66 a few months before a Congressional report found that the New Mobe was under “communist domination”.67 Drinan’s Congressional campaign received an endorsement from former Attorney General Ramsey Clark,68 who during this period also defended Daniel Berrigan’s brother Philip against charges of conspiring to kidnap public officials, represented the VVAW and the Communist-infiltrated New Mobe offshoot National Peace Action Coalition (NPAC) in a legal dispute with the Supreme Court, assisted the Communist front group Committee for Public Justice (CPJ) in a campaign to discredit the FBI, led a Black Panther inquiry into the Chicago Police Department, and travelled to North Vietnam to denounce US bombing.69 Drinan was under FBI surveillance while Kerry was working for his campaign.70

Kerry in the Spotlight: The VVAW

Kerry’s relationship with the VVAW emerged out of his relationship to Grossman, the Drinan campaign, and the VMC. Kerry’s speaking activity for Drinan and the VMC brought him to the attention of leaders of the VVAW’s New York headquarters. He subsequently joined the VVAW shortly after his marriage on May 23, 197071 and helped the group set up a Massachusetts branch.72 The VVAW remained relatively unknown and Kerry maintained a low profile in the organization until a Labor Day 1970 rally at Valley Forge called “Operation RAW” (Rapid American Withdrawal) showcased his public speaking skills.73 After this the VVAW tried to attract media attention by going to Detroit in January 1971 to stage a “Winter Soldier Investigation” (WSI) into alleged war crimes by US soldiers.74 When this failed to generate publicity, VVAW co-leader Al Hubbard appointed Kerry to the group’s National Executive Committee so that Kerry could use his contacts with the Democratic National Committee and Ted Kennedy to help organize a major rally in Washington, DC.75 During the rally, held in April 1971 and called “Dewey Canyon III” after the codename of a US military operation, Kerry testified to the Senate about alleged war crimes and attracted national media attention to the VVAW cause.76 Following this Kerry became the VVAW’s most prominent national spokesman. He resigned from the VVAW’s National Executive Committee citing “personal reasons” in November 1971,77 shortly before he began to campaign for the 1972 Congressional elections, but he continued to identify himself as the VVAW’s national leader and to speak on behalf of the organization throughout 1972 and into at least 1973.78 During this period the VVAW became increasingly militant and engaged in violent activity such as running guns to black militant groups in Cairo, Illinois starting in August 1971; plotting the assassination of pro-war politicians in November 1971; taking over the Lincoln Memorial and Statue of Liberty and other national symbols in December 1971; dumping blood on United States ambassador to the United Nations George H.W. Bush in May 1972; and physically attacking delegates and police at the Republican National Convention in Miami in August 1972.79

The VVAW before Kerry: From the FAVPPC to the Black Panthers

The VVAW had been founded in New York in 1967 by Vietnam veteran Jan Barry Crumb, who called himself Jan Barry. Barry’s involvement in the antiwar movement began in April 1967 when he attended the April 7 Peace Parade. The parade had been organized by the Fifth Avenue Vietnam Peace Parade Committee (FAVPPC). The FAVPPC was led by Norma Becker, a member of a Communist front group called the War Resisters League (WRL), and it operated out of the same 5 Beekman Street address as numerous inter-related Communist front groups and fellow-travelling groups, such as the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), the Committee for Nonviolent Action (CNVA), and the Catholic Peace Fellowship (CPF). It was described in a 1970 Congressional report as “dominated by communists”.80 Participating in the FAVPPC’s rally were some members of Veterans for Peace (VFP), an outgrowth of American Veterans for Peace (AVP), an antiwar group which the Communist Party had originally formed in 1951 to protest the Korean War.81 Barry joined Vietnam veterans among the VFP marchers and inquired about a banner some of them were carrying which read “Vietnam Veterans Against the War”. When Barry learned the phrase was just a slogan and there was no formal group by that name, he decided to form one. After talking with the older VFP members and studying their tactics, he recruited five Vietnam veterans from a Memorial Day VFP rally, and on June 1, 1967 the six of them held the first VVAW meeting in his apartment.82

On June 4, 1967, VVAW treasurer Francis Rocks opened up a PO Box for the VVAW, telling the post office the VVAW’s address was 5 Beekman Street, the same address as the FAVPPC. The New York VVAW maintained a close relationship with the FAVPPC, holding early meetings in another building used by the FAVPPC at 156 Fifth Avenue and later moving into the same building. On September 9, 1967, the Communist magazine The Worker covered the VVAW in an article giving the organization’s address as 17 East 17th Street and reporting that the organization now had about 20 members, including half a dozen graduates of Columbia University. As the VVAW grew it attracted members with links to other antiwar groups, notably Carl Rogers, a member of an antiwar group called Negotiation Now! which shared space with the FAVPPC at 156 Fifth Avenue. Leaving Negotiation Now! to help run the VVAW, Rogers helped the VVAW network with such contacts as the Mobe, Clergy and Laity Concerned About Vietnam (CALCAV, later shortened to CALC), antiwar diplomat George Ball, antiwar Congressman Allard Lowenstein, antiwar Senators Ernest Gruening and J. William Fulbright, and the 1968 Presidential campaign of antiwar candidate Eugene McCarthy. Over the course of the 1968 campaign the VVAW split into a faction supporting McCarthy and a faction supporting Robert Kennedy. Kennedy was assassinated in June, McCarthy dropped out of the campaign in August, and Richard Nixon won the election, leaving the VVAW disillusioned, without a sense of direction, and financially weak.83

During this period from 1967-1968, prompted by the mention of the VVAW in The Worker, the FBI opened a file on the VVAW and investigated whether it was a Communist front or infiltrated by Communists . At this time the Bureau found no evidence of direct Communist Party control of the VVAW, but noted indications of the VVAW fellow travelling with Communists, such as the VVAW’s common address with the FAVPCC and the participation of VVAW leaders in events linked to groups such as VFP, the SWP, and the Mobe. A May 16, 1968 document from the FBI’s VVAW file mentions TASS, the official Soviet news agency. The declassified version of the document is so heavily blacked out that the full meaning of the reference is unclear, but in context it appears to relate to an ad the VVAW ran in The New York Times on November 19, 1967. Later, after the FBI had opened an active investigation of the VVAW in 1971, a New York FBI office report would note that in September 1968 the VVAW had participated in a protest organized by the National Emergency Civil Liberties Committee (NECLC), a Communist front group linked to the National Lawyers Guild.84

Regrouping after the 1968 election, the VVAW leadership temporarily left management of the organization in the charge of Jim Boggio, leader of the VVAW’s Los Angeles chapter, from fall 1968 to fall 1969. During this period the FBI noted that Boggio attended meetings of the Socialist Workers Party and that his VVAW branch was successfully infiltrated by the SWP’s youth branch, the Young Socialist Alliance (YSA).85

Meanwhile VVAW leaders Barry and Rogers and their friend Steve Wilcox turned their attention towards forming a new organization called Serviceman’s Link to the Peace Movement, or LINK. LINK’s purpose was to connect the civilian antiwar movement with the antiwar movement among active-duty GI’s. It supported GI’s facing court-martial and participated in high-profile cases such as the trials of Susan Schnall, the Presidio 27, and Roger Priest.86. Schnall was a Navy nurse court-martialed for demonstrating against the war in uniform and using a plane to drop antiwar leaflets on military installations.87 The Presidio 27 was a group of 27 mutineers who were being defended by Terence Hallinan, son of the prominent Communist lawyer Vincent Hallinan.88. Priest was a Pentagon employee who had initially dodged the draft but then decided to join the Navy anyway to challenge the system. While on active duty he had published an antiwar newspaper which advocated desertion to Canada, insubordination, and the assassination of President Nixon. Priest’s paper was funded by the Stern Family Fund, a left-wing charity which was then also funding such groups as the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS), a KGB-connected think tank, and today helps fund Teresa Heinz-Kerry’s Tides Foundation. Priest designated the War Resisters League as the beneficiary of his GI life insurance policy, saying he hoped to start a trend so that every time a GI died, the WRL would become $10,000 richer. LINK joined in the defense of Priest, and after the Navy gave him an early release from his enlistment in mid-1969, Priest joined LINK’s staff as a counsel to other antiwar GI’s.89

While the VVAW leaders focused their energy on LINK from late 1968 to late 1969, the remnant of the VVAW worked towards the election of antiwar Congressmen like Allard Lowenstein and Paul O’Dwyer90 and participated in Mobe-organized rallies. The Mobe alliance served to rejuvenate the VVAW when the New Mobe was formed in July 1969.91 The meeting which created the New Mobe followed a May 1969 meeting in Stockholm between members of the original Mobe, the Soviet-linked World Peace Council, and a North Vietnamese delegation. Participants in the meeting discussed planning antiwar activities in Washington, DC that fall. Following this meeting the Socialist Workers Party called the July meeting which resulted in the formation of the New Mobe.92 Joining the steering committee of this meeting was Carl Rogers of the VVAW and LINK. Soon after the meeting LINK began sharing a headquarters with the New Mobe and VMC at 1029 Vermont Avenue NW in Washington, DC.93

Through its relationship with the New Mobe and VMC, the VVAW rapidly attracted hundreds of new members following major VMC demonstrations in fall 1969.94 One of the most important new members was Al Hubbard, a black veteran who claimed to have held the rank of captain and have been wounded in Vietnam, though it later turned out that he had only been a staff sergeant, he had never served in Vietnam, and his injuries were old sports injuries.95 Despite his fraudulence, Hubbard was a charismatic speaker and effective organizer. He was appointed as the VVAW’s executive secretary, and he developed a plan to expand the VVAW from a one-issue antiwar group into a veterans political organization. As part of this plan, he took the step of incorporating the VVAW as a 501(c)(3) corporation, giving the organization tax-exempt status and eligibility to receive public and private grants. He sent VVAW recruiters to veterans hospitals, college campuses, and high schools. He introduced programs for networking with veterans by providing social benefits and services like regular veterans organizations did. He got the VVAW involved in political lobbying and supporting antiwar politicians. He conceived publicity stunts to attract media attention to the VVAW. Finally, he helped the VVAW network with other antiwar groups, particularly among the militant faction of the civil rights movement led by the Black Panthers.96

The Black Panther Party (BPP), considered by the FBI to be “the greatest threat to the internal security of the country”, had been formed by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland in 1966. The Panthers espoused a violence-oriented interpretation of Maoism which related the black civil rights cause to “capitalist oppression” of Third World countries like Vietnam, and on this basis they supported the North Vietnamese cause, volunteering to send fighters to Vietnam to aid the Viet Cong. The Panthers took their name from the logo for the Lowndes County Freedom Organization, an Alabama black political group which had been organized by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).97 SNCC was a civil rights group which had been infiltrated by the Communist Party and was allied with the Castro regime through the Fair Play for Cuba Committee (FPCC) and later the Venceremos Brigade (VB). Leading SNCC organizer Stokely Carmichael had become a Marxist in high school after meeting the son of Eugene Dennis, a prominent Communist Party figure who led CP efforts to infiltrate the civil rights movement in the late 1950s. After joining SNCC in the early 1960s, Carmichael networked with members of the Alabama CP to form the Lowndes County Freedom Organization in 1965. The next year Carmichael was elected chairman of the SNCC and abandoned the group’s nonviolent policy. In 1967 he travelled to Cuba, China, North Vietnam, and finally Guinea, where he met with Guinea Communists representing an anti-colonial movement known as Pan-Africanism. From Guinea Carmichael returned to the United States with the intent of forming Black United Front groups throughout the country. In 1968 he left SNCC and became prime minister of the Black Panther Party, forming a temporary BPP/SNCC alliance. This alliance began to break up in summer 1969, fueled by Carmichael’s disagreement with the BPP’s policy of allying with white activists.98

In a parallel development, by 1969 the white student antiwar movement—centered around Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)—had divided into anti-Panther and pro-Panther factions. The pro-Panther faction was linked to the Weather Underground Organization (WUO, or Weathermen), a Cuban/North Vietnamese-trained terrorist group which sought to advance the antiwar and civil rights causes through violent tactics. Starting in 1969 the Weathermen branch of SDS, SNCC, and other groups began coordinating efforts with a pro-Castro group called the Venceremos Brigade to send groups of Americans to Cuba for intelligence training by Cuban and North Vietnamese agents.99

It was during this period, following the VMC demonstrations of late 1969, that Hubbard joined the VVAW and began building a VVAW-BPP alliance. Hubbard took VVAW members to BPP meetings with him and built a BPP chapter of the VVAW in Harlem. He coordinated a BPP convention with a VVAW demonstration at Valley Forge in fall 1970. Meanwhile Hubbard advocated turning the VVAW into a “weather vets” group, modeled on the Weathermen.100

Enter the Kerrys

It was also following the VMC demonstrations of late 1969 that the VVAW came into contact with the Kerrys. VVAW member Sheldon Ramsdell, through working as a press aide for Eugene McCarthy’s campaign, had become involved with the New York Press Service and the Democratic Party in New York.101 The New York branch of the VVAW was at this time sharing office space with the New York branch of the VMC,102 and Ramsdell became acquainted with the leading figure of the New York VMC, Adam Walinsky.103 Peggy Kerry was then working for the New York VMC,104 and she was introduced to Ramsdell by New York Congresswoman Bella Abzug,105 a cofounder of the Communist-infiltrated group Women Strike for Peace (WSP).106 Through Peggy’s work with the New York VMC, John met the New York VVAW,107 and the New York VVAW leaders took interest in John after he began speaking for Drinan and the VMC. John joined the VVAW shortly after his marriage on May 23, 1970. He was soon appointed to the VVAW’s National Executive Committee by Al Hubbard, and he began to help the VVAW set up a Massachussetts branch in the office of Mass PAX.108 Meanwhile for their honeymoon Kerry and his wife travelled to Paris, and during their stay there they met leaders of the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG), a delegation representing the North Vietnamese government’s proposed ruling body for South Vietnam.109

Operation RAW and The Winter Soldier Investigation

Kerry emerged as the VVAW’s leading spokesman through his participation in Operation RAW (Rapid American Withdrawal), a rally held at Valley Forge over Labor Day weekend in September 1970. Operation RAW had been conceived by Al Hubbard to help the VVAW network with active-duty GIs and veterans, to forge links between the VVAW and the civil rights movement, and to promote an investigation into alleged war crimes by US troops in Vietnam—an investigation which came to be called the Winter Solder Investigation (WSI).110

What became WSI was originally the project of a group allied with the VVAW, the Citizens’ Commission of Inquiry into War Crimes in Indochina (CCI). The CCI in turn had initiated its inquiry in November 1969 in response to a call from the Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation, founded in 1963 by British antiwar leader Bertrand Russell. Russell and his wife Dora had worked with various antiwar groups since World War I, many of which were linked to the Communist movement in Britain and America. During the Cold War Russell came to sympathize with the Soviet Union, Cuba, and North Vietnam. In 1963 he began opposing the US in the Vietnam War in direct alliance with the North Vietnamese, using his Foundation to attempt to obtain passports for North Vietnamese and broadcasting propaganda over North Vietnamese radio. In 1966 he called for an International War Crimes Tribunal which would apply the principles of the Nuremberg Trials to investigations of alleged war crimes by US troops in Vietnam. The International War Crimes Tribunal began meeting in Sweden and Denmark in 1967 and became independent of Russell’s Foundation.111 It was supported by leading Marxist intellectuals from Europe and America, notably Jean-Paul Sartre, a leading French philosopher who was a periodic member of the French Communist Party and had worked with the Soviet-linked World Peace Council;112 and Noam Chomsky, an American linguist who travelled in 1971 to North Vietnam, where among other things he “negotiated” POW releases as a propaganda ploy to show the “benefits” of cooperating with the North Vietnamese.113 Also participating in the Tribunal were Stokely Carmichael of SNCC and the Black Panthers;114; Carl Oglseby, president of Students for a Democratic Society;115 Peter Weiss, prominent member of the Communist front group the National Lawyers Guild, chairman of the board of the KGB-linked Institute for Policy Studies, and husband of Cora Rubin Weiss (daughter of Communist Party financier Samuel Rubin), who collaborated with the North Vietnamese to extort POW families through the group Committee of Liaison with Families of Servicemen Detained in North Vietnam (COLIFAM);116 and Wilfred Burchett, a KGB agent working for the pro-Vietnamese propaganda outlet Dispatch News Service.117 Dispatch News Service provided Seymour Hersh’s story on American war crimes at My Lai to The New York Times in November 1969,118 which stimulated Russell’s War Crimes Tribunal to launch an American branch of its investigation.119 The same month Hersh’s story broke, Russell’s secretary Ralph Schoenman placed an ad to promote the American investigation. He received a response from Tod Ensign of the New Mobe and Black Panthers and his associate Jeremy Rifkin, who had been working with Larry Rottmann of VVAW. Ensign and Rifkin founded the CCI and began forming a coalition with other antiwar leaders and groups, including Chomsky, who had participated in the International War Crimes Tribunal; Richard Fernandez of the Communist-infiltrated group Clergy and Laity Concerned and the Vietnam Moratorium Committee, who travelled to North Vietnam with Chomsky in 1971; Phil Spiro of the Communist Party; participants in an unofficial Congressional war crimes panel which included testimony from psychiatrist Robert Jay Lifton, a coauthor of Richard Falk, cofounder of the Institute for Policy Studies, who had previously travelled to North Vietnam with Cora Weiss and was then assisting government whistleblower Daniel Ellsberg in preparing the Pentagon Papers for publication; and antiwar Senator Charles Goodell.120

Rifkin and Ensign had their office across the street from VVAW headquarters, and in January 1970 they invited the VVAW to join the CCI’s coalition. At first the VVAW could only afford to share their mailing list with the CCI, but in August 1970 the VVAW decided to launch its own supplementary investigation after picking up funding from Jane Fonda.121

Fonda had become opposed to the Vietnam War while living in France from 1965 to 1969. After returning to the United States in 1969, she called Sam Brown of the Vietnam Moratorium Committee and offered her help to the antiwar movement. She spent much of 1969-1970 touring the country promoting the antiwar movement and various associated left-wing causes, particularly American Indian militant groups and the Black Panthers. She arranged bail money for a Panther arrested with sawed-off shotguns and invited Panther leader Huey Newton to use her penthouse to hold a press conference, prompting the FBI to place her under surveillance. The House Internal Security Committee later reported that from January 8-10, 1971, Fonda participated in a National Coalition Conference which included representatives of the Communist Party and the Black Panthers.122

Fonda came into contact with the VVAW through Mark Lane, a left-wing attorney she met while she was involved with the Black Panthers. Lane had been a 1960 New York State Legislature candidate for the Democratic Reform Movement, a left-wing faction of the Democratic Party led by former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt and former New York Governor Herbert Lehman. Through his work with the Democratic Reform Movement, Lane became a manager for the New York campaign of 1960 Presidential candidate John Kennedy. Following Kennedy’s assassination in 1963, Lane became a lawyer for Lee Harvey Oswald’s mother, formed a Citizens’ Committee of Inquiry to investigate the assassination, and wrote articles and books defending Oswald. Lane’s work was published with support from Bertrand Russell, and it attracted favorable attention from the KGB, which began covertly arranging funding for Lane’s investigation and placing agents in his orbit to encourage his research (whether Lane was aware of this is not confirmed in KGB files, though the KGB suspected he had guessed the source of the funding). KGB agent Genrikh Borovik began maintaining regular contact with Lane, and the KGB arranged funding for Lane to visit a Communist front meeting in Budapest in 1964 to promote his views on the assassination. Lane would serve as a legal advisor to VVAW members.123

In early 1970 Lane met Fonda.124 Meanwhile, Lane was assisting Rifkin and Ensign’s CCI in finding war crimes witnesses.125 Lane convinced Fonda to raise funds for the VVAW to launch its own Winter Soldier Investigation to supplement CCI’s investigation, and Hubbard persuaded Ensign to join forces with Fonda. Fonda was appointed the VVAW’s Honorary National Coordinator.126

The VVAW planned to promote the WSI by announcing it at at the Operation RAW rally to be held in Valley Forge over Labor Day weekend in September 1970. The rally was scheduled to coincide with the nearby Revolutionary People’s Constitutional Convention (RPCC),127 which brought the Black Panthers together with a coalition of other ethnic militant groups, Students for a Democratic Society, the Youth International Party, feminist groups, and gay rights groups.128 Al Hubbard arranged for the VVAW’s rally to be joined by the Family of Man, a coalition of black civil rights groups marching from Washington to New York via Philadelphia, the site of the RPCC.129

Also attending the RPCC and originally scheduled to join the Operation RAW rally were members of the Youth International Party (YIP, or Yippies).130 The Yippies had been founded in 1967 by Abbie Hoffman, a former SNCC organizer; and Jerry Rubin, a cofounder of the Vietnam Day Committee (VDC), a Communist-allied group that had organized some of the earliest protests against the Vietnam War. The Yippies tried to generate publicity for the antiwar cause by staging flamboyant confrontations, which tended to provoke violence. Hoffman and Rubin were convicted in February 1970 of inciting a riot at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago in 1968. After their conviction, Hoffman published a how-to book for anarchists which included directions for bombmaking.131 While Hoffman and Rubin were serving their sentence, the Yippies agreed to participate in Operation RAW by helping VVAW marchers stage mock skirmishes where the veterans would play US troops and the Yippies would play Viet Cong. However upon reconsideration the VVAW leaders became worried that this might lead to violent confrontations with observers and police, so they cancelled the skirmishes and instead asked the Yippies to play Viet Cong prisoners. The Yippies decided that this would be boring and declined to participate.132 But Yippie cofounder Dick Gregory, who was now associated with Jane Fonda’s antiwar “F.T.A.” troupe, still supported the Winter Soldier Investigation,133 and Yippie tactics inspired later VVAW publicity stunts like Dewey Canyon III.134 TheYippies would join the VVAW at Dewey Canyon III and in rioting at the 1972 Republican National Convention.135

The Operation RAW rally was sponsored by Fonda, Lane, their associate Donald Sutherland, and several antiwar politicians,136 notably Michigan Congressman John Conyers, Jr., a cofounder of the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC), who became a key Congressional link to the Institute for Policy Studies and the World Peace Council;137 and antiwar Senator George McGovern, who was first elected with funding from the IPS-linked Council for a Livable World (CLW), would run as the Democratic Party’s Presidential candidate in 1972, and was described in an 18-page FBI memorandum as having pro-Communist sympathies and being involved in various subversive activities.138 Speakers included Hubbard, who expounded Marxist theories of “capitalist imperialism”; Lane and Fonda, who advocated violently overthrowing the capitalist system; Sutherland, who read an antiwar drama written by Dalton Trumbo, a Communist screenwriter who had helped write the scripts for Fonda and Sutherland’s F.T.A. and Lane’s Executive Action;139 Congressman Allard Lowenstein, who criticized Nixon’s Vietnamization strategy;140 civil rights and Mobe leader James Bevel, who called for a march to the UN to deliver a petition charging the US with genocide in Vietnam;141 and Kerry, who defended the VVAW’s patriotism and attacked Nixon’s.

The same month as Operation RAW, the CCI sent one of its coordinators, Mike Uhl, to Sweden to attend the Stockholm Peace Committee, a similar war crimes investigation staged by a Communist-influenced coalition. Mark Lane also attended, and during the proceedings he behaved like a prosecutor, scolding the veterans for the war crimes they confessed to, and also criticizing Uhl because his testimony was not sensational enough. Afterwords, Lane attacked Uhl at a joint CCI/VVAW meeting, and the CCI members in turn complained to Al Hubbard that they could not work with Lane any longer. Hubbard agreed that Lane was intolerable, but Jane Fonda would not allow Lane to be removed, and Hubbard, fearful of losing her financial support, consented to let Lane stay. Lane, meanwhile, was preparing to publish a book on war crimes that December. But even before publication, critics began complaining that Lane emphasized sensational allegations involving physical and sexual mutiliation, used fictitious names for his interviewees, and did not cross-reference the allegations he recorded against military records. Lane’s reputation grew so bad even among his antiwar colleagues that Robert Jay Lifton called Tod Ensign to warn him that the CCI/WSI investigation’s credibility would be compromised if Lane was allowed to participate. Communist Party leaders who visited Moscow in 1971 would complain that Lane was motivated by his own self-aggrandizement. Because of the dispute over Lane, CCI and WSI split into two separate investigations, with the CCI investigation becoming known as the National Veterans’ Inquiry. Lane and Fonda remained with WSI.142

The CCI and WSI had originally planned to hold their joint investigation in Washington, DC, but because Fonda wanted to hold the investigation somewhere she deemed more representative of working-class America, the WSI investigation ended up being moved to Detroit. The hearings were held at Howard Johnson’s Motor Lodge from January 31 through February 2, 1971 and were followed up by a meeting between some of the WSI participants—including Fonda—and a group of North Vietnamese students at a United Auto Workers (UAW) union hall in nearby Windsor, Canada.143 Housing for organizers and witnesses was arranged by a group of antiwar clergy which included Daniel Berrigan.144 Funding came from Michigan political figures and organizations, including Emil Mazey of UAW145 and Michigan Secretary of State Richard Austin;146 from Business Executives Move for Vietnam Peace (BEM, later renamed Business Executives Move for New National Priorities), a group of antiwar businessmen founded by Henry Niles of Baltimore Life Insurance Company; 147 from benefit concerts by rock singers David Crosby, Graham Nash, 148 and Phil Ochs; 149 and from Fonda and Lane. Political support came from SDS cofounder and Mobe leader Tom Hayden, who had travelled abroad regularly to meet with North Vietnamese representatives and had been convicted of inciting a riot at the 1968 Demoratic National Convention;150 Ralph Abernathy of the Communist-infiltrated Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC);151 Yippie cofounder Dick Gregory;152 and over a dozen members of Congress, including Operation RAW sponsors Conyers and McGovern, as well as Congressional Black Caucus cofounder Ronald Dellums, who endorsed the Black Panthers and shortly after his election had addressed a meeting of the Soviet front World Peace Council in November 1970.153 Dellums offered the VVAW office space in Washington so they could follow up the WSI with an official Congressional investigation. A number of other members of Congress joined in promoting this idea, including McGovern; Conyers; Congressional Black Caucus cofounder Charles Rangel;154 Students for a Democratic Society cofounder Michael Harrington, who would later found Democratic Socialists of America (DSA);155 Women Strike for Peace cofounder Bella Abzug;156 Robert Drinan;157 and Senator Mark Hatfield, who belonged to an IPS-linked antiwar lobby in Congress called Members of Congress for Peace Through Law (MCPL, later renamed the Arms Control and Foreign Policy Caucus, ACFPC).158 Hatfield read portions of the WSI testimony into the Congressional Record. Publicity for the hearings came from the Communist propaganda station Pacifica Radio;159 the underground press; a few major Midwestern papers; The New York Times, which had previously picked up Seymour Hersh’s My Lai story from the IPS-linked propaganda outlet Dispatch News and would soon help Daniel Ellsberg and IPS publicize The Pentagon Papers;160 CBS, then airing the antiwar broadcasts of Walter Cronkite;161 Beacon Press, who signed a contract to publish excerpts of the WSI testimony;162 Nash, who wrote a song called “Oh! Camil (the Winter Soldier)” inspired by the testimony of VVAW member Scott Camil; the Winterfilm Collective, a group of antiwar activists who shot a film of the WSI which was screened in the office of Francis Ford Coppola, an admirer of Fidel Castro;163 and Hugh Hefner—a funder of the Vietnam Moratorium Committee and a former employer of Dick Gregory—who donated an ad for the VVAW in the February issue of Playboy to coincide with the WSI hearings.164

During the hearings IPS associate Robert Jay Lifton spoke as the keynote speaker and served on one of the panels.165 Serving on other panels were Lifton’s coauthor Richard Falk of the Institute for Policy Studies, who had travelled to North Vietnam in 1969;166 Falk’s IPS associate Peter Weiss, a member of several Communist front groups who had participated in the Bertrand Russell Foundation’s International War Crimes Tribunal and had travelled to North Vietnam in November 1970, and whose wife Cora had collaborated with the North Vietnamese to exploit POW families through the group Committee of Liaison with Families of Servicemen Detained in North Vietnam (COLIFAM);167 Howard Zinn, a former SNCC organizer who had travelled to North Vietnam with Daniel Berrigan in 1968 to “negotiate” POW releases;168 and Sidney Peck, a Marxist sociologist who had travelled to North Vietnam and co-led a New Mobe spinoff called the National Coalition Against War, Racism and Repression (NCAWRR, soon to be renamed the People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice, PCPJ), a CP-linked coalition which had recently negotiated a “People’s Peace Treaty” with North Vietnamese students.169

One participant who came to the hearings with Camil and Kerry, Steve Pitkin, would later allege that his testimony had been coached and coerced by Kerry and others.170 During the hearings some of the veterans talked about shooting President Nixon, and had to be discouraged from engaging in this kind of talk by WSI attorney Ken Cloke.171 The testimony included allegations of a secret February 1969 US mission in Laos, reportedly code-named Dewey Canyon I. This revelation allegedly forced the Pentagon to change the code-name of an upcoming Laos operation which was to be called Dewey Canyon II. It also inspired the name of the VVAW’s next major operation, Dewey Canyon III.172

Dewey Canyon III

Planning for Dewey Canyon III began during the WSI when the VVAW leaders met to address how to generate more publicity than the event seemed to be getting. Kerry claims that it was he who suggested the idea of a march on Washington. Jan Barry has a similar recollection, but other VVAW members contradict this, recalling that a spring demonstration in Washington was already being planned, it was only the details that had not been determined. In fact the April 18-23, 1971 date the VVAW selected for the event was chosen to coincide with major demonstrations the North Vietnamese government was coordinating with the two major factions of the antiwar movement that had emerged from the New Mobe.173

During 1970 the New Mobe had divided into factions over the issue of whether to emphasize massive civil disobedience or mass organized demonstrations. After a May 9, 1970 New Mobe demonstration in response to Nixon’s invasion of Cambodia and the Kent State shooting, the Socialist Workers Party decided to break away from New Mobe elements advocating civil disobedience and form its own organization oriented towards mass organized demonstrations. Following the SWP’s direction, in June 1970 the Detroit and Cleveland branches of the New Mobe split off to form a new national organization, the National Peace Action Coalition (NPAC), coordinated by Jerry Gordon, an Ohio union leader linked to the SWP, and James Lafferty, a Detroit lawyer prominent in the National Lawyers Guild.174 Meanwhile, in September 1970 the faction of the New Mobe advocating civil disobedience, led by Sidney Peck, formed the National Coalition Against War, Racism and Repression (NCAWRR).175

These two factions soon came together in a tenuous alliance negotiated by the North Vietnamese. After Nixon’s April 1970 invasion of Cambodia, NCAWRR’s Rennie Davis—who had previously been convicted of inciting a riot at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago176—began planning for massive civil disobedience to shut down Washington, DC in May 1971 if the war had not ended by then. Meanwhile the NPAC held a rally on October 31, 1970, but the turnout was so poor that afterwords NPAC leaders invited NCAWRR to participate in a December meeting for planning future events. At the meeting the NPAC insisted on holding its rally on April 24, 1971 despite NCAWRR’s request to delay settling on a date until after a NCAWRR meeting scheduled for early January. NCAWRR leaders felt that the NPAC was deliberately trying to control the antiwar movement by scheduling their event in April in order to reduce the number of participants who would be able to attend the May event Davis was planning. During NCAWRR’s January meeting there was heated debate over the issue, and the participants were only able to agree on a very general program to implement a symbolic “People’s Peace Treaty” which had previously been negotiated by Davis, Tom Hayden, and others with Vietnamese students; but the date conflict remained divisive. The next weekend NCAWRR and NPAC met and failed to reach an agreement on a date. Shortly afterwords NCAWRR dissolved and became the People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice (PCPJ),177 a coalition that included the Communist Party178 and various Communist front groups such as the Fellowship of Reconciliation,179 the War Resisters League,180 and the American Friends Service Committee.181 Meanwhile in February South Vietnam invaded Laos with US support, prompting North Vietnamese ambassador Xuan Thuy to plead for unity between the factions of the US antiwar movement in order to pressure the Nixon administration into a cease-fire agreement. Subsequently the New Mobe’s Sidney Lens helped mediate an agreement that the PCPJ would support the NPAC’s April 24 event and not organize any civil disobedience or violence on the week of April 24, in exchange for the NPAC not interfering with any disobedience or violence during the PCPJ’s May event, which came to be called Mayday.182

While NCAWRR/PCPJ leader Sidney Peck had been involved in negotiating a date with the NPAC that January, he also participated in the VVAW’s Winter Soldier Investigation,183 which concluded with the aforementioned meeting to plan Dewey Canyon III.184 At this time the VVAW and PCPJ had offices across the street from each other in New York at 155 and 156 Fifth Avenue respectively.185 After the NPAC and PCPJ had settled on a date for their Washington demonstration, the PCPJ and VVAW both set up office space on the 9th floor of 1029 Vermont Avenue NW in Washington, DC, the same building the VVAW affiliate LINK had previously shared with the New Mobe and VMC in 1969. The 8th floor of the same building was rented by the NPAC. The 10th floor was rented by a violent faction of the PCPJ led by Rennie Davis, the May Day Collective (which came to be known as the May Day Tribe).186

Joining the activities would be other antiwar veterans groups, including a group of active-duty GIs supported by the CCI and Mark Lane, the Concerned Officers Movement (COM), who had been working out of the office of Congressman Ron Dellums and were scheduled to hold ad hoc war crimes hearings before members of Congress at the same time the VVAW would be demonstrating.187 Various other antiwar groups and leaders would also participate, notably Ruth Gage Colby of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), an old Communist front group; Ralph Abernathy of the Communist-infiltrated Southern Christian Leadership Conference; and Jerry Rubin of the Yippies, whose flamboyant theatrics had inspired those the VVAW would employ at Dewey Canyon III.188

Dewey Canyon III was scheduled to run from Sunday, April 18, 1971 through Friday, April 23. During this time the VVAW planned to join the PCPJ in forming a “People’s Lobby”, which would involve staging sit-in demonstrations outside major government buildings and lobbying Congress to convene a special joint session to hear war crimes testimony. If as expected Congress failed to grant a session by Friday, the VVAW planned to have sympathetic members of Congress hold a symbolic session, during which veterans would return their medals. This would be followed up on Saturday, April 24 by the NPAC’s “March Against War” down Pennsylvania Avenue, which would kick off a week of events culminating in the PCPJ’s Mayday civil disobedience on Monday, May 3. Hundreds of VVAW participants in Dewey Canyon III would end up remaining for the Mayday demonstrations, including Al Hubbard.189

To raise money for Dewey Canyon III, John Kerry began a speaking tour.190 A week before the event, Kerry was informed that 5,000 of the participants still needed money for bus tickets, so he had Adam Walinsky arrange for a fundraiser to be held by a group of antiwar New York businessmen hosted by Seagram’s chief executive Edgar Bronfman,191 who had organized crime connections.192 Bronfman’s associates raised about $50,000 in one hour, Walinsky later recalled.193 At the time an FBI informant reported that “the VVAW had received fifty thousand dollars from United States Senators McGovern and Hatfield, who. . .obtained the money from an unknown New York source” to be ascertained. Later FBI documents identified Bronfman as a source of VVAW funding.194

Senators McGovern and Hatfield belonged to an IPS-linked lobby called Members of Congress for Peace Through Law (MCPL) which supported the antiwar protestors during Dewey Canyon III and the subsequent NPAC and PCPJ demonstrations. During the April 24 March Against the War, the VVAW was addressed by MCPL Senators McGovern, Ted Kennedy, Walter Mondale, and Philip Hart, along with two MCPL Congressmen. Meanwhile eight MCPL Congressmen addressed a PCPJ group.195 Political support also came from other antiwar Congressmen and Senators.196 Most notably, Senator Hart and Senator Claiborne Pell, a critic of US policy towards Cuba as well as Vietnam,197 hosted a VVAW fundraiser which was attended by Senator J. William Fulbright. Fulbright, who sat with Pell on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and shared Pell’s views on Cuba and Vietnam, had led Senate opposition to the Vietnam War since 1966,198 and during the fundraiser he invited Kerry to speak to his committee about war crimes. Other members of Fulbright’s committee who listened to Kerry sympathetically during his testimony were Stuart Symington, who had been Dean Acheson’s favored choice for Democratic Presidential candidate in 1960,199 and Frank Church, who would soon lead a Congressional attack on the US intelligence community which was supported by the VVAW, the National Lawyers Guild, the Institute for Policy Studies, and Cuban and Soviet agents.200

Dewey Canyon III would receive considerably more national publicity than the Winter Soldier Investigation. VVAW publicists were able to convince Time and Newsweek to run stories on the VVAW to make up for the lack of coverage of the WSI. In March Congressman Michael Harrington, who had supported the WSI, lent the VVAW his office for a press conference, resulting in coverage from national papers including The Washington Post and The New York Times, as well as TV coverage from CBS’ 60 Minutes. On the Sunday which started Dewey Canyon III, NBC’s Meet the Press hosted Kerry and Hubbard. During the week of the event, CBS’ antiwar reporter Walter Cronkite ran two sympathetic pieces on the VVAW. Afterwords, Life ran a story quoting extensively from VVAW war crimes testimony, and the Macmillian Publishing division Collier Books published John Kerry’s book memorializing the event, The New Soldier.201 Kerry’s book recorded that the protestors were addressed by I.F. Stone,202 a pro-Soviet journalist who a Soviet defector recently alleged had worked for the KGB periodically from 1944 to 1968.203 The Communist newspaper Daily World covered Dewey Canyon III closely.204

Dewey Canyon III was coordinated with the Communist movement and the North Vietnamese government from beginning to end. Prior to the conception of Dewey Canyon III, Rennie Davis and others in Sidney Peck’s NCAWRR/PCPJ coalition had negotiated a “People’s Peace Treaty” with North Vietnamese students, which was to be ratified the week of April 24, 1971.205 Peck participated in the Winter Soldier Investigation,206 which included planning for Dewey Canyon III207 and was followed up by a meeting between WSI participants—including Jane Fonda—and North Vietnamese students in Canada.208 The VVAW held its event on a date which had been chosen by the NPAC and agreed to by the PCPJ at the request of the North Vietnamese ambassador.209 During the preparations for the event, the VVAW sent representative Mike Hunter to join Jane Fonda and Mark Lane on a trip to meet North Vietnamese representatives in Paris in March.210 Funding for the event was transmitted to the VVAW through Senators McGovern and Hatfield of the IPS-linked MCPL lobby, and political support for the event was provided by MCPL Congressmen and Senators.211 Legal support for the protestors was provided by Ramsey Clark212, who had previously assisted the protestors who disrupted the 1968 Democratic National Convention213 and was now representing several other Communist front groups.214 (Clark and another VVAW lawyer, Peter Weiss,215 would soon join the National Lawyers Guild, the legal bulwark of the Communist Party,216 in defending the Communist terrorist group the Baader-Meinhof Gang.217) The Mayday demonstrations which followed Dewey Canyon III culminated in an attempt to shut down the traffic in Washington, DC and bring the federal government to a halt in order to pressure the Nixon administration into accepting a cease-fire based on the terms of the People’s Peace Treaty. The attempt failed due to poor logistical planning on the protestors’ part, but in order to control the demonstrators and preserve the government’s functioning law enforcement agencies were forced to resort to imposing what was called a state of “qualified marital law”, in which 14,000 police and National Guardsmen arrested 13,500 of the demonstrators.218 During the demonstrations, North Vietnamese foreign minister Nguyen Thi Binh issued a statement from Paris praising the demonstrators,219 and some of the demonstrators displayed the North Vietnamese flag.220 A Congressional investigation of the demonstrations found that they were “under substantial Communist influence”.221

Meanwhile, FBI reports on Dewey Canyon III noted that, “During VVAW activities, Al Hubbard. . .and others were overshadowed by a more popular and eloquent figure, John Kerry.”222

From Dewey Canyon III to the Kansas City meeting

During Dewey Canyon III, a few days after Kerry and Hubbard had appeared together on Meet the Press, the show’s host Lawrence Spivak called Kerry to complain that he had learned Hubbard was lying about his rank and possibly about having served in Vietnam, which called into question Kerry’s own credibility. After this Kerry’s relationship with Hubbard grew strained, leading to a confrontation at a VVAW meeting in November 1971 in Kansas City.223

The deterioration of Kerry’s relationship with Hubbard paralleled broader tensions between growing factions within the VVAW. By June 1971 VVAW founder Jan Barry was no longer associated with the VVAW (though he would later return in 1972), and the VVAW was no longer run by its national office in New York but by a six-member National Executive Committee which included Kerry; Hubbard; Hubbard’s supporters Mike Oliver and Craig Scott Moore (aka Scott Moore), of the VVAW’s New York chapter; Larry Rottmann, of New Mexico; and George “Skip” Roberts, of Connecticut.224 Among the committee’s members and between the committee and the VVAW’s regional coordinators there were several different political viewpoints in varying degrees of conflict.

Kerry felt the VVAW could be most politically effective by initially focusing on the single issue of ending the war and waiting until the war was over to work towards a broader social agenda. He also advocated working within the system rather than engaging in what he called “confrontational poltics”. In speeches at 1971 VVAW events he stressed that the VVAW was against violence, and he encouraged listeners to work to end the war by voting for antiwar politicians. This led many VVAW members to regard him as an opportunist seeking to use the VVAW to advance his own career as an antiwar politician.

Roberts held a position similar to Kerry’s, wanting to use the VVAW as a vehicle for recruiting campus veterans to organize mass demonstrations to end the war.

Hubbard in contrast sought to use the VVAW to advance a broad Marxist social agenda encompassing issues such as civil rights and anti-imperialism as well as ending the war. Kerry was not opposed to Hubbard’s goals on these issues, but he did not see the VVAW as a means towards achieving these goals in the immediate present, preferring instead to wait until the war was over to work towards these goals through the political system. Hubbard also differed from Kerry on tactics, tending to use more confrontational, Yippie-style tactics than Kerry preferred, and envisioning the transformation of the VVAW’s hardcore membership into a vanguard of “weather vets” modelled on the Weathermen.

Aligned with Hubbard but taking his position one step further were a group of VVAW regional coordinators calling themselves the “Anti-Imperialists’ Coalition”, led by Barry Romo and Sam Schorr of California, who were linked to Communist groups and the Weathermen faction of Students for a Democratic Society. Romo and Schorr’s coalition also included Gary Steiger of the Ohio VVAW, Scott Camil of the Florida and Southeastern VVAW, and the Idaho VVAW. The Anti-Imperialists’ Coalition advocated using the VVAW to advance a multi-issue social agenda, and was willing to employ extreme confrontational tactics, including assassination and violent demonstrations.225

The internal tensions in the VVAW mirrored external tensions between antiwar groups in contact with the VVAW, particularly between the neo-Trotskyite National Peace Action Coalition and the neo-Stalinist People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice. During Dewey Canyon III the tenuous alliance between the NPAC and the PCPJ began to break down into renewed rivalry, which intensified over the course of 1971. The rivalry revolved around the same issues that divided Kerry and Hubbard, with the NPAC like Kerry insisting on a political agenda limited to ending the war and tactics limited to nonviolent mass demonstrations, while the PCPJ like Hubbard advocated a broad social agenda and used civil disobedience tactics.226

Kerry, networking through Adam Walinsky and Jerome Grossman’s political contacts in Massachusetts and Washington DC, focused on building his VVAW faction’s relationship with the antiwar wings of the Democratic and Republican parties. Democratic Massachusetts Congressman Robert Drinan, whose campaigns were managed by Grossman, spoke at a May 1971 Massachusetts VVAW event Kerry co-organized, Operation POW, and worked to get Congress to pass an amendment that would lower age requirements enough to allow Kerry to run for Senator in 1972.227 Democratic Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy donated to the VVAW and spoke at Massachusetts VVAW events.228 1968 Democratic Presidential candidate Eugene McCarthy, for whom Grossman had organized, spoke at VVAW events.229 1972 Democratic Presidential candidate George McGovern was also linked to the VVAW. McGovern had supported the VVAW since 1970, endorsing Operation RAW and the Winter Soldier Investigation and speaking to the VVAW during Dewey Canyon III. Grossman organized for McGovern, and Grossman’s associate Emily Frankovich, who was McGovern’s key Massachusetts contact in 1971, demonstrated with the VVAW during Operation POW in May 1971. In June 1971 the VVAW organized a hunger strike to lobby in support of the McGovern-Hatfield Amendment, an amendment consponsored by McGovern which aimed to cut off Congressional funding for the Vietnam War. McGovern joined Kerry in speaking to a Colorado student union meeting in August 1971.230 Also joining Kerry and McGovern at the August 1971 meeting was Senator Paul McCloskey, a liberal Republican who had proposed the idea of Richard Nixon’s impeachment after the South Vietnamese invasion of Laos that February. McCloskey had previously spoken to the VVAW at Dewey Canyon III, and in January 1972 Kerry delivered a speech favoring him as the best Republican to challenge Nixon in the New Hampshire primaries.231

Meanwhile, Skip Roberts spent the summer after Dewey Canyon III touring with the F.T.A. troupe of Jane Fonda.232

At the same time, Al Hubbard maintained contact with the PCPJ and other groups. After Dewey Canyon III the Washington DC branch of the VVAW and the PCPJ continued to share office space, and the PCPJ and VVAW continued to co-organize demonstrations into at least 1972.233 PCPJ literature from this period listed Hubbard on the PCPJ Coordinating Committee, where he sat alongside Jarvis Tyner, the Communist Party’s 1972 Vice-Presidential candidate, and Gil Green, a high-ranking member of the New York CP.234 The PCPJ and War Resisters League cosponsored an August 1971 trip to Hanoi by Joe Urgo, whom Hubbard was training to assist his leadership of the VVAW.235 Hubbard and Urgo joined the Anti-Imperialists’ Coalition in pushing for the VVAW to become an armed revolutionary organization.236

As part of this trend towards militancy, Hubbard, Urgo, New York VVAW coordinator Ed Damato, members of the Anti-Imperialists’ Coalition, and certain VVAW regional chapters networked with various Communist and militant groups, some of which were trying to infiltrate the VVAW. In “Operation Heart of America”, a joint operation with the Fifth Avenue Vietnam Peace Parade Committee, the War Resisters League, and other Communist front groups in New York, Damato used the pretext of donating clothes and medical supplies to smuggle guns collected from VVAW regional chapters to the United Front,237 a black militant group in Cairo, Illinois linked to a St. Louis gang called the Black Liberators.238 Damato, Urgo, Scott Camil of the Southeastern VVAW, Brian Adams of the Colorado VVAW, and members of other VVAW regional chapters joined forces with the Revolutionary Union (RU), a Maoist offshoot of Students for a Democratic Society which sought a united front with other left-wing groups and had been infiltrating VVAW chapters around the country.239 Regional VVAW chapters also networked with or were infiltrated by the Communist Party;240 the Socialist Workers Party and its National Peace Action Coalition front;241 and the New Party led by Bob Kunst, a civil rights and gay rights activist (currently president of Hillarynow.com);242 among others.

The VVAW’s interaction with external groups extended abroad to foreign Communist groups and state sponsors. From late June through early July 1971, VVAW members joined members of the Citizens’ Commission of Inquiry into War Crimes in Indochina, Women Strike for Peace, and other antiwar groups as part of a US delegation to a conference of the International War Crimes Tribunal in Oslo, Norway. During the trip the delegation visited among other places Moscow, where they met with representatives of the Soviet Peace Committee and the North Vietnamese embassy; Helsinki, headquarters of the Soviet front group the World Peace Council; and Paris, where they met with a North Vietnamese delegation. Upon returning to the US, the delegation was met by William Kunstler, a lawyer who specialized in defending Communist and terrorist clients (including Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman, convicted of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing).243 A little over a month later, in late August 1971, Kerry told VVAW members at a Colorado meeting that he had just returned from a trip to Paris to visit with the North Vietamese delegation.244 In November Al Hubbard also visited the North Vietnamese delegation in Paris, and at some point during this period Hubbard travelled to Moscow to receive an award, which was covered in the Communist newspaper Daily World, prompting Kerry to rebuke him for indiscretion.245 Meanwhile Hubbard’s protégé Joe Urgo travelled to Hanoi in August 1971.246 Several VVAW chapters also supported the Venceremos Brigade, a group which sent members to Cuba for intelligence training by Cuban and North Vietnamese advisors.247

As VVAW factions grew closer to Communist and militant groups after Dewey Canyon III, VVAW chapters became increasingly involved in subversive and criminal activity, and the FBI began to investigate the VVAW more actively.248 The VVAW’s Philadelphia chapter, co-coordinated by Kerry’s associate Joe Bangert, came under FBI suspicion in June 1971 when a group it shared its office with, the Philadelphia Resistance (PR), distributed classified documents stolen from the FBI’s Media, Pennsylvania office that February.249 Later that year Daniel Ellsberg, who had recently leaked classified military documents with the help of VVAW associate Richard Falk, began speaking at VVAW events.250 The VVAW’s New York headquarters and Southeastern region raised money through drug-dealing,251 and the New York VVAW coordinated regional chapters’ smuggling of guns to a black militant group in Cairo, Illinois.252 VVAW chapters in Los Angeles and Cincinnati were investigated in connection with bomb threats reported at the time of the Dewey Canyon III and Mayday demonstrations.253 In September 1971 a Harrisburg, Pennsylvania VVAW rally was addressed by Neil McLaughlin, who was then out on bail and being defended by VVAW attorney Ramsey Clark in relation to charges of conspiring with Daniel and Philip Berrigan and others to kidnap Henry Kissinger and blow up heating systems in federal buildings in Washington.254 Two months later at the VVAW’s November Kansas City meeting, VVAW leaders discussed plans to kidnap or assassinate pro-war politicians, along with plans to disrupt next year’s Democratic and Republican National Conventions. One of the proposed assassination targets, Senator John Stennis, was in fact shot during an apparent robbery approximately a year later.255

During the Kansas City meeting, Kerry and Hubbard’s conflicts over personal issues and tactical differences came to a head. Roberts had devised a plan to remove Hubbard from the National Executive Committee by calling for all committee members to resign and be replaced by new members. Kerry joined Roberts in trying to get Hubbard removed from the committee. Their plan failed, but they ended up resigning anyway. According to the FBI documents, Kerry “resigned from the National Executive Committee of VVAW for ‘personal reasons’ but added he would still be active in VVAW and available to speak for the organization” and would be holding his office “until new members are elected in January 1972”.256

On the second day of the meeting Hubbard left, but Kerry remained, and was present during subsequent sessions where Scott Camil tried to persuade VVAW leadership to support a plan to assassinate pro-war politicians. Confusion over whether or not Kerry was present during these discussions has been perpetuated by Kerry’s campaign and writers friendly to Kerry, particularly Gerald Nicosia and Douglas Brinkley, but declassified FBI documents have established that, as Nicosia was eventually forced to admit, “A full review of the FBI files shows that Kerry not only was in Kansas City, but he also attended the most controversial and explosive session the group ever held. . . At the time of the Washington march, Camil proposed ‘taking out’ the prominent senators and congressmen who consistently voted in favor of the war. His assassination plan had little support, and he had put it aside as impractical. But now in Kansas City, in an effort to ‘push people's buttons’. . .Camil says he again brought up his assassination plan. . . The meeting descended into chaos, according to several people who were there. . .Someone found bugs planted by the FBI. The group decided to move to a more secure location. . .The meeting reconvened at St. Augustine's Catholic Church, 7801 Paseo Blvd., in Kansas City, and it was again closed--meaning only national officers and regional and state coordinators. Several things about it are still unclear, especially the chronology, but there is no doubt. . .if the files and witnesses are to believed, that Kerry was present for all of it.”257

This has raised the question, did Kerry support or oppose Camil’s assassination proposal? The answer is, we don’t know for sure. The declassified FBI files on the Kansas City meeting are heavily censored and do not include complete information which would enable a definitive answer. However based on the information available, the best guess is that it’s most likely Kerry did not support the proposal. VVAW members are consistent in recalling that Kerry typically opposed Hubbard and the Anti-Imperialists’ Coalition’s confrontational tactics, and the FBI files are consistent with this, recording for instance that just prior to arriving in Kansas City Kerry had given a speech in Oklahoma emphasizing that the VVAW did not condone violence.258

However this is not the whole story. Even if Kerry did not support Camil’s assassination proposal, there is no evidence that he reported it to law enforcement authorities. Furthermore, in addition to his prior support of the VMC and VVAW while he was still in the Naval Reserve, there is evidence that he continued to associate with the VVAW after the Kansas City meeting, when it moved into an overtly violent phase.

After Kansas City

After the Kansas City meeting, Kerry turned his focus towards the 1972 elections. Congressman Drinan had failed to pass the “Kerry Amendment” that would have lowered age requirements enough to allow the 28-year-old Kerry to run for Senator in 1972, so instead Kerry ran for Congress again, moving to another Congressional district in order to avoid having to compete with Drinan this time.259 Kerry also supported other antiwar Presidential candidates. During a January 1972 speech at Dartmouth College he expressed favor for antiwar Democrat Ed Muskie and antiwar Republican Paul McCloskey in the New Hampshire primaries, and added that if George McGovern won the Democratic nomination he would support McGovern over McCloskey.260

During his 1972 campaign Kerry continued to associate with the VVAW. A Portsmouth paper covering Kerry’s January 1972 Dartmouth speech described him as “head of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, while a New York Times article on the event described him as “spokesman for Vietnam Veterans Against the War. The FBI files on the VVAW include a clipping of an April 4, 1972 Boston Globe article announcing Kerry’s Congressional run which states, “Kerry has led the Vietnam Veterans Against the War since returning from Vietnam two years ago.” Kerry was again described as “a leader of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War” in an Illinois newspaper article covering a New York demonstration he spoke at on April 22, 1972 which was organized by the NPAC and PCPJ and coordinated with the VVAW. Papers continued to describe Kerry as a VVAW representative throughout his Congressional campaign, and even afterwords into 1973.261 VVAW financial statements from early 1972 list a significant percentage of income and expenditures related to Kerry’s November 1971 book The New Soldier and the book’s editors George Butler and David Thorne.262 Thorne, who was Kerry’s best friend and the brother of his first wife, served as Kerry’s campaign manager in 1972.263 Chris Gregory, who became one of Kerry’s most active campaign staffers in subsequent years, remained associated with the New England VVAW in 1972.264 Kerry’s sister Peggy joined leading New York VVAW member Sheldon Ramsdell at a hotel where the VVAW protested the August 1972 Republican National Convention.265

During this period internal tensions in the VVAW continued to divide the organization, as conflict increased between the National Executive Committee and regional VVAW representatives who wanted more voice in the organization. During the November 1971 Kansas City meeting where Kerry and others had resigned from the National Executive Committee, a proposal to move the VVAW National Office from New York to another location had been debated, and a motion had been passed to have the committee members elected by regional coordinators for limited 1-year terms However despite this, Al Hubbard and his allies from the New York area remained on the committee and in effective control of its decisions, provoking dissatisfaction from regional coordinators who had personal and political differences with Hubbard.266 Resentment at Hubbard grew so intense that some VVAW members began plotting to kill Hubbard and his fellow National Executive Committee member Jon Birch, the FBI learned through surveillance of a Harisburg, Pennsylvania VVAW meeting in January 1972.267 The next month at a Denver, Colorado VVAW National Steering Committee meeting regional VVAW coordinators made proposals for for a decentralized structure which would shift power from the National Executive Committee to regional representatives and in the process move VVAW headquarters out of New York. Some proposed changes were accepted, while discussion of others was deferred to the next National Steering Committee meeting, to be held in Houston in April 1972.268 As the April meeting approached, the FBI was informed by an Oklahoma VVAW member that regional VVAW chapters were planning to oust Hubbard and Kerry during the meeting.269 However when the meeting arrived, Hubbard was able to reassert his control and maintain power, at least for the time being.270 Over the next few years the VVAW would splinter into several factions as it was infiltrated and taken over by other groups.271

The struggle between the VVAW’s internal factions reflected the influence of external groups struggling for control of the VVAW. Hubbard continued to affiliate with the Communist Party-linked People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice, opposing VVAW members who wanted to exclude the PCPJ from the VVAW.272 At the same time, Hubbard opposed infiltration attempts by the Socialist Worker Party-linked National Peace Action Coalition, singling out the NPAC and a related French group as the only antiwar groups not welcome in the VVAW coalition.273 Meanwhile the Revolutionary Union continued its infiltration of regional chapters of the VVAW, increasingly taking over the organization’s national structure after 1973. Some RU-linked VVAW chapters would eventually join forces with overtly terrorist groups like the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA), whose members kidnapped Patty Hearst and attempted to assassinate President Gerald Ford.274

While maintaining affiliation with the PCPJ, the VVAW national leadership also maintained contact with foreign Communist groups. The VVAW continued to participate in demonstrations at Hanoi’s request and to send delegations to North Vietnamese representatives in Paris and Hanoi.275 Some VVAW delegations joined Cora Weiss’ Committee of Liaison with Families of Servicemen Detained in North Vietnam (COLIFAM) in helping the North Vietnamese extort POW families,276 and one VVAW delegation to Paris to arrange a POW-related trip to Hanoi was sent two weeks before the infamous July 7, 1972 Hanoi trip of Jane Fonda, who was in close contact with the VVAW during this period.277 The VVAW also sent delegations to Moscow and the Soviet-linked World Peace Council;278 continued to support the Venceremos Brigade in sending delegations to Cuba;279 and met with representatives of the Palestine Liberation Front (PLF), a terrorist group linked to Achille Lauro hijacker Abu Abbas (captured by US troops in Iraq in 2003).280

While in contact with these foreign groups, the VVAW helped antiwar groups gather intelligence on US military installations, operations, and troop movements.281 Meanwhile to pressure the Nixon administration to halt US bombing against North Vietnam, the VVAW engaged in a series of increasingly militant actions beginning in late 1971. Over the 1971 Christmas holiday, VVAW members—among them Kerry’s associate Joe Bangert—protested US bombing by taking over several national monuments around the country, including the Lincoln Memorial and Statue of Liberty, and defacing them with antiwar messages.282 In April 1972, at Hanoi’s direction, the VVAW sent members to Washington to participate in “Dewey Canyon IV” and related demonstrations organized by the NPAC and PCPJ. In coordination with these demonstrations the NPAC staged a simultaneous demonstration in New York, at which Kerry spoke.283 In May 1972, to protest US bombing and mining operations, VVAW members cornered George H.W. Bush, then United States ambassador to the United Nations, and dumped blood on him.284 In August 1972, the VVAW helped a PCPJ-linked coalition of antiwar groups disrupt the Republican National Convention in Miami by physically attacking delegates and police.285 While this was going on outside the convention, Nixon’s Republican rival Senator Paul McCloskey—a VVAW ally whom Kerry had expressed support for in his January Dartmouth College speech286—gave three wheelchaired VVAW members passes so they could try to sneak in and make a scene by pretending to offer to shake President Nixon’s hand and then physically grabbing and detaining him until he agreed to listen to VVAW demands.287 Staying with VVAW member Sheldon Ramsdell in the hotel where the convention was held was John Kerry’s sister Peggy.288

The FBI’s surveillance of the VVAW had alerted the White House to the VVAW’s plans for the Republican National Convention, and the White House assigned the FBI and CIA to take pre-emptive action. In May 1972, the FBI had learned that the McGovern campaign had lent the VVAW a station wagon to do a barnstorming tour of college campuses.289 In June, as part of what would become known as the Watergate break-ins, members of Nixon’s re-election committee with links to the CIA were arrested after they broke into Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters seeking, among other things, evidence of links between the DNC—headed by Ted Kennedy’s associate Larry O’Brien—and the VVAW.290 Then early in July on the eve of the Democratic National Convention, where the VVAW was planning to lobby and speak with Democratic politicians, the FBI served subpoenas on Scott Camil and 22 other VVAW members involved in planning the convention activities. 8 of these would ultimately be indicted for conspiring to incite a riot and become known as “the Gainesville Eight”.291 Their defense would be provided by the Center for Constitutional Rights (CCR), a legal center linked to Communist lawyers William Kunstler and Peter Weiss.292 Jane Fonda helped raise money for the defense fund.293

In September 1972, while the trial of the Gainesville Eight was progressing, John Kerry’s younger brother Cameron was arrested for breaking into the building which served as the headquarters of the Kerry campaign and one of Kerry’s rivals in the Democratic primary election. Police arrested Cameron near the trunk line for all the building’s phones. Kerry would later claim his campaign had been set up in what he termed “a Watergate in reverse”, wherein Cameron had allegedly been lured to the scene by an anonymous phone call threatening to cut their campaign’s phone lines on the eve of their get-out-the-vote effort. A more likely explanation seems to be that the Kerry campaign was concerned about their phone lines being bugged. In any case, Kerry lost the campaign, temporarily ending his political career.294

Kerry did not, however, end his association with the VVAW. A newspaper photo dated January 24, 1973 is accompanied by a caption describing Kerry as “head of Vietnam Veterans Against the War”.295 Kerry would remain associated with former VVAW members such as Chris Gregory into his Senate career,294 and in 1979 he joined former VVAW associate Bobby Muller in cofounding the Vietnam Veterans of America (VVA), which lists him as a lifetime member.296

Conclusion

The record shows that Kerry began fellow traveling with the Vietnam Moratorium Committee even while he was still on active duty, and he remained a spokesman for the Vietnam Veterans Against the War even after the VVAW had begun plotting and executing violence against the United States government. In the face of these facts, the controversy over whether or not Kerry specifically approved of Camil’s assassination plot is ultimately beside the point. The greater point is that in order to advance his career as a politician running on an antiwar platform, Kerry was willing to promote Communist and even revolutionary groups at the expense of national security. And this is not merely a “historical footnote”, as one Kerry spokesman tried to dismiss the evidence of Kerry’s participation in the Kansas City meeting; for Kerry’s association with America’s enemies did not end with his unsuccessful 1972 Congressional campaign, but has continued into his Senate career.

Next: “Part 4: Subversion in the Senate: Kerry’s Communist Constituency”


TOPICS: Extended News; Government; Politics/Elections
KEYWORDS: communism; communist; fellowtravellers; hanoijohn; johnkerry; kerry; moratoriumcommittee; napalminthemorning; peggykerry; robertdrinan; vvaw; wot
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The footnotes seem to be too long to fit in the preview window, so I will add them in follow-up posts below. Also, in the first two articles there was a problem with the hyperlinks not working, which seems to be due to quotation marks in MS Word not importing correctly into html format. If the hyperlinks don't work, the links given should be accessible through cutting and pasting the URLs.
1 posted on 10/11/2004 12:27:07 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: Fedora
Notes

1“’Different Forever’: John Kerry Says Killing in War Permanently Changes Soldiers”, ABCNEWS.comhttp://abcnews.go.com/sections/Politics/Vote2004/kerry_vietnam_DNC_040729-1.html, July 29, 2004 (August 27, 2004).

2Douglas Brinkley, Tour of Duty: John Kerry and the Vietnam War, New York: William Morrow, 2004, 61-62; Jacob Leibenluft, “Kerry ’66: ‘He was going to be president’: In JFK’s shadow, a headstrong Kerry makes his run for the White House”, YaleDailyNews.com, http://www.yaledailynews.com/article.asp?AID=21803, February 14, 2003 (June 18, 2004); Gerald Nicosia, Home to War: A History of the Vietnam Veterans’ Movement, New York: Crown Publishers, 2001, 70.

3Samuel Z. Goldhaber, “John Kerry: A Navy Dove Runs for Congress”, The Harvard Crimson, February 18, 1970, reprinted at The Harvard Crimson Online, http://www.thecrimson.com/article.aspx?ref=352185 (June 18, 2004); Brinkley, Tour of Duty,370-373; Charles Laurence, “Revealed: how ‘war hero Kerry tried to put off Vietnam military duty”, telegraph.co.uk, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/03/07/wkerr07.xml&sSheet=/news/2004/03/07/ixnewstop.html, June 18, 2004 (June 18, 2004).

4Michael Kranish with Alex Beam, “Kerry War Letters Show His Conflicts”, The Boston Globe, July 25, 2004, A1, online at http://www.boston.com/news/politics/president/kerry/articles/2004/07/25/kerry_war_letters_show_his_conflicts/ (September 21, 2004); ”Bay Area Widow Takes Up the Kerry Cause”, abc7news.com, http://www.abclocal.go.com/kgo/news/politics/072804_politics_kerry_vet.html, July 28, 2004 (August 16, 2004).

5Jeremy Brecher, “The Vietnam Moratorium”, Liberation Magazine, December 1969, reprinted online at , http://www.hippy.com/php/article-118.html (September 15, 2004); Nicosia, Home to War, 49; Brinkley, Tour of Duty,337; Ed Gold, ”Kerry’s big sister lending a hand in her own way”, The Villager, http://www.thevillager.com/villager_42/kerrysbigsister.html, Volume 73, Number 42, February 18-24, 2004 (June 18, 2004);Lucy Komisar, “Kerry Family Values: Peggy Kerry, John Kerry's sister, talks about her experience as a social activist and her deep shared value system with her family.”, AlterNet, September 13, 2004 (September 15, 2004).

6Cf. “Thrice Wounded”, March 1969, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Thrice_Wounded_Reassignment.pdf, (September 4, 2004); “Temporary Orders and Ranks”, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Temporary_Orders_and_Ranks.pdf, (September 4, 2004); Commander E.M. Salisbury to Lietutenant (junior grade) John Forbes Kerry, ”Release from Active Duty”, January 2, 1970, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Release_From_Active_Duty.pdf (September 4, 2004).

7Goldhaber.

8Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 339-342; James Burnett, “The Silent Partner”, www.bostonmagazine.com, http://www.bostonmagazine.com/ArticleDisplay.php?id=353, April 2004 (July 17, 2004); “Board of Directors: Jerome Grossman”, Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/about/board.html (September 24, 2004); Jerome Grossman, interview, conducted by Nancy Earsy, Lexington Oral History Projects, Inc., http://www.lexingtonbattlegreen1971.com/files/Grossman,%20Jerome.pdf, December 3, 1996, (July 17, 2004); Gerald M. Pomper and Miles A. Pomper, “Jewish Party Politicians”, Gerry Pomper’s Website, http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~gpomper/JewishPartyPoliticians.htm(July 17, 2004); Seth Gitell, “Is Grossman Our Next Governor?”, The Boston Phoenix, http://www.bostonphoenix.com/archive/features/00/03/16/TALKING_POLITICS.html, March 16-23, 2000 (July 17, 2004);“Drinan, Robert”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1995; Jack Thomas, “Rome Tells Drinan Not To Run Again”, The Boston Globe, May 5, 1980, 1.

9Nicosia, Home to War, 72.

10Grossman, interview; Arthur Johnson, interview, conducted by Norma McGavern-Norland, Lexington Oral History Projects, Inc., http://www.lexingtonbattlegreen1971.com/files/Johnson,%20Arthur.pdf, March 20, 1995, (July 17, 2004); Christopher Gregory, interview, conducted by Lenore Fenn, Lexington Oral History Projects, Inc., http://www.lexingtonbattlegreen1971.com/files/Gregory,%20Chris.pdf, March 14, 1995, (July 17, 2004); Bestor Cram, interview, conducted by Norma McGavern-Norland, Lexington Oral History Projects, Inc., http://www.lexingtonbattlegreen1971.com/files/Cram,%20Bestor.pdf, June 19, 1992, (July 17, 2004); Memo, Boston, Massachusetts FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Inc.”, March 31, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 02, 152-158 (September 15, 2004); Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 340-343; Nicosia, Home to War, 72.

11Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 340-341; Michael Kranish and Patricia Healy, “Kerry spoke of meeting negotiators on Vietnam”, The Boston Globe, http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2004/03/25/kerry_spoke_of_meeting_negotiators_on_vietnam/, March 25, 2004 (September 4, 2004); Marc Morano, ”FBI Files Show Kerry Met With Communists More Than Once”, CNSNews.com, http://www.cnsnews.com//ViewSpecialReports.asp?Page=\SpecialReports\archive\200406\SPE20040604a.html, June 4, 2004 (June 18, 2004); John E. O’Neill and Jerome R. Corsi, Unfit for Command: Swift Boat Veterans Speak Out Against John Kerry, Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 2004, 127-129.

12Nicosia, Home to War, 211-212.

13Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 406, 462.

14See “Kansas City Kerry—The Phoenix Project”, FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1104239/posts, March 24, 2004 (June 18, 2004); Thomas H. Lipscomb, “How Kerry Quit Veterans Group Amid Dark Plot: When Talk Turned To Assassination He Exited, Vet Says”, The New York Sun, Front page, March 12, 2004, online at http://daily.nysun.com/Repository/getFiles.asp?Style=OliveXLib:ArticleToMail&Type=text/html&Path=NYS/2004/03/12&ID=Ar00100 (June 18, 2004).

15Marc Morano, ”Kerry Lying About Anti-War Past, Supporter Alleges”, CNSNews.com, http://www.cnsnews.com//ViewPolitics.asp?Page=\Politics\archive\200403\POL20040318a.html, March 18, 2004 (June 18, 2004); Gerald Nicosia, “Veteran in Conflict: Sen. John Kerry's Struggle for Leadership of a Vietnam Veterans Antiwar Group in 1971 Ended With His Resignation at a Stormy Meeting in Kansas City, Where Militants Advocated Violence Against the U.S. Government”, Los Angeles Times, http://www.latimes.com/features/printedition/magazine/?track=mainnav-magazine, May 23, 2004, Section Los Angeles Times Magazine, LAT Magazine Desk, Part I, Page 10, archived at BeldarBlog, http://beldar.blogs.com/beldarblog/2004/09/Nicosia_article_LAT_5-24-04.pdf (October 1, 2004).

16Letterhead Memorandum, Kansas City, Missouri FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Steering Committee Meeting: Kansas City, Missouri: November 12, 13, 14, 1971”, November 18, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 11, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 11, 190-197 (September 4, 2004); Letterhead Memorandum, author deleted, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War Regional Coordinators and National Steering Committee Meeting, Weekend November 12-15, 1971, Kansas City, Missouri”, November 24, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 9, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 9, 148-157 (September 4, 2004). Cf. Teletype, author deleted to FBI Director and New York FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War Regional Coordinators and National Steering Committee Meeting Weekend November Fourteen, Nineteen Seventyone, Kansas City, Missouri”, November 16, 1971 and Teletype, author deleted to FBI Director, et al, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, November 18, 1971 and Teletype, author deleted to FBI Director, et al, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, November 19, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 9, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 9, 199-204, 208-210, 229-232 (September 4, 2004); Teletype, author deleted to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War Paren VVAW Paren”, November 19, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 10, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 10, 2-14 (September 4, 2004).

17Morano, ”Kerry Lying About Anti-War Past, Supporter Alleges”.

18Michael Kranish, ”Kerry can’t recall being at ’71 parley”, Boston.com, http://www.boston.com/news/politics/president/articles/2004/04/01/kerry_cant_recall_being_at_71_parley/, April 1, 2004 (June 18, 2004)

19See archive at “Documents, Film Clips, Audio and Cartoons: So when did John Kerry leave the VVAW, anyway?”, www.wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=Documents, (June 18, 2004); “Kerry, Watergate: DNC Links Caused Break-In? 'Republican Paranoia Started Early,' Says '72 Democratic Youth Director Bob Weiner”, U.S. Newswire, http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=26038, February 9, 2004 (September 5, 2004); “War opponent Kerry seeks Congress seat”, The Boston Globe, April 4, 1972, Page 21, attached to FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 21, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 21, 19 (September 4, 2004); B.J. Widdick, “Woodcock: A Voice, Not an Echo”, The Nation, Volume 214, Issue 20, May 15, 1972, online at The Nation Digital Archive, http://www.nationarchive.com/Summaries/v214i0020_05.htm (September 20, 2004); O’Neill and Corsi, 130-135, 140-143, 158-161.

20”John Kerry Watching Nixon on Television”, Corbis, http://pro.corbis.com/popup/Enlargement.aspx?mediauids={3c773ac0-b0fd-4be4-9175-ff228fd5544c}|{ffffffff-ffff-ffff-ffff-ffffffffffff}&qsPageNo=1&fdid=&Area=Search&TotalCount=60&CurrentPos=13&WinID={3c773ac0-b0fd-4be4-9175-ff228fd5544c} (June 18, 2004); “Photo Gallery: John F. Kerry: Candidate in the Making: Part 3: John Kerry watches President Richard Nixon announce the cease-fire in Vietnam on January 24, 1973.”, Boston.com, http://www.boston.com/globe/nation/packages/kerry/images/day3/05.htm (June 18, 2004).

21Gregory; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 438-440, 444; Michael Crowley, “The Kerry Tribes: The seven factions fighting for control of his campaign and his presidency.”, MSN.com, http://slate.msn.com/id/2098894/, April 15, 2004 (September 4, 2004); Jennifer Peter, “Loyal and angry, Mass. veterans group continue fight against Kerry’s foes”, The Boston Globe, http://www.boston.com/news/politics/primaries/massachusetts/articles/2004/08/27/loyal_and_angry_mass_veterans_group_continue_fight_against_kerrys_foes/, August 27, 2004 (September 4, 2004).

22Nicosia, Home to War, 144-147, 411-412; “What’s New: VVA Restricted Political Activities”, Vietnam Veterans of America, http://www.vva.org/whatsnew/restricted.htm (September 4, 2004).

23Brecher; Goldhaber; Nicosia, Home to War, 49; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 337; Komisar.

24Gold; Komisar.

25Burnett;Grossman, interview.

26Nicosia, Home to War, 72.

27See H. Stuart Hughes, Gentleman Rebel: The Memoirs of H. Stuart Hughes, New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1990, 85-86, 138-139, 186, 195-204, 264, 282; Todd Gitlin, The Sixties: Years of Hope: Days of Rage, New York: Bantam Books, 1987, 87-104, 182. Note esp. the Hughes family’s relationship to Felix Frankfurter and Benjamin Cardozo, whose clerks Frankfurter supplied (cf. Bruce Allen Murphy, The Brandeis/Frankfurter Connection: The Secret Political Activities of Two Supreme Court Justices, Oxford University Press, 1982; Garden City: Anchor Books, 1983, 186).

28Hughes, 250.

29”Riesman, David”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1955; Paul Buhle, ”David Riesman”, EducationGuardian.co.uk, http://education.guardian.co.uk/obituary/story/0,12212,750236,00.html, May 13, 2002 (August 15, 2004);Murphy, 21-22, 45, 122. Cf. Gitlin 88, 95. On Brandeis and Frankfurter’s Communist activity, see Part 1 of this series, “John Kerry’s Red Roots: Richard Kerry’s Curious Career”.

30”Communist Infiltration in the Nuclear Test Ban Movement”, May 13, 1960, Box 244:6548 and “Testimony of Dr. Linus Pauling”, June and October 1960, Box 244:6549, in Series IV: Investigative Files, Subseries C: Senate Internal Security Subcommittee Reports, 1956-1970, Thomas J. Dodd Papers, Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center, University of Connecticut Libraries; US Senate, Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Final Report, Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports of Intelligence Agencies and the Rights of Americans, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976, Book III, 17; Athan Theoharis and John Stuart Cox, The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition, Temple University, 1988; New York: Bantam Books, 1990, 447.

31Hughes, 250-260, 279-287; Gitlin, 97.

32Grossman, interview.

33”AFSC History”, American Friends Service Committee, http://www.afsc.org/about/history.htm (September 7, 2004); “American Friends Service Committee: Records, 1940-1947”, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG001-025/dg002.AFSC/afsc.htm (September 6, 2004); FBI files, “American Friends Service Committee”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/committe.htm (September 5, 2004); Entry for “American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)” in ”Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive, Foreword by Congressman John Ashbrook, Afterword by Helmut Sauer, member of the West Germany Bundestag, Alexandria, Virginia: Western Goals, 1982, http://charlestonvoice.netfirms.com/PeaceGrpGloss.htm (August 16, 2004); “American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)”, Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/afsc.htm (September 5, 2004); Gordon Lamb, “American Friends? Hardly”, FrontPageMagazine.com, http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=8215, June 5, 2003 (August 16, 2004).

34Grossman, interview.

35Hughes, 254-255, 260; Grossman, interview.

36”Citizens for Participation in Political Action: records, 1962-1992”, Healey Library at UMass Boston, http://www.lib.umb.edu/archives/cppa.html (August 16, 2004); Michael Kenney, “CPPAX Keeps Liberal Flames Burning: Glory Days May Be Behind Them, But There Are 5,000 Members To Celebrate 25th Anniversary”, The Boston Globe, April 26, 1987, 94.

37Grossman, interview.

38Grossman, interview.

39Untitled article, The Tech, Volume 89, Number 29, July 23, 1969, reprinted online at http://kurzweil.mit.edu/archives/VOL_089/TECH_V089_S0287_P001.txt (June 18, 2004); Hunter Barns, “October 15, 1969: Moratorium”, from ”Objective Journalism? A Brief Look at The New York Times and the Vietnam Antiwar Movement”, Vietnam Antiwar Movement Page, http://home.sandiego.edu/~hbarns/Moratorium.html (September 4, 2004); Brecher; Michalina, “Student assesses effect of war moratorium”, Southwords, October 1970, reprinted online at Maine South High School, http://www.maine207south.k12.il.us/departments/235/70moratorium.htm (September 4, 2004); Jerome Grossman, “The Call for ‘Peace Now’”, The Boston Globe, October 15, 1989, A-31; Tom Wells, The War Within: America’s Battle Over Vietnam, with foreword by Todd Gitlin, Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1994, 399; Nicosia, Home to War, 49; Laura Richards, “Vietnam Moratorium March”, National Coalition to Save Our Mall, http://www.savethemall.org/moments/richards.html , (September 4, 2004). For a summary of Brown’s background see ”Nomination of Sam W. Brown, Jr.”, Congressional Record—Senate, 103rd Congress—2nd Session (1994), S-6319, May 25, 1994, located online through Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet, http://thomas.loc.gov (September 4, 2004); ”Brown Nomination/CSCE Ambassador, Cloture (1st attempt)”, Congressional Record—Senate, 103rd Congress—2nd Session (1994), S-6251 Temp. Record, Vote No. 131, May 24, 1994, 4:43 pm, located online through “Senate Record Vote Analysis”, U.S. Senate Republican Policy Committee, http://web.archive.org/web/19970816005931/http://www.senate.gov/~rpc/rva/1032/1032131.htm (September 4, 2004); William T. Poole, The New Left in Government: From Protest to Policy-Making, Washington, DC: The Heritage Foundation, November 1978, executive summary cached online at http://groups.google.com/groups?q=William+Poole+new+left+government&hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&selm=7ivnu6%24rpr%241%40bgtnsc01.worldnet.att.net&rnum=4 (September 4, 2004). On Hawk, see “Fellows: David Hawk”, The Petra Foundation, http://www.petrafoundation.org/fellows/ff_davidhawk.html (September 4, 2004). On Mixner, see Daniel Golden, “Mixner’s Moment”, The Boston Globe, June 6, 1993, Magazine section,14. On Sklencar, see “Student Mobe Plans Action”, The Tech, Volume 89, Number 53, September 26, 1969, 3, reprinted online at kurzweil.mit.edu/archives/ VOL_089/TECH_V089_S0311_P003.txt (June 18, 2004).

40Grossman, “The Call for ‘Peace Now’”; Brecher; Michalina; Richards.

41Poole; Richards.

42"National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam Records, 1966-1969", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG051-099/dg075nmc.htm (September 5, 2004); Gus Horowitz, “Movement history: Socialists and the anti-war movement”, The Militant, October 10, 1969, reprinted online at Links 24, http://www.dsp.org.au/links/back/issue24/Horowitz.htm, September-December 2003 (September 5, 2004); Appendix, “Student Mobilization Committee, also known as Student Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam; National Student Mobilization Committee”, attached to Letterhead Memorandum, Washington, DC FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, April 5, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 2, 172-181 (September 4, 2004); House Committee on Internal Security, Subversive Involvement in the Origin, Leadership, and Activities of the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, and its Predecessor Organizations, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970; Poole.

43”Socialist Workers Party (USA)”, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialist_Workers_Party_(USA) (September 5, 2004); “History of the Fourth International—The Heritage of Marxism”, translation of introduction to Leon Trotsky, In Defense of Marxism, 1994, reprinted online at Iskra Research Publishing House, http://www.mit.edu/people/fjk/essays/heritage.html (September 5, 2004); Harvey Klehr, John Earl Haynes, and Fririkh Igorevich Firsov, The Secret World of American Communism, Russian documents translated by Timothy D. Sergay, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995, 142-143; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999; New Haven: Yale Nota Bene, 2000, 250-286; Department of Defense, “Certificate of Nonaffiliation with Certain Organizations”, DD Form 48-1, June 1959, reprinted online at http://charlestonvoice.netfirms.com/attygenlA.JPG and http://charlestonvoice.netfirms.com/attygenlB.JPG (September 5, 2004); Paul Wolf, “COINTELPRO—Socialist Workers Party (1961-1970), www.cointel.org, http://www.icdc.com/~paulwolf/cointelpro/swp.htm (September 5, 2004); Athan Theoharis and John Stuart Cox, The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition, Temple University, 1988; New York: Bantam Books, 1990, 346-347, 361.

44Appendix, “Student Mobilization Committee”.

45House Committee on Internal Security, Subversive Involvement in the Origin, Leadership, and Activities of the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, and its Predecessor Organizations; Poole; S. Steven Powell, Covert Cadre: Inside the Institute for Policy Studies, introduction by David Horowitz, Ottawa, Illinois: Green Hill Publishers, Inc., 1987, 36-37, 39-40. On the World Peace Council, see “WPC Brief History”, World Peace Council, http://www.wpc-in.org/website.htm#_Toc511224159 (September 16, 2004); “The New Nuke Hysteria”, AIM Report, May A 1982, online at Accuracy In Media, http://www.aim.org/publications/aim_report/1982/05a.html (September 16, 2004); Entry for “World Peace Council (WPC)” in ”Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive; “FAS Intelligence Resource Program: Active Measures”, American Federation of Scientists, http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/kgb/su0523.htm (September 16, 2004); “Ronald Dellums: Congressman: 9th California District”, Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/dellums.htm (September 5, 2004); Rob Prince, “The Ghost Ship of Lonnrotinkatu: The Catabolism of the World Peace Council—Part 1”, Peace Magazine, May-June 1992, 16, online at http://www.peacemagazine.org/archive/v08n3p16.htm (September 16, 2004); Rob Prince, “Following the Money Trail at the World Peace Council: Part II of Rob Prince's behind-the-scenes look at the World Peace Council's dealings in the aftermath of the Soviet Union's dissolution”, Peace Magazine, November-December 1992, 20, online at http://www.peacemagazine.org/archive/v08n6p20.htm (September 16, 2004); “Looking to the Future”, in United States Information Agency, Soviet Active Measures in the “Post-Cold War" Era, 1988-1991: A Report Prepared at the Request of the United States House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations, June 1992, online at The Literature of Intelligence: A Bibliography of Materials, with Essays, Reviews, and Comments, http://intellit.muskingum.edu/russia_folder/pcw_era/sect_13d.htm (September 16, 2004).

46Appendix, “Student Mobilization Committee”; Poole; Nicosia, Home to War, 48-49; Richards.

47Judith Mahoney Paternak, “Women Against War: It Started with ‘Lysistrata’”, The Nonviolent Activist: The Magazine of the War Resisters League, http://www.warresisters.org/nva0703-4.htm, July-August 2003 (September 5, 2004); Wells, The War Within: America’s Battle Over Vietnam, photo between 286 and 287; Roy Lisker, “The Antiwar Movement in New York City 1965-67”, Ferment Magazine, http://www.fermentmagazine.org/Bio/newleft1.html, (September 6, 2004), update of article originally published in Les Tempes Modernes, September 1968; House Committee on Internal Security, Subversive Involvement in the Origin, Leadership, and Activities of the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, and its Predecessor Organizations; Poole. On the War Resisters League, see “War Resisters’ International”, War Resisters International, < a href=”http://www.wri-irg.org/wrihist.htm”>http://www.wri-irg.org/wrihist.htm (September 7, 2004); “About WRL: History”, War Resisters League, http://www.warresisters.org/about_wrl.htm#hist (September 7, 2004); "War Resisters League: Records, 1923-date", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG026-050/DG040WRL.html (September 5, 2004); Sanderson Beck, “Women for Peace”, Literary Works of Sanderson Beck, http://www.san.beck.org/GPJ28-WomenforPeace.html (September 5, 2004); "Jessie Wallace Hugham", Woman a Week Archives, http://www.awomanaweek.com/hughan.html (September 5, 2004); "Tracy D. Mygatt & Frances Witherspoon Papers, 1835, 1850, 1909-1973", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG051-099/DG089MygWith.html (September 5, 2004); "A.J. Muste: Papers,1920-1967", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG026-050/dg050muste.htm (September 7, 2004); “Protests of A.J. Muste”, Literary Works of Sanderson Beck, http://www.san.beck.org/WP25-Muste.html (September 7, 2004); FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) Records: War Resisters League, 1939-1962, online guide at Marquette University, http://www.marquette.edu/library/collections/archives/Mss/FBI/mss-fbi-s-9.html; Entry for “War Resisters League (WRL)” in ”Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive; “Abraham Johannes Muste”, Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/muste.htm (September 5, 2004). On the Fellowship of Reconciliation, see “History and Supporters”, Fellowship of Reconciliation, http://www.forusa.org/about/history.html (September 4, 2004); "Fellowship of Reconciliation [Great Britain]: Records, 1915-current", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/CDGB/forgreatbritain.htm (September 5, 2004); "Fellowship of Reconciliation: Records, 1915-date", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG001-025/DG013/dg13fortablofcont.htm (September 5, 2004); "A.J. Muste: Papers,1920-1967"; “A.J. Muste: Biographical Background”, A.J. Muste Memorial Institute, http://www.ajmuste.org/ajmbio.htm (September 7, 2004); Steve Lieberman “FOR Obtains Its FBI Files”,The Journal News, http://www.thejournalnews.com/newsroom/083004/b01p30forfbi.html, August 30, 2004, cached at http://64.233.179.104/search?q=cache:ZScN0Y0tED4J:www.thejournalnews.com/newsroom/083004/b01p30forfbi.html+FOR+obtains+its+FBI+files&hl=en (September 18, 2004); “Fellowship of Reconciliation”, Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/for.htm (September 5, 2004); “Abraham Johannes Muste”; Entry for “Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR)” in “Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive. On the Committee for Nonviolent Action, see "Committee for Nonviolent Action Records, 1957-, (Bulk 1957-1968)", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG001-025/DG017CNVA.html (September 7, 2004); Allen Smith, “The Renewal Movement: The Peace Testimony and Modern Quakerism”, Quaker History Volume 85, Number 2, Fall 1996, online at The Religious Society of Friends, http://www.quaker.org/renewal.html (September 7, 2004); "A.J. Muste: Papers,1920-1967"; A.J. Muste: Biographical Background”; “Protests of A.J. Muste”. On the Catholic Peace Fellowship, see “Introduction: History”, Catholic Peace Fellowship, http://www.catholicpeacefellowship.org/ (September 7, 2004).

48Brecher.

49Goldhaber; Nicosia, Home to War, 49; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 337; Gold; Komisar.

50Cf. “Thrice Wounded”, March 1969, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Thrice_Wounded_Reassignment.pdf, (September 4, 2004); “Temporary Orders and Ranks”, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Temporary_Orders_and_Ranks.pdf, (September 4, 2004); Commander E.M. Salisbury to Lietutenant (junior grade) John Forbes Kerry, ”Release from Active Duty”, January 2, 1970, JohnKerry.com, http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Release_From_Active_Duty.pdf (September 4, 2004); Goldhaber.

51Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 339-342; Burnett; Grossman, interview; Pomper and Pomper; Gitell;“Drinan, Robert”, Current Biography; Nicosia, Home to War, 72; ”Nomination of Sam W. Brown, Jr.”, Congressional Record—Senate, 103rd Congress—2nd Session (1994), S-6313-S-6321, May 25, 1994, located online through Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet, http://thomas.loc.gov (September 4, 2004). On Grossman’s ongoing relationship with Kerry, see “Campaign ‘82”, The Boston Globe, July 27, 1982, 1; Michael Kranish with Alex Beam, “Kerry War Letters Show His Conflicts”, The Boston Globe, July 25, 2004, A1, online at http://www.boston.com/news/politics/president/kerry/articles/2004/07/25/kerry_war_letters_show_his_conflicts/ (September 21, 2004).

52For general biographical details on Drinan, see “Drinan, Robert”, Current Biography; “Drinan, Robert Frederick, 1920-“, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=D000499 (September 15, 2004); “Board of Directors: Robert F. Drinan”, Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/about/board.html (September 24, 2004).

53John Kerry testimony in United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Legislative Proposals Relating to the War in Southeast Asia, Thursday, April 22, 1971: Hearings before the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Ninety-Second Congress, First Session (April-May 1971), Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971, 179-210 online in html format at http://www.c-span.org/2004vote/jkerrytestimony.asp (August 29, 2004) and in pdf format at http://www.cwes01.com/13790/23910/ktpp179-210.pdf (August 29, 2004).

54“Kerry, John Forbes”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1988.

55Nicosia, Home to War, 95, 175, 198. On Lifton and Post-Vietnam Syndrome, cf. Robert Jay Lifton, Home from the War: Learning from Vietnam Veterans: With a new Preface and Epilogue on the Gulf War, Boston: Beacon Press, 1992 (1973, 1985); Nicosia, Home to War, 158-209.

56“Kerry, Watergate: DNC Links Caused Break-In? 'Republican Paranoia Started Early,' Says '72 Democratic Youth Director Bob Weiner”.

57Stephanie Hauser, “Remembering Watergate: BC alumnus and former law school dean started Nixon accusations in Senate 30 years ago“, The Heights, http://www.bcheights.com/news/2003/04/29/Features/Remembering.Watergate-427779.shtml, April 29, 2003 (September 5, 2004); Jerome Zeifman, “Impeachment and ‘Father Bob’”, Insight on the News, http://www.insightmag.com/news/1999/01/11/Commentary/Impeachment.And.father.Bob-211463.shtml, January 11, 1999 (September 5, 2004); Todd Kosmerick, “The Impeachment of Richard Nixon from the Eyes of Speaker Carl Albert”, The Carl Albert Congressional Research & Studies Center, http://www.ou.edu/special/albertctr/extensions/fall98/archives.html (September 4, 2004).

58Julia Duin, “Kerry advisors tell hopeful to ‘keep cool’ on religion”, The Washington Times, http://www.washingtontimes.com/national/20040618-121914-6103r.htm, June 18, 2004 (June 18, 2004).

59“Drinan, Robert”, Current Biography.

60On Berrigan see “Berrigan, Daniel”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1970; Murray Polner and Jim O'Grady, Disarmed and Dangerous: The Radical Lives and Times of Daniel and Philip Berrigan, New York: Basic Books, 1997; “Introduction: History”, Catholic Peace Fellowship; FBI files, “Clergy and Laity Concerned About Vietnam”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/clviet.htm (September 5, 2004).

61Entry for ”Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy (LCNP)” in “Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive.

62Report on the National Lawyers Guild: Legal Bulwark of the Communist Party, United States Congress House Report 3123, Washington: Committee on Un-American Activities, 1950; Entry for ”Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy (LCNP)” in “Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive; “National Lawyers Guild [NLG]: ‘Legal Bulwark of the Communist Party’”, Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/nlg.htm (September 5, 2004); “National Lawyers Guild & its Terrorist Network”, Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/nlgterr.htm (September 5, 2004); Jesse Rigsby, “NLG: The Legal Fifth Column”, FrontPageMagazine.com, April 25, 2003, http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=7494, (June 18, 2004).

63Robert F. Drinan, “When Will the American Conscience Demand Justice for Vietnam?”, modelminority, http://modelminority.com/article703.html, March 17, 2000 (June 18, 2004).

64On the Fellowship of Reconciliation, see Note 47.

65Entry for “Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR)” in “Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive.

66Sandy Cohen, untitled article, The Tech, Volume 90, Number 14, March 27, 1970, reprinted online at http://kurzweil.mit.edu/archives/VOL_090/TECH_V090_S0120_P001.txt (June 18, 2004).

67House Committee on Internal Security, Subversive Involvement in the Origin, Leadership, and Activities of the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, and its Predecessor Organizations.

68“Drinan, Robert”, Current Biography.

69“Ramsey Clark: Biodata”, International Progress Organization, http://i-p-o.org/Clark.htm (October 3, 2004); Josh Saunders, ”Ramsey Clark’s Prosecution Complex”, Legal Affairs, http://www.legalaffairs.org/issues/November-December-2003/feature_saunders_novdec03.html, November-December 2003 (September 16, 2004); Nicosia, Home to War, 106; Theoharis and Cox, 480-483; Search and Destroy: A Report by the Commission of Inquiry into the Black Panthers and the Police, edited by Roy Wilkins and Ramsey Clark, Chairmen, New York: Metropolitan Applied Research Centre, Inc., 1973; “Fred Hampton”, Spartacus Educational, http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAhamptonF.htm (September 16, 2004); Cliff Kincaid, “Ramsey Clark Endorses John Kerry”, Accuracy In Media, http://www.aim.org/publications/weekly_column/2004/03/01.html, March 1, 2004 (September 16, 2004). On the National Peace Action Coalition, see “National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam”, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG051-099/dg075nmc.htm (September 16, 2004); House Committee on Internal Security, Subversive Involvement in the Origin, Leadership, and Activities of the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, and its Predecessor Organizations; “Appendix: Student Mobilization Committee”. On the Committee for Public Justice, see “Harrisburg [PA] Defense Committee: Records, 1970-1973”, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/CDGA.A-L/harrisburgdefensecomm.htm (September 16, 2004); Roger W. Wilkins, “Committee for Public Justice”, The New York Review of Books, Volume 16, Number 1, January 28, 1971, reprinted online at http://www.nybooks.com/articles/10692 (September 16, 2004); FBI files, “Committee for Public Justice”, finding aid at Marquette University Libraries: Department of Special Collections and University Archives: FBI Investigation and Surveillance Records: Scope and Content Note: Series 19: Committee for Public Justice, 1971-1972, 1977, http://www.marquette.edu/library/collections/archives/Mss/FBI/mss-FBI-sc.html (September 16, 2004); W. Raymond Wannall, “Undermining Counterintelligence Capability”, CI Centre, http://www.cicentre.com/Documents/DOC_Wannall_Undermining_Intel.htm (September 16, 2004).

70Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 339.

71Grossman, interview; Johnson, interview; Gregory, interview; Cram, interview; Nicosia, Home to War, 72; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 340-343.

72Grossman, interview; Johnson, interview; Gregory, interview; Cram, interview; Nicosia, Home to War, 72.

73Nicosia, Home to War, 72-73. For more on Operation RAW, see FBI files, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 1, 65-172 (September 4, 2004); “Documents, Film Clips, Audio and Cartoons”, www.wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=Documents, (June 18, 2004); Richard Stacewicz, Winter Soldiers: An Oral History of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War, New York: Twayne Publishers, 1997, 229-231; Nicosia, Home to War, 56-73; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 343-345.

74On the Winter Soldier Investigation, see Vietnam Veterans Against the War, The Winter Soldier Investigation: An Inquiry into American War Crimes, Boston: Beacon Press, 1972; “Winter Soldier Investigation”, The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary/Winter_Soldier/WS_entry.html (September 6, 2004); William F. Crandell, “What Did American Learn from the Winter Soldier Investigation?”, Viet Nam Generation 5:1-4, March 1994, reprinted online at The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Texts/Narrative/Crandell_Winter.html (September 6, 2004); FBI files, FBI HQ 100-448092, Sections 1 and 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 1, 173-176, 196-198, 224 and Section 2, 2-69 (September 4, 2004); Stacewicz, 233-241; Nicosia, Home to War, 73-97; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 346-357.

75Nicosia, Home to War, 98-99.

76For details on Dewey Canyon III and Kerry’s Senate testimony see John Kerry testimony in United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Legislative Proposals Relating to the War in Southeast Asia, Thursday, April 22, 1971: Hearings before the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Ninety-Second Congress, First Session (April-May 1971) (audio and video clips online at www.wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=Documents (September 6, 2004)); John Kerry and Vietnam Veterans Against the War, The New Soldier, edited by David Thorne and George Butler, New York: Macmillan, 1971 (text online at Gorio’s World, http://fp3.antelecom.net/gorio/ns/New%20Soldier%20Compleat.pdf (pdf file) (September 6, 2004); partial text with pictures at “The New Soldier: John Kerry and the VVAW”, wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=NewSoldier (September 6, 2004)); FBI files, FBI HQ 100-448092, Sections 2, and 4, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf files HQ 100-448092 Sections 2 and 4 (September 4, 2004); Stacewicz, 241-251; Nicosia, Home to War, 98-157; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 357-377.

77Letterhead Memorandum, Kansas City, Missouri FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Steering Committee Meeting: Kansas City, Missouri: November 12, 13, 14, 1971”.

78 See archive at “Documents, Film Clips, Audio and Cartoons: So when did John Kerry leave the VVAW, anyway?”, www.wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=Documents, (June 18, 2004); “Kerry, Watergate: DNC Links Caused Break-In? 'Republican Paranoia Started Early,' Says '72 Democratic Youth Director Bob Weiner”; O’Neill and Corsi, 130-135, 140-143, 158-161; ”John Kerry Watching Nixon on Television”, Corbis, http://pro.corbis.com/popup/Enlargement.aspx?mediauids={3c773ac0-b0fd-4be4-9175-ff228fd5544c}|{ffffffff-ffff-ffff-ffff-ffffffffffff}&qsPageNo=1&fdid=&Area=Search&TotalCount=60&CurrentPos=13&WinID={3c773ac0-b0fd-4be4-9175-ff228fd5544c} (June 18, 2004); “Photo Gallery: John F. Kerry: Candidate in the Making: Part 3: John Kerry watches President Richard Nixon announce the cease-fire in Vietnam on January 24, 1973.”, Boston.com, http://www.boston.com/globe/nation/packages/kerry/images/day3/05.htm (June 18, 2004).

79FBI files, FBI HQ 100-448092, Sections 11-31, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Sections 10-31 (September 4, 2004); Stacewicz, 252-387; Nicosia, Home to War, 210-282.

80See Note 47.

81"Guide to the American Veterans for Peace Records, 1945-1957 (Bulk 1951-1955)", The Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives, http://dlib.nyu.edu:8083/tamwagead/servlet/SaxonServlet?source=avp.xml&style=saxon01t2002.xsl (September 6, 2004); "Vet's Voice for Peace" collection in "UAW Veterans’ Department Collection", Walter P. Reuther Library of Labor and Urban Affairs, http://www.reuther.wayne.edu/collections/hefa_293-uaw.htm (September 6, 2004); "Paul Green: Dramatist, Teacher, Humanist, 1894-1981", ibiblio, http://www.ibiblio.org/paulgreen/index.html (September 6, 2004); "Paul Green Papers Inventory (#3693)", Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, http://www.lib.unc.edu/mss/inv/htm/03693.html (September 6, 2004); Paul P. Reuben, "Chapter 8: American Drama—Paul Eliot Green (1894-1981)", PAL: Perspectives in American Literature A Research and Reference Guide--An Ongoing Project , http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:bQ_44_YtJS8J:www.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/chap8/green.html+paul+green&hl=en (September 6, 2004).

82Stacewicz, 192-197; Nicosia, Home to War, 15-18.

83Stacewicz, 197-204, 233; Nicosia, Home to War, 18-36, 37-38; FBI files, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 1, 1-60 (September 4, 2004). On Negotiation Now! see Wells, The War Within: America’s Battle Over Vietnam, 135-137; “Vietnam War”, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project: Encyclopedia, http://www.stanford.edu/group/King/about_king/encyclopedia/vietnam.htm (September 9, 2004). On CALCAV/CALC, see FBI files, “Clergy and Laity Concerned About Vietnam”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/clviet.htm (September 9, 2004); entry for “Clergy and Laity Concerned (CALC)”, in “Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive. On Ball, see George W. Ball, The Past Has Another Pattern: Memoirs, New York: Norton, 1982; David L. DiLeo, George Ball, Vietnam, and the Rethinking of Containment, foreword by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1991; James A. Bill, George Ball: Behind the Scenes in U.S. Foreign Policy, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1997; H.R. McMaster, Dereliction of Duty: Lyndon Johnson, Robert McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies That Led to Vietnam, New York: HarperCollins, 1997, 122, 166-167, 171, 206, 239-240, 280, 300-303; Isaacson and Thomas, 637-639, 647-649, 680, 700, 711. On Lowenstein, see “Lowenstein, Allard Kenneth, 1929-1980”, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=L000477 (September 9, 2004);“Lowenstein, Allard K.”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1971. On Gruening, see “Gruening, Ernest, 1887-1974”, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=G000508 (September 9, 2004). On Fulbright, see “Fulbright, J. William”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1955; “Fulbright, James William, 1905-1955”, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=F000401 (September 9, 2004); J. William Fulbright, The Arrogance of Power, New York: Random House, 1966; Randall Bennett Woods, Fulbright: A Biography, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995; Theoharis and Cox, 447-448; Powell, 13; Stacewicz, 204, 233. On McCarthy, see “McCarthy, Eugene Joseph, 1916-”, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=M000311 (September 9, 2004); Dominic Sandbrook, Eugene McCarthy: The Rise and Fall of Postwar American Liberalism, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004, 117-224. On Kennedy, see “Kennedy, Robert Francis, 1925-1968”, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=K000114 (September 9, 2004).

84FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 1, 1-60; Report, FBI, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Incorporated”, October 12, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 7, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 7, 82-117 (esp. 96-97) (September 4, 2004). On the National Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, see Corliss Lamont, Yes to Life: Memoirs of Corliss Lamont, New York: Horizon Press, 1981; Corliss Lamont Website, http://www.corliss-lamont.org/The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive.

85Stacewicz, 205; Nicosia, Home to War, 36, 41, 45, 49-50; Letterhead Memorandum, FBI, “GIs and Vietnam Veterans Against the War: Information Concerning”, November 11, 1968, FBI HQ 100-451697, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-451697 Section 01, 3-8 (September 15, 2004); Report, Los Angeles FBI, “COMINFIL, GIs and Vietnam Veterans Against the War, formerly known as Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, February 18, 1969, FBI HQ 100-451697, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-451697 Section 01, 38-39 (September 15, 2004).

86Nicosia, Home to War, 41-49.

87On Schnall, see excerpt from Howard Zinn, “The Impossible Victory: Vietnam”, A People’s History of the United States, New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1980, reprinted online at Third World Traveler, http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Zinn/Vietnam_PeoplesHx.html (September 9, 2004).

88On the Presidio 27 Mutiny, see Randy Rowland, “The Presidio Mutiny”, Vietnam Veterans Against the War Anti-Imperialist, from StormWarning! 31, Spring 1995, online at http://www.oz.net/~vvawai/sw/sw31/pgs_35-44/presidio_mutiny.html (September 9, 2004); Brandt Zembsch, “Hallinan Has Made a Career of Law and Disorder”, ChronWatch, March 4, 2003 (September 9, 2004). On Terence Hallinan and the Hallinan family, cf. “Terence Hallinan”, Juvenile Justice Bulletin, May 2000, online at Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, http://www.ncjrs.org/html/ojjdp/2000_5_1/pag5.html (September 9, 2004); California Legislature, Thirteenth Report of the Senate Fact-Finding Subcommittee on Un-American Activities, 1965, online at Online Archive of California, http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/kt4w1003q8/ (September 9, 2004)/

89On Priest, see letter from Cora Weiss, David Dellinger, Douglas Dowd, Sidney Lens, Sidney Peck, and Stewart Meacham to the editors, “New Mobilization”, The New York Review of Books, Volume 13, Number 8, November 6, 1969 (September 9, 2004); Malcolm Kovacs, “Seaman Roger Priest vs. the Navy”, Progressive Review, April 1970, 8; Col Robert D. Heinl, Jr., “The Collapse of the Armed Forces”, Armed Forces Journal, June 7, 1971, updated version online at Grover Furr’s Vietnam War Page, http://www.chss.montclair.edu/english/furr/Vietnam/heinl.html (September 9, 2004); Nicosia, Home to War, 42-43, 48. On the Stern Family Fund, see “Stern Family Fund”, ActivistCash.com, http://www.activistcash.com/foundation.cfm/did/486 (September 9, 2004); Vincent Stehle, “Considering the Question of Perpetuity”, excerpt from Investment Issues for Family Funds: Managing and Maximizing Your Philanthropic Dollars, Chapter 1, reprinted online at National Center for Family Philanthropy, http://www.ncfp.org/publications-excerpt-investments.html (September 9, 2004); Don Hazen, “David Hunter, Philanthropic Pioneer, Dies at 84”, AlterNet, http://www.alternet.org/story/10142/, November 28, 2000; Powell, 15-17, 29, 152, 230, 231, 236, 237, 241-242, 368. On the Institute for Policy Studies, see The Institute for Policy Studies, http://www.ips-dc.org/overview.htm (September 9, 2004); Powell; Entry for ”Institute for Policy Studies (IPS)” in “Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive; Entries for “Institute for Policy Studies: Marxist Think Tank” and “The IPS Fellows” at Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/bioleft.htm (September 9, 2004).

90On O’Dwyer, see ”In Honor of Paul O’Dwyer”, Congressional Record—Senate, 105th Congress—2nd Session (1998), S-7608, July 7, 1998, located online through Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet, http://thomas.loc.gov (September 9, 2004); Letter from Cora Weiss, David Dellinger, Donald Kalish, Douglas Dowd, Sidney Lens, Sidney Peck, Stewart Meacham, and Terry Hallinan to the editors, “November Mobilization”, The New York Review of Books, Volume 13, Number 9, November 20, 1969, reprinted online at http://www.nybooks.com/articles/11139 (September 9, 2004); John Herbers, “250,000 War Protestors Stage Peaceful Rally in Washington; Militants Stir Clashes Later”, The New York Times, November 25, 1969, reprinted online at CINEMOD: Experimental Films of Dominic Angerame, http://www.cinemod.net/docs/60sarticle.html (September 9, 2004).

91Stacewicz, 205-211; Nicosia, Home to War, 43-49.

92See Note 45.

93Nicosia, Home to War, 49.

94Stacewicz, 205-212; Nicosia, Home to War, 49-55.

95Nicosia, Home to War, 51, 128; Marc Morano, “Kerry-linked Anti-War Group Can’t Bury Deceit”, CNSNews.com, http://www.cnsnews.com/Politics/Archive/200403/POL20040303a.html, March 3, 2004 (September 9, 2004).

96Nicosia, Home to War, 50-55, 59-60.

97”Black Panther Party”, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Panther_Party (September 15, 2004); ”Black Panthers”, Spartacus Educational, http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USApantherB.htm (September 15, 2004); Huey P. Newton, The Huey P. Newton Reader, with foreword by Fredrika Newton and introduction by David Hilliard, edited by David Hilliard and Donald Weise, New York: Seven Stories Press, 2002; Bobby Seale, A Lonely Rage: The Autobiography of Bobby Seale, New York: Times Books, 1978; Eldridge Cleaver, Soul on Ice, with introduction by Maxwell Geismar, New York: Dell, 1968; Philip S. Foner, The Black Panthers Speak, with new foreword by Clayborne Carson, New York: Da Capo Press, 1995 (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1970); Huey P. Newton, et al, The Black Panther Leaders Speak: Huey P. Newton, Bobby Seale, Eldridge Cleaver and Company Speak Out through the Black Panther Party’s Official Newspaper, Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1976; ”Black Panther Newspaper Collection: Maoist International Movement”, Maoist International Movement (MIM), http://www.etext.org/Politics/MIM/bpp/index.html (September 9, 2004); “Interview with Huey P. Newton (1968)”, The Movement, August 1968, reprinted online at Hippyland, http://www.hippy.com/php/article.php?sid=76 (September 14, 2004); “History of the Black Panther Party”, The Black Panther Party Research Project, http://www.stanford.edu/group/blackpanthers/history.shtml (September 17, 2004); FBI files, “Black Panther Party”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/bpanther.htm (September 9, 2004); Powell, 29-30; John Elvin, “Hillary Hides Her Panther Fling”, Insight on the News, http://www.insightmag.com/news/2000/07/31/InvestigativeReport/Hillary.Hides.Her.Panther.Fling-210660.shtml (September 18, 2004).

98”Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee”, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Student_Nonviolent_Coordinating_Committee (September 15, 2004); ”Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee”, Spartacus Educational, http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAsncc.htm (September 15, 2004); Jonathan I.Z. Agronsky, Marion Barry: The Politics of Race, Latham, New York: British American Publishing, 1991; Julian Bond, “SNCC: What We Did—Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee”, Monthly Review, October 2000, online at LookSmart, http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_5_52/ai_66937932 (September 15, 2004); John Lewis with Michael D’Orso, Walking with the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998; Howard Zinn, SNCC: The New Abolitionists, Boston: Beacon Press, 1965; John Lewis, “My Biography”, Congressman John Lewis: Georgia’s 5th Congressional District, http://www.house.gov/johnlewis/bio.html (September 15, 2004); SNCC 1960-1966: Six years of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, http://www.ibiblio.org/sncc/ (September 15, 2004); Stokely Carmichael, Ready for Revolution: The Life and Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture), with Ekwueme Michael Thelwell, New York: Scribner, 2003; “Kwame Ture: His Last Words! Organize! Organize!”, Kwame Ture (formerly known as Stokely Carmichael, http://www.kwameture.com/ (September 15, 2004); Elizabeth Martinez, “The Venceremos Brigade Still Means, ‘We Shall Overcome’: After 30 years of constant activism, the Venceremos Brigade continues to be a unique pillar of the U.S. left”, Z Magazine, http://www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/Martinez2.htm (September 15, 2004); “Sixties Project: Primary Document Archive: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)”, The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary.html (September 15, 2004); Robin D.G. Kelley, Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists during the Great Depression, Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1990, 229-230; FBI files, “Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/sncc.htm (September 9, 2004); Powell, 29-30.

99Gitlin, 280-281, 348-352, 377-408; “Sixties Project: Primary Document Archive: Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)”, The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary.html (September 15, 2004); ”SDS”, Maoist International Movement (MIM), http://www.etext.org/Politics/MIM/sds/index.html (September 9, 2004); Alan Adelson, SDS, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1972; “Who we are and what we do”, Venceremos Brigade, http://www.venceremosbrigade.org/aboutVB.htm (September 15, 2004); Martinez; FBI files, “Weather Underground Organization (WUO)”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/weather.htm (September 9, 2004); “National Lawyers Guild & its Terrorist Network”; Juan F. Benemelis, Las guerras secretas de Fidel Castro, Grupo de Apoyo a la Democracia, Capitulo 12, “Los Macheteros de Puerto Rico”, online at Grupo de Apoyo a la Democracia, http://www.gadcuba.org/Guerras%20Secretas/Index.htm, translation at http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://www.gadcuba.org/Guerras%2520Secretas/Los%2520Macheteros%2520de%2520Puero%2520Rico.htm&prev=/search%3Fq%3Djulie%2Bnichamin%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8 (September 15, 2004).

100Stacewicz, 265-266; Nicosia, Home to War, 53-54; 67; 150-152; Memo from New York SAC to FBI Director, “Proposed Peace March from Morristown, New Jersey to Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, September 4-7, 1970, Sponsored by Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, August 20, 1970, 3, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 1, 92 (September 4, 2004).

2 posted on 10/11/2004 12:29:50 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: okie01; Shermy

ping


3 posted on 10/11/2004 12:31:08 PM PDT by dirtboy (Kerry could have left 'Nam within a week if Purple Hearts were awarded for shots to the foot.)
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To: Fedora

Bookmarked. Links to 1 and 2 please?


4 posted on 10/11/2004 12:31:20 PM PDT by sauropod (Hitlary: "We're going to take things away from you on behalf of the common good.")
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To: Fedora

Is there any doubt that Kerry is guilty of treason???

He should be tried under the UCMJ for his treason while still in uniform on active duty.

I guess in this country nowadays, your accountability to the law is inversely proportional to your wealth and status. How much "justice" can you afford???


5 posted on 10/11/2004 12:33:35 PM PDT by EagleUSA
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To: Fedora

I saw the headline and was getting ready to ping you...lol...

Looks like you out did yourself this time.


Thanks


6 posted on 10/11/2004 12:34:43 PM PDT by stockpirate (Kerry; supported by, financed by, trained by, guided by, revered by, in favor of, Communists.)
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To: BobKrumm; 68-69TonkinGulfYachtClub; BykrBayb; LakeLady; bridgemanusa; Darksheare; Dr Snide; ...

PING


7 posted on 10/11/2004 12:35:51 PM PDT by stockpirate (Kerry; supported by, financed by, trained by, guided by, revered by, in favor of, Communists.)
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To: sauropod

Links to 1 and 2 are in the introduction.


8 posted on 10/11/2004 12:36:45 PM PDT by stockpirate (Kerry; supported by, financed by, trained by, guided by, revered by, in favor of, Communists.)
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To: Fedora

Bump for later read.....


9 posted on 10/11/2004 12:39:17 PM PDT by mickie
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To: Fedora
100Stacewicz, 265-266; Nicosia, Home to War, 53-54; 67; 150-152; Memo from New York SAC to FBI Director, “Proposed Peace March from Morristown, New Jersey to Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, September 4-7, 1970, Sponsored by Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, August 20, 1970, 3, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 1, 92 (September 4, 2004).

101Nicosia, Home to War, 36-39, 49.

102Stacewicz, 205; Komisar.

103 Stacewicz, 205; Nicosia, Home to War, 49.

104Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 337; Gold; Komisar.

105Nicosia, Home to War, 49. Cf. Stacewicz, 310-311.

106“Abzug, Bella Savitzky, 1920-1988”, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, bioguide.congress.gov/ scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=A000018, cached at http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:RhEWmlUMR9gJ:bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl%3Findex%3DA000018+congressional+biography+bella+abzug&hl=en (September 9, 2004); “Bella Abzug Papers, 1970-1976”, Columbia University in the City of New York, http://www.columbia.edu/cu/libraries/indiv/rare/guides/Abzug/index.html (September 15, 2004); “Women Strike for Peace: Records, 1961-date (bulk, 1962-1973)”, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG100-150/DG115/DG115WSP.html (September 6, 2004); Amy Swerdlow and Catharine R. Stimpson, Women Strike for Peace: Traditional Motherhood and the Radical Politics of the 1960s, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993; “Appendix: Communist Infiltration of the Women Strike for Peace, Also Known As Women’s International Strike for Peace”, attached to Memo, Los Angeles SAC to FBI Director, “COMINFIL, GIs and Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, April 2, 1969, FBI HQ 100-451697, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-451697 Section 01, 125-140 (September 15, 2004); Poole; Powell, 31-32, 40; Entry for “Women Strike for Peace (WSP)” in “Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive.

107Nicosia, “Veteran in Conflict”; Komisar.

108Nicosia, Home to War, 71-72, 99; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 342-343; Grossman, interview; Johnson, interview; Gregory, interview; Cram, interview.

109See Note 11.

110Stacewicz, 229-233; Nicosia, Home to War, 56-63.

10 posted on 10/11/2004 12:40:27 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: Fedora
111Alan Ryan, Bertrand Russell: A Political Life, New York: Hill and Wang, 1988; ”The Pacifism of Bertrand Russell”, Literary Works of Sanderson Beck, http://www.san.beck.org/WP24-Russell.html (September 16, 2004); Prevent the Crime of Silence: Reports from the Sessions of the International War Crimes Tribunal Founded by Bertrand Russell, selected and edited by Peter Limqueco and Peter Weiss with additional material selected and edited by Ken Coates and a Foreword by Noam Chomsky, London: Penguin Press, 1971, online at FrontPage – 9/11 Review, http://www.911review.org/Wget/www.homeusers.prestel.co.uk/littleton/v1tribun.htm (September 16, 2004); Todd Ensign, “Organizing Veterans Through War Crimes Documentation”, Viet Nam Generation 5:1-4, March 1994, reprinted online at The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Texts/Narrative/Ensign_War_Crimes.html (September 16, 2004).

112Bernard Henri Levy and Andrew Brown, Sartre: The Philosopher of the Twentieth Century, Cambridge: Polity Press, 2003; ”Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)”, Sartre Online, http://www.geocities.com/sartresite/sartre_biography.html (September 16, 2004); Routing slip, J. Edgar Hoover to Clyde Tolson, Alan Belmont, Cartha DeLoach, Alex Rosen, William Sullivan, and W.S. Tavel, appended to Washington Post article, FBI 105-82555-4116, cited in Theoharis and Cox, 40, 502n4. On the World Peace Council, see Note 45.

113”Biographical Entries”, chomsky.info: The Official Noam Chomsky Website, http://www.chomsky.info/bios.htm (September 16, 2004); Harvey Baker, “Chomsky: A Journey to North Vietnam”, The Tech, Volume 90, Number 23, May 1970, cached at http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:ABEy9123wt8J:kurzweil.mit.edu/archives/VOL_090/TECH_V090_S0198_P001.txt+noam+chomsky+douglas+dowd+hanoi&hl=en (September 16, 2004); Noam Chomsky, “A Special Supplement: In North Vietnam”, The New York Review of Books, August 13, 1970, reprinted online at http://www.nybooks.com/articles/10869 (September 16, 2004).

114See Notes 97 and 98.

115See “Carl Oglesby’s Speech”, Rebels with a Cause, http://www.sdsrebels.com/oglesby.htm (September 17, 2004); Gitlin, 258-259.

116On Peter Weiss, see Report, FBI, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Incorporated”, October 12, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 7, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 7, 82-117 (September 4, 2004); “Building the Enemies of America: Council on Economic Priorities” at Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/cep.htm (September 9, 2004); Entry for ”Institute for Policy Studies” in Ron Arnold, Undue Influence: Wealthy Foundations, Grant Driven Environmental Groups and Zealous Bureaucrats That Control Your Future, Bellevue, Washington: Free Enterprise Press, 1999, online at http://www.undueinfluence.com/ips.htm (September 16, 2004); Powell, 11, 16. On the National Lawyers Guild, see Note 62. On the Institute for Policy Studies, see The Institute for Policy Studies, http://www.ips-dc.org/overview.htm (September 9, 2004); Powell; Entry for ”Institute for Policy Studies (IPS)” in “Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive; Entries for “Institute for Policy Studies: Marxist Think Tank” and “The IPS Fellows” at Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/bioleft.htm (September 9, 2004); Entry for ”Institute for Policy Studies” in Arnold. On Cora Weiss and the Committee of Liaison with Families of Servicemen Detained in North Vietnam, see FBI files, “American POWs/MIAs in Southeast Asia”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/powsmias.htm (September 21, 2004); United States Senate Select Committee on POW/MIA Affairs, Report of the Select Committee on POW/MIA Affairs, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993, SSC Report Section XXII: Accounting for Missing Servicemen, online at http://www.aiipowmia.com/ssc/ssc22.html (September 21, 2004); Powell, 38-39, 42.

11 posted on 10/11/2004 12:44:17 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: Fedora

Bookmared for later read. Looks like you have been very busy!


12 posted on 10/11/2004 12:45:12 PM PDT by AZamericonnie (We could certainly slow the aging process down if it had to work its way through Congress. ~Will R)
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To: Fedora

bttt


13 posted on 10/11/2004 12:46:31 PM PDT by Tailgunner Joe
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To: Fedora
117David Bradbury (director), Public Enemy Number One, 1986, available at Ronin Films, http://www.roninfilms.com.au/video/1920937/0/1832276 (September 16, 2004); ”Wilfred Burchett”, Australian War Memorial, http://www.awm.gov.au/korea/faces/burchett/burchett.htm (September 16, 2004); John Rees, “K.G.B. Agent Wilfred Burchett Tours U.S. Campuses”, The Review of the News, November 2, 1977, reprinted online at The John Birch Society, http://www.jbs.org/visitor/focus/vietnam/below/burchett1.htm (September 16, 2004); Powell, 35-36, 115-117.

118Powell, 37-38.

14 posted on 10/11/2004 12:46:43 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: Fedora
OK, I'm convinced. And my compliments on posting an impressive compendium of relevant and damning information. My task: how to persuade Kerry voters that it should disqualify their candidate. Even if they understood the import of that information, I don't think a typical Kerryite would care.
15 posted on 10/11/2004 12:49:06 PM PDT by luvbach1 (Let US commanders run the war on terror in iraq,)
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To: EagleUSA
FBI Documents indicate that while John Kerry was with the VVAW, VVAW leaders met with KGB agents in the US. “VVAW collusion with foreign spies? “The Diplomatic List published by U.S. Department of State, in 1971 listed Grigoriy Sergeyvich Milhaylovskiy as an assistant Military Attache, Embassy of the U.S.S.R., Washington, D.C.”
16 posted on 10/11/2004 12:49:31 PM PDT by stockpirate (Kerry; supported by, financed by, trained by, guided by, revered by, in favor of, Communists.)
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To: Fedora
119Seymour M. Hersh, Cover-Up: The Army’s Secret Investigation of the Massacre at My Lai 4, New York: Random House, 1972, 273-274; Ensign; Stacewicz, 233-235; Nicosia, Home to War, 50, 58, 62-63, 73-74.

120Stacewicz, 235; Nicosia, Home to War, 40, 50, 58-59, 62-63, 73-78. On Chomsky, see Note 113. On Fernandez and Clergy and Laity Concerned, see Note 60 and Baker. On Lifton and Falk, see Lifton, xxvii, 17, 459n1; Crimes of War, editors Richard Falk, et al, New York: Random House, 1971; Nicosia, Home to War, 82; “Richard Falk”, TFF: The Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Research, http://www.transnational.org/tff/people/r_falk.html (September 17, 2004); “Senior Scholars”, The Institute for Policy Studies, http://www.ips-dc.org/projects/senior.htm (September 17, 2004); Richard A. Falk, A Vietnam Settlement: The View from Hanoi, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Center of International Studies, 1968; Powell, 42, 47-53; Tom Wells, Wild Man: The Life and Times of Daniel Ellsberg, 127, 339-340, 403. On Goodell, see “Goodell, Charles Ellsworth, 1926-1987“, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=G000282 (September 17, 2004); Abraham Heschel, etc., “Senator Goodell”, The New York Review of Books, Volume 15, Number 7, October 22, 1970, reprinted online at http://www.nybooks.com/articles/10787 (September 17, 2004); “Charles E. Goodell: Chairman, Presidential Clemency Board; Washington attorney and lobbyist: Papers, 1973&#8209;77”, Gerald R. Ford Library and Museum, http://www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov/library/guides/Finding%20Aids/Goodell,%20Charles%20-%20Papers.htm (September 17, 2004).

121Ensign; Nicosia, Home to War, 76-79.

122Fred Lawrence Guiles, Jane Fonda: The Actress in Her Time, Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1982; “Jane Fonda Chrono”, Woodstock Journal, http://www.woodstockjournal.com/pdf/jane-fonda2.pdf (September 17, 2004); ”Biography of Jane Fonda”, BookRags.com, http://www.bookrags.com/biography/jane-fonda/ (September 17, 2004); “Fonda, Jane”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1986; ”Jane Fonda”, MSN Encarta, http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761558412/Jane_Fonda.html (September 17, 2004); William B. Guidry, “Radical Leaders, Tom Hayden and Hanoi Jane”, American Opinion, June 1979, reprinted online at The John Birch Society, http://www.jbs.org/visitor/focus/vietnam/below/hanoi_jane.htm (September 17, 2004); Peter Collier, “The Bane that is Jane: Miss Fonda in Her Own Mind”, National Review, July 17, 2000, reprinted at LookSmart,http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1282/is_13_52/ai_63173676 (September 17, 2004); Henry Mark Holzer and Erika Holzer, Aid and Comfort: Jane Fonda in North Vietnam, foreword by Col. George “Bud” Day, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2002; “’Hanoi Jane’ Partners with MoveOn.org”, NewsMax.com, http://newsmax.com/archives/ic/2004/9/25/201340.shtml, September 25, 2004 (September 25, 2004).

123”Mark Lane”, Contemporary Authors Online, Farmington Hills, Michigan: The Gale Group, 2004, online at Biography Resource Center, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC (September 17, 2004); ”Mark Lane”, We the People, http://www.givemeliberty.org/RTPLawsuit/LaneCV.htm (September 17, 2004); ”Mark Lane”, Spartacus Educational, http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKlaneM.htm (September 17, 2004); Mark Lane, “Oswald Innocent? A Lawyer’s Brief”, National Guardian, December 1963, reprinted online at The Academic JFK Assassination Web Site, http://karws.gso.uri.edu/JFK/The_critics/Lane/Natl-Guardian/Natl_Guardian.html (September 17, 2004); Mark Lane, Rush to Judgement: A Critique of the Warren Commission’s Inquiry into the Murders of President John F. Kennedy, Officer J.D. Tippit and Lee Harvey Oswald, with introduction by Hugh Trevor-Roper, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1966, 9; Mark Lane, A Citizen’s Dissent: Mark Lane Replies, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1968, 38-39 (cf. Bertrand Russell, “Sixteen Questions on the Assassination”, The Minority of One, September 6, 1964, 6-8, reprinted online at The Academic JFK Assassination Web Site, http://karws.gso.uri.edu/JFK/the_critics/russell/Sixteen_questions_Russell.html (September 17, 2004); Bob Callahan, Who Shot JFK? A Guide to the Major Conspiracy Theories, illustrated by Mark Zingarelli, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993, 46-48); Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB, New York: Basic Books, 1999, 227-230 (note the KGB’s attempt to blame the assassination on Howard Hunt; cf. Mark Lane, Plausible Denial: Was the CIA Involved in the Assassination of JFK?, New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 1992 (1991)); Butte, Montana FBI office to FBI Acting Director and San Francisco, California FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), National Steering Committee, Palo Alto, California, September Two Nine Next to October Two Next”, September 1, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 31, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 31, 196-198 (September 21, 2004).

124Guiles, 181.

125Nicosia, Home to War, 62.

126Ensign; Nicosia, Home to War, 78-79; Leaflet, Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Inc., October 19, 1970, attached to Letterhead Memorandum, New Haven, Connecticut FBI office, “Re: Vietnam Veterans Against the War in Vietnam (VVAW)”, March 11, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 2, 106-124 (September 21, 2004).

127Memo, New York SAC to FBI Director, “Proposed Peace March from Morristown, New Jersey, September 4-7, 1970, Sponsored by Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, August 20, 1970, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 1, 90-94 (September 18, 2004).

128Nora Sayre, “The Revolutionary People’s Constitutional Convention: Black Panthers and White Radicals: September-November 1970”, Reporting Civil Rights: Part 2: American Journalism 1963-1973, New York: The Library of America, 2003; George Kastiaficas, “Organization and Movement: The Case of the Black Panther Party and the Revolutionary People’s Constituational Convention of 1970”, Eros Effect, http://www.eroseffect.com/articles/Rpcc.pdf (September 18, 2004); Memo, Charlotte SAC to FBI Director, “Rally in Support of the Black Panther Party: Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C., 6/19/70”, FBIHQ 105-165706-8, Section 6c, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/bpanther/bpanther6c.pdf, Section 6c, 11-12 (September 19, 2004).

129Nicosia, Home to War, 67.

130Memo, New York SAC to FBI Director, “Proposed Peace March from Morristown, New Jersey, September 4-7, 1970, Sponsored by Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, August 20, 1970, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 1, 90-94 (September 18, 2004).

131”Youth International Party”, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Youth_International_Party (September 18, 2004); ”Abbie Hoffman”, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbie_Hoffman (September 18, 2004); ”Jerry Rubin”, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerry_Rubin (September 18, 2004); Abbie Hoffman, Soon To Be a Major Motion Picture, with introduction by Norman Mailer, New York: Putnam, 1980, revised as Autobiography of Abbie Hoffman, with afterword by Howard Zinn, New York: Four Walls, Eight Windows, 2000; Marty Jezer, Abbie Hoffman: American Rebel, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1992; Stew Albert’s Yippie Reading Room, http://members.aol.com/stewa/stew.html (September 19, 2004); “Yippie!”, free.freespeech.org, http://free.freespeech.org/yippie/ (September 18, 2004); Gitlin, 230-238; “’The Chicago Seven’ Trial, 1969-1970”, Famous Trials, http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/Chicago7/chicago7.html (September 19, 2004); FBI files, “Abbie (Abbott) Hoffman”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/hoffsum.htm (September 18, 2004). On the Vietnam Day Committee, see Charles Wollenberg, Berkeley: A City in History, Berkeley, California: Berkeley Public Library, 2002, Chapter 9, online at http://berkeleypubliclibrary.org/system/Chapter9.html (September 18, 2004); Charles Perry, The Haight-Ashbury: A History, New York: Vintage Books, 1984 (NewYork: Random House, 1984), 25-28, 52, 63; Gitlin, 209-210; Gary Allen, “Vietnam Day: Berkeley’s Kooks, Communists, and Pro-Vietcong”, American Opinion, December 1965, reprinted online at The John Birch Society, http://www.jbs.org/visitor/focus/vietnam/below/berkeley_vietnam_day.htm (September 18, 2004); Powell, 29.

132Letterhead Memorandum, New York, New York FBI office, “Proposed Peace March from Morristown, New Jersey, September 4-7, 1970, Sponsored by Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, September 1, 1970, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 1, 109-110 (September 18, 2004).

133Nicosia, Home to War, 95. On Gregory, cf. Dick Gregory Global Watch, http://www.dickgregory.com/ (September 22, 2004); ”Youth International Party”, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Youth_International_Party (September 18, 2004); “Hippy Timeline”, Hippyland, http://hippy.com/timeline.htm (September 19, 2004); Guiles, 193-194, 200; “Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)”, VVAW: Vietnam Veterans Against the War, http://www.vvaw.org/faq/ (September 19, 2004); Lifton, 341.

134Cf. Johnson, interview, 12: "Dewey Canyon III––it was a “Yippie” [thing]. I don't know if you people remember what 'Yippies' were––'Youth International Party,' Jerry Ruben, Abby Hoffman. It was just theater, is what it was. We had less than a thousand vets on the Mall in Washington, D.C. and we closed the government down for a week. . .Then we came back to Boston, and we decided that we were going to do another event, another 'Yippie' event, and that turned out to be Operation POW. . ."

135Scott Swett, “Yesterday’s Lies: Steve Pitkin and the Winter Soldiers”, www.wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/staticpages/index.php?page=YesterdaysLies1, September 15, 2004 (September 20, 2004); Nicosia, Home to War, 236-237, 240.

136Stacewicz, 229-233; Nicosia, Home to War, 63-73; Flyer, Vietnam Veterans Against the War, “Operation RAW”, attached to Memo, Baltimore SAC to FBI Director, “Operation RAW—Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Grand Parade Grounds, Valley Forge State Park, Pennsylvania, 9/4/70-9/7/70”, August 25, 1970, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 1 and Letterhead Memorandum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War: Operation RAW, September 4-7, 1970”, September 10, 1970, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 1, 98-102, 167-169 (September 4, 2004).

137See John Conyers, Jr., ”Tribute to the Trade Union Leadership Council”, Congressional Record—Senate,104th Congress—1st Session (1995), E2276, November 30, 1995, located online through Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet, http://thomas.loc.gov (September 19, 2004); “Conyers, John”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1970; “Conyers, John, Jr., 1929-“, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=C000714 (September 19, 2004); “CBC History”, Congressional Black Caucus, http://www.house.gov/cummings/cbc/cbchistory.htm (September 19, 2004); Andrew and Mitrokhin, 290-291; Powell, 21-23, 76-78, 190-191, 248-250, 264-266, 271-272; ;”Cuba Solidarity Organizations”, AfroCubaWeb, http://www.afrocubaweb.com/solidarity.htm (September 19, 2004), Addison Ross, “Rep. John Conyers: patriot or something else?”, Brookes, http://www.brookesnews.com/031802conyers.html , February 18, 2003 (September 19, 2004).

138See “McGovern, George S.”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1967; “McGovern, George Stanley, 1922-“, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, bioguide.congress.gov/ scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=M000452 (September 15, 2004); George S. McGovern, Grassroots: The Autobiography of George McGovern, New York: Random House, 1977; George McGovern, http://www.mcgovernlibrary.com/george.htm (September 18, 2004); J. Edgar Hoover, “McGovern, Senator George S.”, Official and Confidential (O&C) Files of J. Edgar Hoover, Folder 107; Theoharis and Cox, 478-479, 541n19; Powell, 41, 49, 250, 267-269, 395n64. On the Council for a Livable World, see Powell, 271-272.

139Cf. “Trumbo, Dalton”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1976; “Dalton Trumbo”, Spartacus Educational, http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAtrumbo.htm (September 18, 2004); Kenneth Lloyd Billingsley, Hollywood Party: How Communism Seduced the American Film Industry in the 1930s and 1940s, Rocklin, California: Prima Publishing, 1998; Francine Parker (director), F.T.A., 1972; John Patterson, “Boys from the blacklist: One of the banned Hollywood Ten, Dalton Trumbo still managed to direct an extraordinary film.”, Guardian Unlimited, http://film.guardian.co.uk/features/featurepages/0,4120,1235582,00.html, June 11, 2004 (September 19, 2004).

140On Lowenstein, see “Lowenstein, Allard Kenneth, 1929-1980”, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=L000477 (September 9, 2004);“Lowenstein, Allard K.”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1971.

141See ”James Luther Bevel”, Religious Leaders of America, 2nd edition, Farmington Hills, Michigan: The Gale Group, 1999, online at Biography Resource Center, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC (September 17, 2004); "National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam Records, 1966-1969". 142Ensign; Crandell; Stacewicz, 236-237; Nicosia, Home to War, 78-82; Neil Sheehan, “Mark Lane: Smearing America’s Soldiers in Vietnam”, The New York Times Book Review, December 27, 1970, reprinted online at Kennedy Assassination Home Page, http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/smearing.htm (September 19, 2004); Andrew and Mitrokhin, 228. 143For general descriptions of the WSI, see Vietnam Veterans Against the War, The Winter Soldier Investigation: An Inquiry into American War Crimes, Boston: Beacon Press, 1972 ; “Winter Soldier Investigation”, The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary/Winter_Soldier/WS_entry.html (September 6, 2004); Crandell; Stacewicz, 233-241; Nicosia, Home to War, 73, 80-81, 84-97; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 346-357; FBI files, FBI HQ 100-448092, Sections 1 and 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file FBI HQ 100-448092 Section 1, 173-176, 196-198, 224 and Section 2, 2-69 (September 4, 2004). 144Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 349. On Berrigan, see Note 60. 145On Mazey, see “Mazey, Emil”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1948. Cf. “Walter Reuther”, Spartacus Educational, http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAreuther.htm (September 20, 2004); Victor G. Devinatz, “Nelson Lichtenstein and the Politics of Reuther Scholarship”, Labour/Le Travail, Number 51, Spring 2003, online at The History Cooperative, http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/llt/51/devinatz.html (September 20, 2004); Letterhead Memorandum, Los Angeles FBI office, “Communist Infiltration of the National Farm Workers Assocation: Delano, California”, January 21, 1966, FBI HQ 100-444762, Part 1a, online at “Cesar Chavez and United Farm Workers”, Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/chavez.htm, pdf file Part 1a, 49-57 (September 20, 2004); Letterhead Memorandum, Los Angeles FBI office, “Communist Infiltration of the National Farm Workers Assocation: Delano, California”, March 9, 1966, FBI HQ 100-444762, Part 1a, online at “Cesar Chavez and United Farm Workers”, Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/chavez.htm, pdf file Part 1a, 67-69 (September 20, 2004); Memo, C.D. DeLoach to Mr. Tolson, “[Line deleted] Schleney Industries, Inc.: Information Re Communism”, April 5, 1966, FBI HQ 100-444762, Part 1a, online at “Cesar Chavez and United Farm Workers”, Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/chavez.htm, pdf file Part 1a, 98-99 (September 20, 2004); B.J. Widdick, “Woodcock: A Voice, Not an Echo”, The Nation, Volume 214, Issue 20, May 15, 1972, online at The Nation Digital Archive, http://www.nationarchive.com/Summaries/v214i0020_05.htm (September 20, 2004). 146On Austin, see ”Richard H. Austin, Hon.”, Who’s Who Among African Americans, 16th edition, Farmington Hills, Michigan: The Gale Group, 2003, online at Biography Resource Center, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC (September 20, 2004). 147On Business Executives Move for Vietnam Peace, see “Business Executives Move for Vietnam Peace, St. Louis Area Committee: Records, 1966-1974”, Western Historical Manuscript Collection: University of Missouri-St. Louis, http://www.umsl.edu/~whmc/guides/whm0441.htm (September 20, 2004); Entry for “Business Executives Move for New National Priorities (BEM)” in ”Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive. 148On Crosby and Nash, see “Crosby, Stills & Nash (and Young)”, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crosby,_Stills,_Nash_&_Young (September 20, 2004); Dave Zimmer, Crosby, Stills & Nash: The Authorized Biography, photos by Henry Diltz , New York: Da Capo Press, 2000 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1984); David Crosby and CPR, http://www.crosbycpr.com/ (September 20, 2004); The Crosby & Nash Official Site, http://crosbynash.com/ (September 20, 2004); “David Crosby: Biography”, VH1.com, http://www.vh1.com/artists/az/crosby_david/bio.jhtml (September 20, 2004); “Graham Nash: Biography”, VH1.com, http://www.vh1.com/artists/az/nash_graham/bio.jhtml (September 20, 2004); Lorraine Alterman, “Graham Nash: Tales Behind ‘Wild Tales’”, Rolling Stone, March 28, 1974, reprinted online at CSN@Suitelorraine.com, http://www.suitelorraine.com/suitelorraine/Pages/nashwildtales.html (September 20, 2004); “Vietnam Era Anti War Music”, JW’s Rock Garden, http://www.jwsrockgarden.com/jw02vvaw.htm (September 20, 2004). 149On Ochs, see “Phil Ochs”, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phil_Ochs (September 20, 2004); David Cohen, Phil Ochs: A Bio-Bibliography, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1999; Marc Eliot, Death of a Rebel, foreword by Vin Scelsa, Secaucus, New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group, 1995 (Garden City, New York: Anchor Press, 1979); Phil Ochs, http://www.cs.pdx.edu/~trent/ochs/ (September 20, 2004). 150On Hayden, see “Hayden, Tom”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1976; Tom Hayden, Reunion: A Memoir, New York: Random House, 1988; “Biography”, Tom Hayden, http://www.tomhayden.com/Biography.html (September 20, 2004); “Sixties Project: Primary Document Archive: Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)”, The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary.html (September 15, 2004); ”SDS”, Maoist International Movement (MIM), http://www.etext.org/Politics/MIM/sds/index.html (September 9, 2004); Alan Adelson, SDS, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1972; “FBI Documents on Tom Hayden”, Los Angeles Independent Media Center, http://la.indymedia.org/news/2002/08/18476.php (September 20, 2004); FBI files, “Weather Underground Organization (WUO)”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/weather.htm (September 9, 2004); David Horowitz, “Tom Hayden, LA, and Me”, FrontPageMagazine.com http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=1056, March 3, 1997 (September 20, 2004). 151On Abernathy and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, see “Abernathy, Ralph”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1968; “Ralph Abernathy”, Spartacus Educational, http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAabernathy.htm (September 20, 2004); Ralph Abernathy, And the Walls Came Tumbling Down: An Autobiography, New York: Harper & Row, 1989; “Rev. Ralph D. Abernathy, 1968 to 1977”, SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference, http://sclcnational.org/nonprofit/sclc/history.asp?itemid=3023&siteid=2607 (September 20, 2004); “From Whence We’ve Come”, SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference, http://sclcnational.org/nonprofit/sclc/history.asp?siteid=2607 (September 20, 2004); Records of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, 1954-1970, editors John H. Bracey, Jr. and August Meier, 4 parts, 82 reels, Bethesda, Maryland: University Publications of America, 1995; David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, New York: Quill, 1999 (New York: William Morrow, 1986); “Southern Christian Leadership Conference”, Spartacus Educational, http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAsclc.htm (September 20, 2004); FBI files, “Abernathy, Ralph D.”, HQ-1000442906, AT-1570002924, LA-570002720; U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Communist Infiltration of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference: FBI Investigation File, 9 reels, Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1984; David Pace, “FBI sought dirt on Martin Luther King, Jr.’s successor” Nando Times, July 11, 1999, online at Hartford Web Publishing: World History Archives, http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/45a/125.html (September 20, 2004). 152On Gregory, see Note 133. 153On Dellums, see “Dellums, Ronald V.”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1993; ”Ronald V. Dellums”, Notable Black American Men, Farmington Hills, Michigan: Gale Research, 1998, online at Biography Resource Center, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC (September 17, 2004); ”Ronald V(ernie) Dellums”, Contemporary Authors Online, Farmington Hills, Michigan: The Gale Group, 2004, online at Biography Resource Center, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC (September 17, 2004); Dellums, Ronald V. and H. Lee Halterman, Lying Down with the Lions: A Public Life from the Streets of Oakland to the Halls of Power, Boston: Beacon Press, 2000; “Dellums, Ronald Vernie, 1935-”, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=D000222 (September 20, 2004); Powell, 22-23, 239-240, 249-250, 252, 260-266, 271-272, 295; “Ronald Dellums: Congressman: 9th California District”, Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/dellums.htm (September 5, 2004). 154On Rangel, see “Rangel, Charles B.”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1984; “Biography of Charlie Rangel”, United States House of Representatives, http://www.house.gov/rangel/bio.shtml (September 20, 2004); “Congressman Charles B. Rangel”, AfroCubaWeb, http://www.afrocubaweb.com/rangel.htm (September 20, 2004); Michael Tremoglie, “Rangel is Wrong.”, FrontPageMagazine.com, http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?, January 9, 2003 (September 20, 2004). 155On Harrington and the Democratic Socialists of America, see “Harrington, Michael”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1988; Michael Harrington, The Long-Distance Runner: An Autobiography, New York: Holt, 1988; “Three Key Socialists”, Democratic Socialists of America, http://www.dsausa.org/about/DTH.html (September 20, 2004) ; Maurice Isserman, The Other American: The Life of Michael Harrington, New York: Public Affairs, 2000; “A Brief History of the American Left”, Democratic Socialists of America, http://www.dsausa.org/about/history.html (September 20, 2004); Powell, 57, 59n, 216, 219-220, 235; “Socialists in Congress”, Restoring America, http://www.restoringamerica.org/documents/socialists_in_congress.html , August 31, 2001 (September 20, 2004). 156On Abzug, see Note 106. 157On Drinan, see Notes 52, 61, 63, 66, 68, and 70. 158On Hatfield, see “Hatfield, Mark O.”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1984; Robert Eells and Bartell Nyberg, Lonely Walk: The Life of Senator Mark Hatfield, Chappaqua, New York: Christian Herald Books, 1979; Powell, 21-22, 41, 249-251, 257, 259, 297, 389; “Need for Investigation: Hon. Mark O. Hatfield in the Senate of the United States, Monday, April 5, 1971”, online at The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary/Winter_Soldier/WS_01_Hatfield.html (September 21, 2004); Bill Robertson, “Portland Man Plays Role in DC Protest”, attachment to Airtel, Portland, Oregon FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, November 30, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 10, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 10, 177-193 (esp.187) (September 4, 2004). On the Members of Congress for Peace Through Law/Arms Control and Foreign Policy Caucus, see Powell, 21-22, 41-42, 257-259, 265. 159On Pacifica Radio, see “About Us”, The Pacifica Radio Foundation http://pacifica.org/about/ (September 20, 2004); Elsa Knight Thompson, “History”, KPFA—Free Speech Radio http://www.kpfa.org/2ab_hist.htm (September 20, 2004); “Pacifica Radio”, Media Resources Center: Moffitt Library: University of California, Berkeley, http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/MRC/pacificainfo.html (September 20, 2004); Jeff Land, Active Radio: Pacifica’s Brash Experiment, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999; Matthew Lasar, Pacifica Radio: The Rise of an Alternative Network, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000, Chapter 1 online at Temple University Press, http://www.temple.edu/tempress/chapters/1389_ch1.pdf; Warren Bareiss, “Pacifica Radio and the American Left”, The Review of Communication 2.3, July 2002, 306-311, online at National Communication Association, http://www.natcom.org/pubs/ROC/one-three/Bareiss.pdf (September 20, 2004); Greg Yardley, “Radio Intifada”, FrontPageMagazine.com, http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=9185 (September 20, 2004). 160On The New York Times relationship to IPS’ role in breaking My Lai and the Pentagon Papers, see Saul Landau “Seymour Hersh”, The Progressive, October 1998, online at https://secure.progressive.org/intv1098.html; Scott Sherman, “The Avenger: Sy Hersh, Then and Now”, Columbia Journalism Review, http://www.cjr.org/issues/2003/4/hersh-sherman.asp, Issue 4, July-August 2003 (September 20, 2004); Wells, Wild Man: The Life and Times of Daniel Ellsberg, 365-411; Powell, 35-36, 37-38, 47-53, 113-115. 161On Cronkite and CBS’ coverage of Vietnam, see “Walter Cronkite’s ‘We Are Mired in Stalemate’ Broadcast, February 27, 1968”, History 398: Special Topics: The Vietnam Experience, http://www.richmond.edu/~ebolt/history398/Cronkite_1968.html (September 20, 2004); David Halberstam, The Powers That Be, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979, 508-515; “Walter Cronkite”, PBS: Reporting America at War, http://www.pbs.org/weta/reportingamericaatwar/reporters/cronkite/ (September 20, 2004). 162Vietnam Veterans Against the War, The Winter Soldier Investigation: An Inquiry into American War Crimes, Boston: Beacon Press, 1972. 163On Coppola, see Eleanor Coppola, Notes on the Making of Apocalypse Now, New York: Limelight Editions, 1991 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1979); Mikhail Kalatozov, I am Cuba (Russian title IA—Kuba; Cuban title Soy Cuba), presented by Francis Ford Coppola and Martin Scorsese, New York: Milestone Film & Video, 1996 (1964); Joel Stewart Zuker, Francis Ford Coppola: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, Massachusetts: G.K. Hall, 1984; Michael Goodwin and Naomi Wise, On the Edge: The Life and Times of Francis Ford Coppola, New York: Morrow, 1989; Peter Cowie, Coppola: A Biography, New York: Scribner, 1990; Ronald Bergan, Francis Ford Coppola Close Up: The Making of His Movies, New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 1998; Michael Schumacher, Francis Ford Coppola: A Filmmaker’s Life, New York: Random House, 1999; Gene D. Phillips, Godfather: The Intimate Francis Ford Coppola, Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2004; Jon Matthew, “Francis Ford Coppola: A Biography”, Debbie Twyman and Craig Whitney: Film Arts and Social Studies, http://www.twyman-whitney.com/film/celluloid_profiles/coppola.html (September 21, 2004). 164On Hefner, see CNN, “Interview with Hugh Hefner”, Cold War: Episode 13: Make Love, Not War: 1960s, January 10, 1999, online at The National Security Archive: Cold War: Interviews, http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/coldwar/interviews/episode-13/hefner1.html (September 21, 2004); Stephen Byer, Hefner’s Gonna Kill Me When He Reads This. . ., Chicago: Allen-Bennett, 1972; Frank Brady, Hefner, New York: Macmillan, 1974; Russell Miller, Bunny: The Real Story of Playboy, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1985; Tim Hodgdon, “The Chicago Women’s Liberation Union: On the Cutting Edge of Protest Against Sexual Objectification”, CWLU Herstory: Chicago Women’s Liberation Union http://www.cwluherstory.com/CWLUAbout/abdoc5.html, 2000 (September 21, 2004); FBI files, “Hugh Hefner/Playboy”, available from Paperless Archives, http://www.paperlessarchives.com/playboy.html (September 21, 2004). 165On Lifton, see Lifton; “What Are We Doing to Ourselves?”, Winter Soldier Investigation: Testimony given in Detroit, Michigan on January 31, 1971, February 1 and 2, 1971, online at The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary/Winter_Soldier/WS_18_Ourselves.html (September 21, 2004); Nicosia, Home to War, 59, 76, 81-82, 84, 112, 154, 158-209.

166On Falk and the Winter Soldier Investigation, see “Program”, attachment to Letterhead Memorandum, Detroit FBI office, “Re: Winter Soldier Investigation (WSI)”, February 2, 1970, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 02, 32-47 (September 21, 2004); Nicosia, Home to War, 82. Cf. Crimes of War, editors Richard Falk, et al, New York: Random House, 1971; Lifton, xxvii, 17, 459n1; Airtel with attachments, Denver, Colorado FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), National Steering Committee Meeting: Denver, Colorado: February 18-21, 1972”, March 17, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 15, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 15, 67-156 (esp. 128) (September 4, 2004); “Richard Falk”, TFF: The Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Research, http://www.transnational.org/tff/people/r_falk.html (September 17, 2004); “Senior Scholars”, The Institute for Policy Studies, http://www.ips-dc.org/projects/senior.htm (September 17, 2004); Powell, 42, 47-53; Tom Wells, Wild Man: The Life and Times of Daniel Ellsberg, 127, 339-340, 403.

167On Peter Weiss, Cora Weiss, and the Committee of Liaison with Families of Servicemen Detained in North Vietnam, see Note 116.

168On Zinn, see “Zinn, Howard”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1999; “The Life and Times of Howard Zinn”, Howard Zinn Online, http://www.geocities.com/howardzinnfans/bios.html (September 21, 2004); Howard Zinn, You Can’t Be Neutral on a Moving Train: A Personal History of Our Times, Boston: Beacon Press, 1994; Howard Zinn, “The Impossible Victory: Vietnam”, A People’s History of the United States, New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1980, reprinted online at Third World Traveler, http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Zinn/Vietnam_PeoplesHx.html (September 9, 2004); “Prisoner of War Panel”, Winter Soldier Investigation: Testimony given in Detroit, Michigan on January 31, 1971, February 1 and 2, 1971, online at The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary/Winter_Soldier/WS_23_POW.html (September 21, 2004).

169On Peck and the the National Coalition Against War, Racism and Repression/People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice, see “What Are We Doing to Ourselves?”, Winter Soldier Investigation: Testimony given in Detroit, Michigan on January 31, 1971, February 1 and 2, 1971, online at The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary/Winter_Soldier/WS_18_Ourselves.html (September 21, 2004); "National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam Records, 1966-1969", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG051-099/dg075nmc.htm (September 5, 2004); "Guide to the People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice Records, 1970-1972", The Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives, http://dlib.nyu.edu:8083/tamwagead/servlet/SaxonServlet?source=/pcpj.xml&style=/saxon01t2002.xsl∂=body (September 21, 2004); Wells, The War Within: America’s Battle Over Vietnam, 92-95, 268-269, 331-333, 399, 461-462, 471-473; L.A. Kauffman, “Ending a war: Inventing a movement: Mayday 1971”, Radical Society, Volume 29, Issue 4, December 2002, 29; Edward Sanders, “John Kerry and the First Five Months of 1971—Some Clues to His Presidency”, Woodstock Journal, http://www.woodstockjournal.com/pdf/john-kerry-president.pdf (September 23, 2004); Report, New York FBI office, “Clergy and Laity Concerned”, April 9, 1973, Field Office File 100-56667, BUFILE 105-170160, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/clviet.htm, pdf file 1b, 96-99 (September 5, 2004); House Internal Security Committee, National Peace Action Coalition (NPAC) and People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice (PCPJ), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971; Powell, 39-43. Cf. “Joint Treaty of Peace Between the People of the United States, South Vietnam and North Vietnam”, Davka, http://www.davka.org/what/theleft/peoplespeacetreatyvietnam.html (September 24, 2004); Memo, A.W. Gray to Mr. C.D. Brennan, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, February 26, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 02, 93-94 (September 21, 2004); Letterhead Memorandum, Detroit, Michigan FBI office, “Re: Winter Soldier Investigation (WSI)”, February 4, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 02, 64-69 (September 21, 2004); Telex, Tampa FBI office to FBI Director, Washington FBI field office, April 23, 1971, FBI HQ 100-11392, Part 23, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/committe.htm, pdf file FBI HQ 100-11392, Part 23, 80-81 (September 22, 2004).

170“Miscellaneous Panel”, Winter Soldier Investigation: Testimony given in Detroit, Michigan on January 31, 1971, February 1 and 2, 1971, online at The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary/Winter_Soldier/WS_28_Misc.html (September 21, 2004); Scott Swett, “Yesterday’s Lies: Steve Pitkin and the Winter Soldiers”, www.wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/staticpages/index.php?page=YesterdaysLies1, September 15, 2004 (September 20, 2004).

171Nicosia, Home to War, 92.

172Stacewicz, 240, 242; Nicosia, Home to War, 95-97.

173Stacewicz, 240-241; Nicosia, Home to War, 96-99

174"National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam Records, 1966-1969", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG051-099/dg075nmc.htm (September 5, 2004); “Detroit Coalition to End the War Now!”, Walter P. Reuther Library, http://www.reuther.wayne.edu/collections/hefa_627.htm (September 21, 2004); “James Lafferty Collection”, Walter P. Reuther Library, http://www.reuther.wayne.edu/collections/hefa_626.htm (September 21, 2004); Wells, The War Within: America’s Battle Over Vietnam, 331-333, 451; “Forum on Iraq, U.S., and the U.N.”, NOAC: Northeast Ohio Anti-War Coalition, http://www.noacinfo.org/October092003Background.html (September 21, 2004); Brian E. Albrecht, “Veteran Anti-War Activists Rejoin Fold”, Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 20, 2002, online at Common Dreams News Center, http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/1020-07.htm (September 21, 2004); “War in the ‘Peace’ Movement”, CACC Newsletter, August 1, 1971, reprinted online at Christian Anti-Communism Crusade, http://www.schwarzreport.org/Newsletters/1971/august1,71.htm (September 21, 2004); Telex, Los Angeles FBI office to FBI Director, San Francisco FBI office, Washington FBI office, April 19, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 02, 265-271 (September 21, 2004); Appendix, “National Peace Action Coalition (NPAC)”, attached to Letterhead Memorandum, “Demonstrations Sponsored by Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Washington, D.C., April 18 through April 23, 1971”, April 29, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 4, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 04, 12-35 (September 21, 2004); House Internal Security Committee, National Peace Action Coalition (NPAC) and People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice (PCPJ), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971.

175See Note 169.

176On Davis, see “Rennie Davis: Anti-war protest leader”, Cold War: Episode 13: Make Love, Not War: 1960s, http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/13/interviews/davis/ (September 23, 2004).

177Stacewicz, 362; Wells, The War Within, 449-451, 461-462, 471-473, 479-481; Powell, 42-43. Cf. “Joint Treaty of Peace Between the People of the United States, South Vietnam and North Vietnam”, Davka, http://www.davka.org/what/theleft/peoplespeacetreatyvietnam.html (September 24, 2004); Telex, Tampa FBI office to FBI Director, Washington FBI field office, April 23, 1971, FBI HQ 100-11392, Part 23, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/committe.htm, pdf file FBI HQ 100-11392, Part 23, 80-81 (September 22, 2004).

178Report, New York FBI office, “Clergy and Laity Concerned”, April 9, 1973, Field Office File 100-56667, BUFILE 105-170160, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/clviet.htm, pdf file 1b, 96-99 (September 5, 2004); Teletype, New York FBI office to FBI Director, et al, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Inc. (VVAW)”, November 11, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 9, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 9, 91-93 (September 4, 2004).

179On the Fellowship of Reconciliation, see Note 47.

180On the War Resisters League, see Note 47.

181On the American Friends Service Committee, see Note 33.

182Powell, 42; Wells, The War Within, 478-480.

183See Note 169.

184Stacewicz, 240, 242; Nicosia, Home to War, 98.

185Letter from Samuel D. McClelland, Board of Education of the City of New York, to Mr. J. Edgar Hoover, Federal Bureau of Investigation, June 30, 1970, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 1, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 1, 61 (September 4, 2004); Report, New York FBI office, “Clergy and Laity Concerned”, April 9, 1973, Field Office File 100-56667, BUFILE 105-170160, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/clviet.htm, pdf file 1b, 96-99 (September 5, 2004); Letterhead Memorandum, Kansas City, Missouri FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Steering Committee Meeting: Kansas City, Missouri: November 12, 13, 14, 1971”, November 18, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 11, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 11, 190-197 (September 4, 2004).

186Wells, The War Within, 472-473; Letterhead Memorandum, Washington, DC FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, March 12, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 02, 137-141 (September 15, 2004).

187Ensign; Nicosia, Home to War, 108, 123, 134-135, 139. On the Concerned Officers Movement, see “1970—The Concerned Officers Movement”, Quaker House of Fayetteville, N.C., http://www.quakerhouse.org/QH%20Exhibit/panel4.htm (September 23, 2004); “Dr. James M. Skelly”, Juniata College, http://departments.juniata.edu/pacs/skelly_bio.html (September 23, 2004). On Dellums, see Note 153.

188Tim Wheeler and Gene Tournour, “Vets Dump Medals, Nixon Dumps March”, Daily World, April 24, 1971, archived at “Time Line”, www.wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=Timeline, (September 24, 2004); Swett; Johnson, interview, 12. On the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, see “Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom”, Women In American History by Encylopaedia Britannica, http://search.eb.com/women/articles/Women's_International_League_for_Peace_and_Freedom.html (September 25, 2004); “History”, Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, http://www.wilpf.org/section/us%20wilpf.htm (September 25, 2004); "Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom Collection (DG043)", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/DG026-050/dg043wilpf/ (September 25, 2004); FBI files, “Jane Addams”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/addams.htm (September 25, 2004); J. Edgar Hoover, Masters of Deceit: The Story of Communism in American and How to Fight It, New York: Pocket Books, Inc., 1961 (New York: Henry Holt, 1958), 220-221; Michael Tremoglie, “Not In Our Name and the World Wide Terrorism Web”, FrontPageMagazine.com, http://www.frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=6722, March 19, 2003 (September 25, 2004). On Abernanthy and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, see Note 151. On Rubin and the Yippies, see Note 131.

189John Kerry and Vietnam Veterans Against the War, The New Soldier; Nicosia, Home to War, 99-100, 102, 150; Wells, The War Within, 477-501; Kauffman.

190Nicosia, Home to War, 99, 104-105.

191Michael Kranish, “With antiwar role, high visibility”, June 17, 2003, Part 3 of “John F. Kerry: Candidate in the Making”, The Boston Globe, http://www.boston.com/globe/nation/packages/kerry/061703.shtml, June 15-21, 2003 (August 5, 2004). Cf. Nicosia, Home to War, 105; Nicosia, “Veteran in Conflict”.

192On Bronfman, see Edgar M. Bronfman, Good Spirits: The Making of a Businessman, New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1998; Peter C. Newman, Bronfman Dynasty, McClelland and Stewart, 1978; Peter Charles Newman, King of the Castle: The Making of a Dynasty: Seagram’s and the Bronfman Empire, New York: Scribner, 1979; Michael Robert Marrus, Samuel Bronfman: The Life and Times of Seagram’s Mr. Sam, Hanover: University Press of New England (for Brandeis University Press), 1992; Jo Johnson and Martine Orange, The Man Who Tried to Buy the World: Jean-Marie Messier and Vivendi Universal, New York: Portfolio, 2003; Testimony of Frank Costello, James Rutkin, and Edwin Baldwin in United States Senate, Special Committee to Investigate Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce, Reports 141, 307, and 725, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950-1951; Allan May, “Big Al’s Corner”, in Jerry Capeci, “This Week in Gang Land: The Online Column”, Gang Land, January 11, 1999 (September 23, 2004).

193Kranish, “With antiwar role, high visibility”. Cf. Nicosia, Home to War, 105 and Nicosia, “Veteran in Conflict”.

194Teletype, Washington FBI field office to FBI Director, et al, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, April 13, 1971, attached to Note, FBI Domestic Intelligence Division, April 13, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 02, 198-205 (September 15, 2004); Report, FBI, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Incorporated”, October 12, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 7, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 7, 82-117 (September 4, 2004). Cf. Stacewicz, 242; Nicosia, “Veteran in Conflict”.

195Powell, 43, 396n73. On MCPL, see Note 158. On McGovern, see Note 138. On Kennedy, see “Kennedy, Edward Moore”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1978; “About Senator Kennedy“, Senator Edward M. Kennedy: Online Office, http://kennedy.senate.gov/index_low.html (September 24, 2004); Edward M. Kennedy and Mark O. Hatfield, Freeze! How You Can Prevent Nuclear War, foreword by W. Averell Harriman, New York: Bantam Books, 1982; Gary Allen, Ted Kennedy: In Over His Head, Atlanta: ’76 Press, 1980; Richard E. Burke, The Senator: My Ten Years with Edward M. Kennedy, with William and Marilyn Hoffer, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992; Lester David, Good Ted, Bad Ted: The Two Faces of Edward M. Kennedy, Secaucus, New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group, 1993; Burton Hersh, The Shadow President: Ted Kennedy in Opposition, South Royalton, Vermont: Steerforth Press, 1997; Adam Clymer, Edward M. Kennedy: A Biography, New York: Morrow, 1999. On Mondale, see “Mondale, Walter F.”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1978; “Mondale, Walter Frederick, 1928-“, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=M000851 (September 24, 2004); Walter F. Mondale, The Accountability of Power: Toward a Responsible Presidency, New York: D. McKay Co., 1975; Finlay Lewis, Mondale: Portrait of an American Politician, revised and updated edition, New York: Perennial Library, 1984 (original edition New York: Harper & Row, 1980); Steven M. Gillon, The Democrats’ Dilemma: Walter F. Mondale and the Liberal Legacy, New York: Columbia University Press, 1992. On Hart, see “Hart, Philip A.”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1959; “Hart, Philip Aloysius, 1920-1976“, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/%20scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=H000291 (September 24, 2004); Michael O’Brien, Philip Hart: The Conscience of the Senate, East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University Press, 1995.

196See Stacewicz, 246, 248; Nicosia, Home to War, 103, 110-111, 122-126, 130, 132-133, 136-139; Brinkley, 359-362, 364, 366-367, 369.

197On Pell, see “Pell, Claiborne”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1972; “Pell, Claiborne de Borda, 1918-“, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=P000193 (September 24, 2004); Claiborne Pell, Power and Policy: America’s Role in World Affairs, New York: Norton, 1972; Powell, 252, 389.

198On Fulbright, see Note 83.

199On Symington, see “Symington, Stuart”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1945; “Symington, William Stuart (Stuart), 1901-1988“, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=S001136 (September 24, 2004); James C. Olson, Stuart Symington: A Life, Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2003; Douglas Brinkley, Dean Acheson: The Cold War Years, 1953-1971, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992, 70-71, 73. On Acheson, see Part 1 in this series, “John Kerry’s Red Roots”, FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1198744/posts (September 24, 2004).

200On Church, see “Frank Forrester Church, 1924-1984”, The Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives, Volume 1: 1981-1985, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1998, online at Biography Resource Center, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC (September 24, 2004); “Church, Frank Forrester, 1924-1984“, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=C000388 (September 24, 2004); “The Frank Church Papers”, Boise State University: Albertsons Library: Special Collections Department, http://library.boisestate.edu/Special/church/CHURCH1.HTM (September 24, 2004); F. Forrester Church, Father and Son: A Personal Biography of Senator Frank Church of Idaho, New York: Harper & Row, 1985; LeRoy Ashby and Rod Gramer, Fighting the Odds: The Life of Senator Frank Church, Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1994; Powell, 54-83, esp. 65.

17 posted on 10/11/2004 12:49:42 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: Fedora
The Feds, especially under Nixon, went cross-eyed trying to find the links betwen the anti-war movement and Moscow. Now that the USSR is no more, the links are much clearer.

The problem is that between the MSM and a big helping of vote fraud, there is a chance, and not that slim, that we will wind up with Kerry where we don't want him.

He has gotten a complete pass from the Bush Team on all of this because they are afraid of the MSM. Karl Rove has decided that the Vietnam Era doesn't count, and neither does vote fraud.

18 posted on 10/11/2004 12:50:35 PM PDT by Kenny Bunk
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To: Fedora
201Stacewicz, 250-251; Nicosia, Home to War, 102-103, 108, 116, 125, 153; John Kerry and Vietnam Veterans Against the War, The New Soldier, edited by David Thorne and George Butler, New York: Macmillan, 1971 (text online at Gorio’s World, http://fp3.antelecom.net/gorio/ns/New%20Soldier%20Compleat.pdf (pdf file) (September 6, 2004); partial text with pictures at “The New Soldier: John Kerry and the VVAW”, wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=NewSoldier (September 6, 2004)).

202Kerry and Vietnam Veterans Against the War, 29.

203“Stone, I.F.”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1972; ”I.F. Stone”, Spartacus Educational, http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAstoneIF.htm (September 24, 2004); Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors, Washington: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 2000, 432-439; “Appendix: Recent Revelations About Soviet Active Measures”, in United States Information Agency, Soviet Active Measures in the ‘Post-Cold War’ Era, 1988-1991: A Report Prepared at the Request of the United States House of Representatives Committee on Apppropriations, June 1992, reprinted online at The Literature of Intelligence: A Bibliography of Materials, with Essays, Reviews, and Comments, http://intellit.muskingum.edu/russia_folder/pcw_era/sect_16a.htm (September 24, 2004).

204Tim Wheeler, “Army Bars Arlington Peace Memorial: Vets Set Up April 24 Advance Guard in D.C.”, Daily World, April 20, 1971, Tim Wheeler, “Senate Body Echoes to Vets Peace Cries”, Daily World, April 21, 1971, Tim Wheeler, “Nixon and High Court Defied: Vets Hold Peace Line; Jail and Threats Fail”, Daily World, April 23, 1971, Tim Wheeler and Gene Tournour, “Vets Dump Medals, Nixon Dumps March”, Daily World, April 24, 1971, archived at “Time Line”, www.wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=Timeline, (September 24, 2004).

205“Joint Treaty of Peace Between the People of the United States, South Vietnam and North Vietnam”, Davka, http://www.davka.org/what/theleft/peoplespeacetreatyvietnam.html (September 24, 2004); Telex, Tampa FBI office to FBI Director, Washington FBI field office, April 23, 1971, FBI HQ 100-11392, Part 23, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/committe.htm, pdf file FBI HQ 100-11392, Part 23, 80-81 (September 22, 2004); Stacewicz, 362.

206See Note 169.

207See Note 173.

208Stacewicz, 236, 240; Memo, A.W. Gray to Mr. C.D. Brennan, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, February 26, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 02, 93-94 (September 21, 2004); Letterhead Memorandum, Detroit, Michigan FBI office, “Re: Winter Soldier Investigation (WSI)”, February 4, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 02, 64-69 (September 21, 2004).

209See Notes 177 and 182.

210Stacewicz, 284; Nicosia, Home to War, 103; “Time Line”, www.wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=Timeline, (September 24, 2004).

211See Notes 194, 195.

212Nicosia, Home to War, 106, 125, 129.

213“Rennie Davis: Anti-war protest leader”, Cold War: Episode 13: Make Love, Not War: 1960s, http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/13/interviews/davis/ (September 23, 2004).

214See Note 69.

215On Weiss, see Note 116. On Weiss as the VVAW’s lawyer, see Report, FBI, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Incorporated”, October 12, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 7, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 7, 82-117 (September 4, 2004); Teletype, New York FBI office to FBI Director, FBI Domestic Intelligence Division, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, December 27, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 11, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 11, 240-241 (September 4, 2004).

216On the National Lawyers Guild, see Note 62.

217Powell, 11, 58; “National Lawyers Guild & its Terrorist Network”, Biographical Sketches of the Left, http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/1777/nlgterr.htm (September 5, 2004). On the Baader-Meinhof Gang, see Jillian Becker, Hitler’s Children: The Story of the Baader-Meinhof Terrorist Gang, Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1977; “Red Army Faction”, Wikipediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Army_Faction (September 24, 2004); This is Baader-Meinhofhttp://www.baader-meinhof.com/ (September 24, 2004); Denise Noe, “The Baader Meinhof Gang”, Crime Libraryhttp://www.crimelibrary.com/terrorists/baader/(September 24, 2004).

218See Kauffman.

219Tim Wheeler, “Nixon and High Court Defied: Vets Hold Peace Line; Jail and Threats Fail”, Daily World, April 23, 1971, archived at “Time Line”, www.wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=Timeline, (September 24, 2004).

220Nicosia, Home to War, 122; Swett.

221House Internal Security Committee, National Peace Action Coalition (NPAC) and People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice (PCPJ), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971; Nicosia, Home to War, 150.

222Letterhead Memorandum, “Demonstrations Sponsored by Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Washington, D.C., April 18 through April 23, 1971”, April 29, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 4, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 04, 12-35 (September 21, 2004).

223Stacewicz, 249-250, 293-295; Nicosia, Home to War, 128-129, 211-212; Nicosia, “Veteran in Conflict”; Teletype, author deleted to FBI Director and New York FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War Regional Coordinators and National Steering Committee Meeting Weekend November Fourteen, Nineteen Seventyone, Kansas City, Missouri”, November 16, 1971 and Teletype, author deleted to FBI Director, et al, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, November 18, 1971 and Teletype, author deleted to FBI Director, et al, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, November 19, 1971 and Letterhead Memorandum, author deleted, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War Regional Coordinators and National Steering Committee Meeting, Weekend November 12-15, 1971, Kansas City, Missouri”, November 24, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 9, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 9, 148-157, 199-204, 208-210, 229-232 (September 4, 2004); Letterhead Memorandum, Kansas City, Missouri FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Steering Committee Meeting: Kansas City, Missouri: November 12, 13, 14, 1971”, November 18, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 11, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 11, 190-197 (September 4, 2004).

224Stacewicz, 258, 291, 295, 430; ”Veterans charge FBI offered jobs as spies”, St. Louis Globe Democrat, June 7, 1971, 8A, attached to Letterhead Memorandum, St. Louis, Missouri FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Regional Coordinators Meeting, St. Louis, Missouri, June 5-6, 1971”, June 7, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 4, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 4, 131-133; Letterhead Memorandum, Denver, Colorado FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, September 3, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 5, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 5, 216-231 (September 4, 2004); Report, FBI, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Incorporated”, October 12, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 7, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 7, 82-117 (September 4, 2004); Teletype, Denver, Colorado FBI office to FBI Director, et al, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, February 21, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 14, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 14, 39-43 (September 4, 2004).

225Teletype to FBI Director, Baltimore FBI office, New York FBI office, Washington, DC FBI field office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, April 12, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 2, 191-192 (September 4, 2004); Teletype, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma FBI office to FBI Director and Domestic Intelligence Division, “Regional Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Convention Sponsored by Oklahoma VVAW, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla., November Five, Six, Seven, Seventyone”, November 8, 1971 and Airtel and attachments, FBI Washington Field Office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Incorporated (VVAW), aka”, November 16, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 9, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 9, 11-13, 141-142 (September 4, 2004); Letterhead Memorandum, Buffalo, New York FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), Also Known As University of Buffalo Veterans Club (UBVC), Western New York Serviceman’s Union”, November 10, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 10, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 10, 113-117 (esp. 116) (September 4, 2004); Nicosia, Home to War, 114-115, 117-118, 120-122, 126-127, 129-131, 134-136, 150-152.

226Wells, The War Within, 480, 497; Kauffman; Appendix, “National Peace Action Coalition (NPAC)”, attached to Letterhead Memorandum, “Demonstrations Sponsored by Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Washington, D.C., April 18 through April 23, 1971”, April 29, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 4, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 04, 12-35 (esp.19) (September 21, 2004); “War in the ‘Peace’ Movement”, CACC Newsletter, August 1, 1971, online at Christian Anti-Communism Crusade, http://www.schwarzreport.org/Newsletters/1971/august1,71.htm (October 4, 2004).

227 Cram, interview; Teletype, Boston FBI office to FBI Director and New York FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, May 30, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 4, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 04, 108-110 (September 21, 2004); “Kerry, John Forbes”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1988. On Drinan and Grossman, see Grossman, interview; Pomper and Pomper.

228Letterhead Memorandum, Kansas City, Missouri FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, August 25, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 5, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 5, 162-168 (September 4, 2004); Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 388-389; Teletype, Boston FBI office to FBI Director, New York FBI, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, October 7, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 7, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 07, 18-19 (September 21, 2004). On Kennedy, see Note 195.

229Brinkley, Tourof Duty, 388-389; Teletype, Boston FBI office to FBI Director and New York FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, May 27, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 4, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 04, 115-116 (September 21, 2004). On McCarthy, see Note 83.

230 Nicosia, Home to War, 64, 90, 95, 150; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 356, 365; Powell, 43, 396n73; Emily Frankovich, interview, conducted by Bonnie Jones, Lexington Oral History Projects, Inc., http://www.lexingtonbattlegreen1971.com/files/Frankovich,%20Emily.pdf, February 28, 1992, (July 17, 2004); Letterhead Memorandum, Kansas City, Missouri FBI office, “Proposed Hunger Strike by Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Washington, D.C., June 14-22, 1971”, June 11, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 4, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 04, 128 (September 21, 2004); Letterhead Memorandum, Denver, Colorado FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, September 3, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 5, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 5, 216-231 (September 4, 2004). On McGovern, see Note 138. On the McGovern-Hatfield Amendment, see Powell, 41.

231Letterhead Memorandum, Denver, Colorado FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, September 3, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 5, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 5, 216-231 (September 4, 2004); Nicosia, Home to War, 110-111; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 364; “Kerry on War”, Portsmouth Herald, January 11, 1972 and “War Critic, at Portsmouth, Bids Audience Join Politics”, The New York Times, January 12, 1972, Page 26, archived online at “Documents, Film Clips, Audio and Cartoons: So when did John Kerry leave the VVAW, anyway?”, www.wintersoldier.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=Documents, (June 18, 2004). On McCloskey, see ”McCloskey, Paul N.”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1971; “McCloskey, Paul Norton, Jr. (Pete) (1927-)”, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=M000343 (October 2, 2004); Paul N. McCloskey, Jr., Truth and Untruth: Political Deceit in America, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972; Lou Cannon, The McCloskey Challenge, New York: E.P. Dutton, 1972.

232Nicosia, Home to War212.

233Letterhead Memorandum, Washington, DC FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, September 15, 1971 and Memo, author deleted to Mr. E.S. Miller, “Antiwar Demostrations, Fall 1971”, September 21, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 6, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 6, 14-15, 32 (September 4, 2004); Memo, New York FBI office to Acting FBI Director, “Demonstration in Protest to Speech of President on Vietnam Held at United Nations (UN), New York City (NYC), Sponsored by Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) and People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice (PCPJ), May Nine, One Nine Seven Two”, May 9, 1972, attached to Informative Note, “Domestic Intelligence Division”, May 10, 1972 and Teletype, New York FBI Office to Acting FBI Director, FBI Domestic Intelligence Division, FBI Washington Field Office, “Demonstration in Protest to Speech of President on Vietnam Held at United Nations (UN), New York City (NYC), Sponsored by Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) and People’s Coalition for Peace and Justice (PCPJ), May Nine, Nineteen Seventy-Two”, May 9, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 18, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 18, 55-58, 107-109 (September 4, 2004).

234Report, New York FBI office, “Changed: Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Incorporated aka Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, October 12, 1971 and Report, FBI, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Incorporated”, October 12, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 7, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 7, 72-117 (esp. 90-91, 117) (September 4, 2004); Teletype, New York FBI office to FBI Director, et al, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Inc. (VVAW)”, November 11, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 9, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 9, 91-93 (September 4, 2004); Letterhead Memorandum, New York FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Incorporated”, November 29, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 11, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 11, 63-79 (esp. 71-72) (September 4, 2004). On Tyner, see “Author information: Author name: Jarvis Tyner, Executive Vice Chair”, Communist Party USA, http://www.cpusa.org/article/author/view/25 (September 30, 2004); “U.S. Presidential Elections: Leftist Votes”, Marxists Internet Archive, http://www.marxists.org/history/usa/government/elections/president/timeline.htm (September 30, 2004). On Green, see “Guide to the Gil Green Papers, 1949-1993 (Bulk 1972-1991)”, The Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives, http://dlib.nyu.edu:8083/tamwagead/servlet/SaxonServlet?source=green.xml&style=saxon01t2002.xsl (September 30, 2004).

235Stacewicz, 288-290; Report, FBI, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Incorporated”, October 12, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 7, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 7, 82-117 (September 4, 2004); Nicosia, Home to War, 213 (cf. Airtel and attachments, Denver FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), National Steering Committee Meeting, Denver, Colorado, February 18-21, 1972”, March 17, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 15, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 15, 67-156 (esp. 100) (September 4, 2004)). On Urgo and Hubbard see Nicosia, Home to War, 59. On the War Resisters League, see Note 47.

236Nicosia, Home to War, 212.

237Stacewicz, 285; Nicosia, Home to War, 213-214; Report, FBI, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Incorporated”, October 12, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 7, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 7, 82-117 (esp. 114) (September 4, 2004); Newspaper articles attached to Letterhead Memorandum, San Antonio, Texas FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, October 26, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 8, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 8, 114-173 (esp. 168-171) (September 4, 2004); Teletype, author deleted and San Antonio FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, December 15, 1971, attached to Informative Note, Domestic Intelligence Division, December 13, 1971 and Letterhead Memorandum, Kansas City, Missouri FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Steering Committee Meeting: Kansas City, Missouri: November 12, 13, 14, 1971”, November 18, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 11, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 11, 125-127, 190-197 (esp. 196) (September 4, 2004); Memo, R.L. Shackleford to Mr. E.S. Miller, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, February 8, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 13, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 13, 131-132 (September 4, 2004); Airtel, Kansas City and Springfield, Missouri FBI office Special Agents in Charge to FBI Acting Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, November 2, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 34, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 34, 146-147 (September 21, 2004).

238On the United Front, see “History of United Front, Inc.”, United Front, Inc.http://www.unitedfrontcs.com/history.html (October 1, 2004); “David Ibata Collection of Cairo Racial Strife”, Special Collections: Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, http://www.lib.siu.edu/spcol/inventory/SC171.html (October 1, 2004); Adam Alexander, “The Coverage of the Cairo Civil Rights Movement by Local Newspapers”, Illinois Periodicals Online at Northern Illinois University, http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/ihy011201.html (October 1, 2004); Beauty Turner, “Chaos at the Bank of Lawndale”, We The People Media: Residents' Journal: Urban Youth International Journalism Program, http://www.wethepeoplemedia.org/Articles/BeautyTurner/LawndaleBankChaos.html, August/September 2004 (October 1, 2004); Ward Churchill and Jim Vander Wall, The COINTELPRO Papers: Documents from the FBI’s Secret Wars Against Domestic Dissent, foreword by John Trudell, preface by Brian Glick, Boston: South End Press, 1990, Chapter 5, online at San Diego Fed Watch, http://www.sdfedwatch.org/The_COINTELPRO_PAPERS_-_Chapter_5_COINTELPRO_-_Black_Liberation_Movement.php (October 1, 2004); Paul Wolf, “COINTELPRO—Black Nationalist Hate Groups (1967-1971), www.cointel.org, http://www.icdc.com/~paulwolf/cointelpro/blacknationalist.htm (September 5, 2004).

239Letterhead Memorandum, Jacksonville, Florida FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Southeastern Regional Conference, Archer, Florida, September 4-6, 1971”, September 10, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 6, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 06, 86-96 (September 21, 2004); Stacewicz, 357, 363, 367-387; Nicosia, Home to War, 215, 226-229. On the Revolutionary Union, see “Revolutionary Communist Party, USA”, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutionary_Communist_Party_%28USA%29 (September 26, 2004); “About the Revolutionary Communist Party, USA”, Revolutionary Worker Online, http://www.rwor.org/rcp-e.htm (September 26, 2004); ”SDS”, Maoist International Movement (MIM), http://www.etext.org/Politics/MIM/sds/index.html (September 9, 2004); Gitlin, 384-392; Wells, The War Within, 337, 405; House of Representatives Committee on Internal Security, America's Maoists: The Revolutionary Union; The Venceremos Organization, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972; FBI files, “Weather Underground Organization (WUO)”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/weather.htm (September 9, 2004); Appendix, “Revolutionary Youth Movement”, attached to Letterhead Memorandum, Washington, DC FBI office, “Demonstrations Sponsored by Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Washington, D.C., April 18 through April 23, 1971”, April 29, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 4, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 4, 12-35; Memo, “Demonstration Sponsored by Vietnam Veterans Against the War/Winter Soldier Organization (VVAW/WSO) at Washington, D.C., July 1-4, 1974”, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 63, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 63, 72-74; Jim Martin, “America’s Al-Qaeda: The SLA-Venceremos Connection”, FlatlandBooks.Com, http://www.flatlandbooks.com/venceremos.html, 2003 (September 26, 2004); Nicosia, 227-228, 239-240, 322, 309-313.

240Memo from FBI Director to Albany, New York FBI office Special Agent in Charge, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, August 3, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 5, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 5, 104-106; Letterhead Memorandum, Memphis, Tennessee FBI Office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, September 22, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 6, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 6, 114-120 Teletype, Memphis, Tennessee FBI Office to FBI Director, “Demonstrations Planned on October Thirteen, Nineteen Seventyone at Memphis, Tenn., Protesting U.S. Involvement in the War in Southeast Asia Sponsored by Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) and Young Workers Liberation League (YWLL)”, October 6, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 7, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 7, 141-143; Letterhead Memorandum, New Orleans, Louisiana FBI Office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, September 2, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 5, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 5, 267-276; Letterhead Memorandum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania FBI Office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, November 26, 1971, attached to Memo, Pittsburgh FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, November 26, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 10, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 10, 109-112; Letterhead Memorandum, Buffalo, New York FBI Office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), Also Known As University of Buffalo Veterans Club (UBVC), Western New York Serviceman’s Union”, November 10, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 10, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 10, 113-117.

241Memo from FBI Director to Albany, New York FBI office Special Agent in Charge, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, August 3, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 5, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 5, 104-106; Teletype, Seattle, Washington FBI office to FBI Director, “[Vietnam] Veterans Against the War, Particpation in Memorial Day Parade, Seattle, Washington, May Thirty-One, Nineteen Seventy-One”, May 30, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 4, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 04, 111-112 (September 21, 2004); Letterhead Memorandum, Kansas City, Missouri FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, August 25, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 5, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 5, 162-168; Teletype, Jacksonville, Florida FBI office to FBI Director and Atlanta FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Southeastern Regional Conference, Archer, Florida, September Four Dash Six, Nineteen Seventy One”, September 5, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 5, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 5, 251-255; Memo from Denver FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, September 3, 1971 and Letterhead Memorandum, Denver, Colorado FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, September 3, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 5, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 5, 213-231.

242Teletype, Jacksonville, Florida FBI office to FBI Director and Atlanta FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Southeastern Regional Conference, Archer, Florida, September Four Dash Six, Nineteen Seventy One”, September 5, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 5, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 5, 251-255; Teletype, Miami, Florida FBI office to FBI Director and FBI Domestic Intelligence Division, “Demonstration at Homestead Air Force Base, Florida (HAFB), April Twentytwo, Seventytwo, Sponsored by Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) and People’s Party”, April 21, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 16, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 16, 172-174; Teletype, Miami, Florida FBI office to FBI Acting Director, FBI Domestic Intelligence Division, and Jacksonville, Florida FBI office, “Veit [sic] Nam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, July 16, 1972 and Teletype, Miami, Florida FBI office to FBI Acting Director, FBI Domestic Intelligence Division, and Jacksonville, Florida FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, July 18, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 25, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 25, 48-49 and 100-102. On Bob Kunst and the New Party, see “Biography”, Kunst for Governor!, http://www.kunstforgov.com/Biobobkunst.htm (October 2, 2004); “Hillary for President in 2004!”, Hillarynow.com, http://www.hillarynow.com/kunst.htm (October 2, 2004).

243Kenneth J. Campbell, “The International War Crimes Conference, Oslo, June, 1971: Excerpts from the Diary of One of the Witnesses”, Viet Nam Generation 5:1-4, March 1994, reprinted online at The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Texts/Narrative/Campbell_Oslo.html (September 6, 2004); Stacewicz, 284; Nicosia, Home to War, 213; Letterhead Memorandum, Albuquerque, New Mexico FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW): Also known as Veterans Against the Vietnamese War (VAVW), Veterans Against the War (VAW)”, September 27, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 6, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 06, 157-190 (esp. 166-167) (September 21, 2004); Report, FBI, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Incorporated”, October 12, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 7, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 7, 82-117 (esp. 115-117) (September 4, 2004). On the World Peace Council, see Note 45. On Kunstler, see “Kunstler, William”, Encyclopaedia Britannica http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?tocId=9369500 (October 3, 2004); “William Kunstler”, Spartacus Educational, http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAkunstlerW.htm (October 3, 2004); William M. Kunstler, My Life as a Radical Lawyer, with Sheila Eisenberg, Secaucus, New Jersey: Birch Lane Press, 1994; interview by Dennis Bernstein and Julie Light, “The Life and Times of William Moses Kunstler”, Z Magazine, October 1995, online at Z Commuications, http://zena.secureforum.com/Znet/zmag/articles/oct95bernstein.htm (October 3, 2004); David J. Langum, William M. Kunstler: The Most Hated Lawyer in America, New York: New York University Press, 1999; Stacewicz, 340; Nicosia, Home to War, 264, 477.

244Letterhead Memorandum, Denver, Colorado FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, September 3, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 5, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 5, 216-231 (esp. 230) (September 4, 2004).

245Letterhead Memorandum, Kansas City, Missouri FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Steering Committee Meeting: Kansas City, Missouri: November 12, 13, 14, 1971”, November 18, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 11, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 11, 190-197 (September 4, 2004); Stacewicz, 293; Nicosia, Home to War, 220.

246See Note 234.

247Letterhead Memorandum, Washington, DC FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, June 9, 1971, attached to Airtel, author deleted to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, June 9, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 4, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 4, 141-149; Letterhead Memorandum, New Orleans, Louisiana FBI Office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, September 2, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 5, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 5, 267-276 (October 3, 2004), Letterhead Memorandum, Baltimore, Maryland FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, September 17, 1971, attached to Memo, Baltimore, Maryland FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, September 17, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 6, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 6, 45-50 (September 4, 2004); Teletype, Denver, Colorado FBI office to FBI Director, et al, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, February 20, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 14, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 14, 52-56 (September 4, 2004). On the Venceremos Brigade, see Notes 98 and 99.

248Memo from FBI Director to Albany, New York FBI office Special Agent in Charge, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, August 3, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 5, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 5, 104-106.

249Teletype, Philadelphia FBI office to FBI Director, FBI Domestic Intelligence Division, Kansas City FBI Office, St. Louis FBI Office, “Vietnam Veterans Againt the War (VVAW”), June 29, 1971 and Teletype, Philadelphia FBI office to FBI Director, Miami FBI office, Tampa FBI office, Jacksonville FBI office,“Medberg”, June 22, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 4, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 04, 212-222 (September 21, 2004). On the Philadelphia VVAW and the Philadelphia Resistance, cf. Report, Philadelphia FBI office,“Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, November 5, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 8, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 08, 238-250 (esp. 242-243) (September 21, 2004). On the “Medburg” case, see Theoharis and Cox, 480-483; Nat Hentoff, “FBI Knocking at Your Door”, Village Voice, February 13, 2002, online at AlterNet, http://www.alternet.org/911oneyearlater/12413/ (October 3, 2004); The Camden 28, http://www.camden28.org (October 3, 2004). On Bangert, see Joe Bangert’s testimony in “1st Marine Division”, Winter Soldier Investigation: Testimony given in Detroit, Michigan on January 31, 1971, February 1 and 2, 1971, online at The Sixties Project, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary/Winter_Soldier/WS_03_1Marine.html (September 21, 2004); Joe Bangert, "'Hanoi Jane' and 'Thanh Phong Bob'", The Veteran, Volume 31, Number 1, 2001, online at VVAW: Vietnam Veterans Against the War, http://www.vvaw.org/veteran/article/?id=84&hilite=Joe+Bangert (September 27, 2004); Caption to photo by Joe Runci from Part 5 of “John F. Kerry: Candidate in the Making”, The Boston Globe, http://www.boston.com/globe/nation/packages/kerry/images/day5/04.htm, June 15-21, 2003 (August 5, 2004); Valerie Schumacher, "Valerie Schumacher's Trip to Vietnam: February, 1994", Vietnam Veterans Home Page, http://grunt.space.swri.edu/valstrip.htm (September 27, 2004); "Ewan MacColl: Comments, Cheers & Critiques", Peggy Seeger, http://www.pegseeger.com/html/ewancheers.html (September 27, 2004); "The Sound of the City: The Show at Joe's Pub: Reviews", Village Voice , March 5 - 11, 2003, online at Vietnam Songbook, http://www.vietnamsongbook.org/show_press.htm (September 27, 2004); Debi Boucher Stetson, "Brewster vet helps drive Kerry political engine", TownOnline.com--The Cape Codder, http://www.townonline.com/brewster/news/local_regional/cc_newcabangert01302004.htm, January 30, 2004 (September 27, 2004); Steve Gilbert, "One Of Kerry’s Band Of Brothers – Joe Bangert", The American Thinker, http://www.americanthinker.com/articles.php?article_id=3782, August 25th, 2004 (September 27, 2004); Joseph Farah, "Kerry vet aide's extremist history: Joe Bangert lived in Hanoi, revered Ho Chi Minh", WorldNetDaily, http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=40304, September 7, 2004 (September 27, 2004); "Joe Bangert", Combat Vets Against Kerry, http://www.combatvetsagainstkerry.com/bangert.htm (September 27, 2004).

250Airtel and attachments, Boston FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, September 21, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 6, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 06, 126-128 (September 21, 2004); Teletype, Boston FBI office to FBI Director, New York FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, October 7, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 7, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 07, 18-19 (September 21, 2004); Airtel, Atlanta FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, October 13, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 7, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 07, 123-124 (September 21, 2004). On Ellsberg and Falk, see Notes 120 and 160.

251Airtel and attachment, Milwaukee, Wisconsin FBI office Special Agents in Charge to FBI Acting Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) National Steering Committee Meeting, July 21-24, 1972, Milwaukee, Wisconsin”, August 14, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 34, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 34, 14-72 (esp. 38, 53) (September 21, 2004); Teletype, Atlanta FBI office to FBI Director, et al, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, November 26, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 10, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 10, 41-43 (September 4, 2004); Airtel and attachment, Jacksonville, Florida FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), Gainsville, Florida”, November 24, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 11, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 11, 162-184 (esp. 166) (September 4, 2004). Cf. Nicosia, Home to War, 248.

252See Notes 236 and 237.

253Teletype, Los Angeles FBI office to FBI Director, April 17, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 2, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 02, 265-271 (September 21, 2004); Memo, Cincinnati FBI Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Veterans Against the War (VAW), Columbus, Ohio, Unidentified Map Containing Possible Targets Found, Columbus, Ohio”, April 30, 1971 and Letterhead Memorandum, Cincinnati, Ohio FBI office, “Veterans Against the War (VAW), Columbus, Ohio, Unidentified Map Containing Possible Targets Found, Columbus, Ohio”, May 14, 1971, “Franklin County Highway Map”, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 4, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 04, 38-43, 55-74 (September 21, 2004).

254Teletype, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania FBI office to FBI Director, “Anti-War March and Demonstration in Harrisburg, PA., September 8 Instant – Fourteen Next, Sponsored by Pennsylvania Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, September 10, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 6, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 06, 18-20 (September 21, 2004). On McLaughlin, the Berrigans, Clark, and the Harrisburg 8, see "Harrisburg [PA] Defense Committee Records, 1970-1973", Swarthmore College Peace Collection, http://www.swarthmore.edu/Library/peace/CDGA.A-L/harrisburgdefensecomm.htm (September 7, 2004); Note 69.

255See Notes 12-18 and Stacewicz, 294-295; FReeper Sabertooth, “Sen. Stennis Shot in DC (1973 AFVN Radio Transcript)”, FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1104168/posts, March 24, 2004 (October 10, 2004).

256See Note 16.

257Nicosia, “Veteran in Conflict”.

258Nicosia, Home to War, 114-115, 117-118, 130, 150-152; Stacewicz, 249; Teletype, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma FBI office to FBI Director, FBI Domestic Intelligence Division, “Regional Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Convention Sponsored by Oklahoma VVAW, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla., November Five, Six, Seven, Seventyone”, November 8, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 9 online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 09, 11-13 (September 21, 2004).

259“Kerry, John Forbes”, Current Biography, Bronx, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1988; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 412.

260See Note 19.

261See Notes 19 and 20. On the April 22, 1972 demonstration, cf. Teletype, New York FBI office to FBI Director, FBI Domestic Intelligence Division, Houston FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, April 4, 1972, attached to Informative Note, Domestic Intelligence Division, April 4, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 14, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 14, 357-360 (September 4, 2004); Airtel with attachments, Denver, Colorado FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), National Steering Committee Meeting: Denver, Colorado: February 18-21, 1972”, March 17, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 15, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 15, 67-156 (esp. 102) (September 4, 2004); Airtel and attachments, Houston FBI office Special Agent in Charge, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), National Steering Committee Meeting, Houston, Texas, April 7-11, 1972”, May 11, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 23, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 23, 162-222 (esp. 220) (September 4, 2004); Teletype, author deleted to FBI Director, FBI Domestic Intelligence Division, New York FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, April 16, 1972, attached to Informative Note, Domestic Intelligence Division, April 17, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 15, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 15, 228- 230(September 4, 2004).

262Airtel and attachments, Denver FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), National Steering Committee Meeting, Denver, Colorado, February 18-21, 1972”, March 17, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 15, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 15, 67-156 (esp. 80-84) (September 4, 2004); Airtel and attachments, Houston FBI office Special Agent in Charge, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), National Steering Committee Meeting, Houston, Texas, April 7-11, 1972”, May 11, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 23, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 23, 162-222 (esp. 173-176) (September 4, 2004).

263Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 420.

264Cf. Cram, interview; Gregory, interview; Memo and attachments, Boston FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, subject deleted, February 28, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 14, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 14, 103-108 (esp. 80-84) (September 4, 2004). On Gregory see Nicosia, Home to War, 72; Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 382, 438-440, 444, 463; Crowley.

265Stacewicz, 310-311.

266Stacewicz, 295-296, 303-305; Letterhead Memorandum, Kansas City, Missouri FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Steering Committee Meeting: Kansas City, Missouri: November 12, 13, 14, 1971”, November 18, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 11, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 11, 190-197 (September 4, 2004).

267Teletype, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania FBI office to FBI Director, et al, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, January 26, 1972 and Teletype, FBI Director to New York and Philadelphia FBI office Special Agents in Charge, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, January 26, 1972, attached to Informative Note, FBI Domestic Intelligence Division, January 27, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 13, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 13, 68-72 (September 4, 2004).

268Stacewicz, 304; Airtel with attachments, Denver, Colorado FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), National Steering Committee Meeting: Denver, Colorado: February 18-21, 1972”, March 17, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 15, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 15, 67-156 (September 4, 2004).

269Airtel with attachments, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, March 15, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 14, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 14, 221-224 (September 4, 2004).

270Stacewicz, 304; Airtel with attachments, Houston, Texas FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Acting Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) National Steering Committee Meeting: Houston, Texas: April 7-11, 1972”, May 11, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 23, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 23, 162-222 (September 4, 2004); Airtel, Denver FBI office to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Demonstration Against General William C. Westmoreland, Chief of Staff, Department of the Army, Denver, Colorado, April Eighteen, Seventytwo”, April 17, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 15, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 15, 211-215 (September 4, 2004); Teletype, New York FBI office to FBI Acting Director and FBI Domestic Intelligence Division, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, August 7, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 27, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 27, 137-140 (September 4, 2004).

271Stacewicz, .346-393, Nicosia, Home to War, 226-229, 273, 312-313, 489-490.

272Airtel with attachments, Denver, Colorado FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), National Steering Committee Meeting: Denver, Colorado: February 18-21, 1972”, March 17, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 15, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 15, 67-156 (esp. 89-91, 99-102, 105, 113) (September 4, 2004); Airtel with attachments, Houston, Texas FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Acting Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) National Steering Committee Meeting: Houston, Texas: April 7-11, 1972”, May 11, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 23, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 23, 162-222 (esp. 204-205) (September 4, 2004).

273Airtel with attachments, Denver, Colorado FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), National Steering Committee Meeting: Denver, Colorado: February 18-21, 1972”, March 17, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 15, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 15, 67-156 (esp. 89-91, 99-102, 105, 113) (September 4, 2004); Letter, Vietnam Veterans Against the War National Clearinghouse to National Peace Action Coalition, et al, March 4, 1972, attached to Airtel, author deleted to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, March 20, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 14, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 14, 324-351 (esp. 327) (September 4, 2004); Airtel with attachments, Houston, Texas FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Acting Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) National Steering Committee Meeting: Houston, Texas: April 7-11, 1972”, May 11, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 23, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 23, 162-222 (esp. 204-205) (September 4, 2004).

274Stacewicz, 367-387; Nicosia, Home to War, 226-229, 273, 312-313, 489-490. On the VVAW’s links to the Symbionese Liberation Army, see Stacewicz, 328, 380; Jim Martin, “America’s Al-Qaeda: The SLA-Venceremos Connection”, FlatlandBooks.Com, http://www.flatlandbooks.com/venceremos.html, 2003 (September 26, 2004); FReeper Sabertooth, “Joseph Remiro – From VVAW Member to SLA Assassin”, FreeRepublic.com, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1104805/posts, March 24, 2004 (October 10, 2004).

275 Stacewicz, 283-284; Teletype, New York FBI office to FBI Director, FBI Domestic Intelligence Division, Houston FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, April 4, 1972, attached to Informative Note, Domestic Intelligence Division, April 4, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 14, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 14, 357-360 (September 4, 2004); Letterhead Memorandum, Kansas City, Missouri FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) Steering Committee Meeting: Kansas City, Missouri: November 12, 13, 14, 1971”, November 18, 1971, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 11, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 11, 190-197 (esp. 193) (September 4, 2004); Airtel with attachments, Denver, Colorado FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), National Steering Committee Meeting: Denver, Colorado: February 18-21, 1972”, March 17, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 15, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 15, 67-156 (esp. 100-103) (September 4, 2004); Airtel with attachments, Houston, Texas FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Acting Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) National Steering Committee Meeting: Houston, Texas: April 7-11, 1972”, May 11, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 23, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 23, 162-222 (esp. 176-178, 205-207, 211, 218-219) (September 4, 2004).

276Cf. Teletype, FBI Washington Field Office to FBI Acting Director, et al, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, June 26, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 21, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 21, 273-274 (September 4, 2004); Airtel with attachments, Houston, Texas FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Acting Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) National Steering Committee Meeting: Houston, Texas: April 7-11, 1972”, May 11, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 23, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 23, 162-222 (esp. 204) (September 4, 2004). On COLIFAM, see Note 116.

277 Stacewicz, 283-284; Airtel with attachments, Houston, Texas FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Acting Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) National Steering Committee Meeting: Houston, Texas: April 7-11, 1972”, May 11, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 23, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 23, 162-222 (esp. 218-219); Teletype, FBI Acting Director to Detroit, New York and Kansas City FBI office Special Agents in Charge, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, June 21, 1972 and Teletype, New York FBI office to FBI Acting Director and FBI Domestic Intelligence Division, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, June 26, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 21, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 21, 25-29, 182-187 (September 4, 2004). On Fonda’s relationship to the VVAW during this period, see Teletype, St. Louis, Missouri FBI office to FBI Acting Director and New York FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, May 12, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 19, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 19, 73 (September 4, 2004); Airtel with attachments, Houston, Texas FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Acting Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) National Steering Committee Meeting: Houston, Texas: April 7-11, 1972”, May 11, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 23, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 23, 162-222 (esp. 189) (September 4, 2004); Teletype, New York FBI office to FBI Acting Director and FBI Domestic Intelligence Division, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, August 7, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 27, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 27, 137-140 (September 4, 2004). Cf. Fred Lawrence Guiles, Jane Fonda: The Actress in Her Time, Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1982, 227; “Jane Fonda Chrono”, Woodstock Journal, http://www.woodstockjournal.com/pdf/jane-fonda2.pdf (September 17, 2004).

278Airtel with attachments, Houston, Texas FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Acting Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) National Steering Committee Meeting: Houston, Texas: April 7-11, 1972”, May 11, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 23, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 23, 162-222 (esp. 176-178, 202-203) (September 4, 2004). On the World Peace Council, see Note 45.

279Airtel with attachments, Denver, Colorado FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), National Steering Committee Meeting: Denver, Colorado: February 18-21, 1972”, March 17, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 15, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 15, 67-156 (esp. 79, 86) (September 4, 2004); Airtel with attachments, Houston, Texas FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Acting Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) National Steering Committee Meeting: Houston, Texas: April 7-11, 1972”, May 11, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 23, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 23, 162-222 (esp. 190, 211-212, 219-220) (September 4, 2004). On the Venceremos Brigade, see Notes 98 and 99.

280Airtel with attachments, Houston, Texas FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Acting Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) National Steering Committee Meeting: Houston, Texas: April 7-11, 1972”, May 11, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 23, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 23, 162-222 (esp. 211-214) (September 4, 2004). On the Palestine Liberation Front, see “Palestine Liberation Front”, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestine_Liberation_Front (October 8, 2004).

281Airtel and attachments, Boston FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “National Action/Research on the Military Industrial Complex (NARMIC)”, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 7, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 7, 49-56 (September 4, 2004); FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 7, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 15, (September 4, 2004); Teletype, San Antonio FBI office to FBI Director and FBI Domestic Intelligence Division, “Reaction by Anti-War Groups, Austin, Texas, To U.S. Bombing of North Vietnam”, April 18, 1972, attached to Informative Note, Domestic Intelligence Division, April 19, 1972 and Airtel, FBI Director to Manila and Tokyo Legats, “Ad Hoc Military Buildup Committee (AHMBC)”, April 24, 1972 and Teletype, Sacramento, California FBI office to FBI Director and New Haven, Connecticut FBI office, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, April 22, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 16, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 16, 112-116, 191-192 and 197 (September 4, 2004). On National Action/Research on the Military Industrial Complex, see Powell, 173; Entry for “American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)” in ”Glossary”, The War Called Peace: The Soviet Peace Offensive.

282Stacewicz, 296-301; Nicosia, Home to War; Nicosia, “Veteran in Conflict”; Memo and attachments, FBI Washington Field Office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Inc. (VVAW) aka”, January 27, 1972 and Memo, R.L. Shackleford to Mr. E.S. Miller, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, February 8, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 13, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 13, 46-52, 131-132 (September 4, 2004).

283See Note 261.

284Stacewicz, 264-265; Nicosia, Home to War, 224-226.

285Stacewicz, 305-313; Nicosia, Home to War, 229-282; FBI files, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War”, FBI HQ 100-448092, Sections 21-48, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/fbifiles/100-HQ-448092/Section%20037/SECTION%20037.pdf, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Sections 21-48 (September 4, 2004). Cf. FBI files, “John Lennon”, online at Federal Bureau of Investigation—Freedom of Information Privacy Act, http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/lennon.htm (September 5, 2004).

286See Notes 231 and 260.

287Stacewicz, 310, 313; Nicosia, Home to War, 242, 245.

288See Notes 105 and 265.

289Letter, Acting FBI Director L. Patrick Gray III to Assistant to the President H.R. Haldeman, May 31, 1972 and Memo, author deleted to E.S. Miller, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, May 31, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 20, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 20, 19-20, 286-287 (September 4, 2004).

290Mary McGrory, “McCord Creates a Desert”, Washington Star, May 23, 1973; Jack Anderson, “Nailing the Vets”, New York Post, July 11, 1973; Len Colodny and Robert Getlin, Silent Coup: The Removal of a President, foreword by Roger Morris, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 96, 101; Stacewicz, 344-345, 448n26-27; Nicosia, Home to War, 264-265; “Kerry, Watergate: DNC Links Caused Break-In? 'Republican Paranoia Started Early,' Says '72 Democratic Youth Director Bob Weiner”, U.S. Newswire, http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=26038, February 9, 2004 (September 5, 2004). On O’Brien and the Watergate break-ins, see Jim Hougan, Secret Agenda: Watergate, Deep Throat and the CIA, New York: Random House, 1984, 105-107, 123-124;Colodny and Getlin, 1991, 101-102, 133-138, 148; Mark Riebling, Wedge: The Secret War Between the FBI and CIA, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994, 296-297.

291Stacewicz, 314-345; Nicosia, Home to War, 229-233, 247-282.

292Stacewicz, 340; Nicosia, Home to War, 232, 263-264. On the Center for Constitutional Rights, see “Our History”, CCR, http://www.ccr-ny.org/v2/about/history.asp (October 10, 2004). On Kunstler, see Note 243. On Weiss, see Note 116.

293Airtel with attachments, Miami, Florida FBI office Special Agent in Charge to FBI Acting Director, “Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW)”, September 15, 1972, FBI HQ 100-448092, Section 31, online at www.wintersolider.com, http://ice.he.net/~freepnet/kerry/index.php?topic=VVAWFBI, pdf file HQ 100-448092 Section 31, 275-279 (September 4, 2004).

294Brinkley, Tour of Duty, 416-420; Brian C. Mooney, “First campaign ends in defeat”, June 18, 2003, Part 4 of “John F. Kerry: Candidate in the Making”, The Boston Globe, http://www.boston.com/globe/nation/packages/kerry/061803.shtml, June 15-21, 2003 (August 5, 2004).

295See Note 20.

296See Note 21.

297See Note 22.

19 posted on 10/11/2004 12:53:18 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: 7thson; 68 grunt; 185JHP; Abcdefg; abner; Alamo-Girl; AmericanVictory; anglian; Ann Archy; ...

Ping.

Thanks to those who helped with the research and to the wintersoldier.com site for making the FBI files accessible.

Apologies for the footnotes being spread out--I had a problem importing them from Word and finally got them to import by pasting them into Outlook Express first.


20 posted on 10/11/2004 12:59:27 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: sauropod

The links to Parts 1 and 2 are embedded in the Introduction.


21 posted on 10/11/2004 1:01:28 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: Fedora

Hi Fedora.
placemarker


22 posted on 10/11/2004 1:02:49 PM PDT by Sam Cree (Democrats are herd animals)
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To: Fedora

Beautiful work. Bump for later reference...


23 posted on 10/11/2004 1:03:54 PM PDT by Interesting Times (ABCNNBCBS -- yesterday's news.)
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To: Fedora

Beautiful!
So, the whole family hates America.
Lovely.


24 posted on 10/11/2004 1:07:09 PM PDT by mabelkitty (W is the Peoples' President ; Kerry is the Elite Establishment's President)
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To: EagleUSA

"Is there any doubt that Kerry is guilty of treason???"

Sure looks that way to me.


25 posted on 10/11/2004 1:07:10 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: stockpirate

Thank *you* for your posts summarizing some of the files--saved me some time finding stuff!


26 posted on 10/11/2004 1:09:43 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: AZamericonnie

"Looks like you have been very busy!"

Oh, yeah :) If I never read another FBI file, it will be too soon :)


27 posted on 10/11/2004 1:11:25 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: luvbach1

"My task: how to persuade Kerry voters that it should disqualify their candidate. Even if they understood the import of that information, I don't think a typical Kerryite would care."

Yeah, that's another task. Of course the hardcore Kerryites aren't going to be convinced by anything, but hopefully there is a way to reach the undecided voter. I'm not sure I have a solution for how to best go about that, but it seems to me tying it into Kerry's record on defense, his betrayal of POWs as Senator, and the War on Terror might be one approach. Also pointing out Kerry's hypocrisy.


28 posted on 10/11/2004 1:17:09 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: Fedora
.
Great work!

I'll add to the John F. Kerry Timeline when I get a moment. The other two parts are linked there and add greatly to the documentation of this presidential wannabe.
.

29 posted on 10/11/2004 1:20:01 PM PDT by christie (John F. Kerry Timeline - http://www.archive-news.net/Kerry/JK_timeline.html)
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To: Kenny Bunk

Yes, the MSM is a barrier, and they should be pushing the Vietnam angle harder, IMO.


30 posted on 10/11/2004 1:20:07 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: Sam Cree

Hey, Sam! Good to see ya :)


31 posted on 10/11/2004 1:21:34 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: Interesting Times

Thanks much for making the files available.


32 posted on 10/11/2004 1:23:42 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: Fedora

BTTT!!!!!!!


33 posted on 10/11/2004 1:24:49 PM PDT by E.G.C.
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To: Fedora; stockpirate

Youse guys are of course correct.

Serves me right for skimming the article...


34 posted on 10/11/2004 1:24:49 PM PDT by sauropod (Hitlary: "We're going to take things away from you on behalf of the common good.")
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To: mabelkitty

Thanks! Yeah, their family's quite a crew--if Kerry's Lurch maybe the rest is the Addam's Family :)


35 posted on 10/11/2004 1:25:35 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: christie

That'll be great! Some of the stuff in the footnotes also touches on groups linked to Shrillery which may prove useful info in the future.


36 posted on 10/11/2004 1:26:51 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: sauropod

"Serves me right for skimming the article..."

LOL! Well, it's pretty long, so I don't blame ya :)


37 posted on 10/11/2004 1:31:23 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: Fedora; All
Guide to Local Media
Locate media in your zip code, gives you links to YOUR local media with phone, e-mail etc info.

Free Internet Fax Service
Free E-Mail to Fax from your computer, just fill in form on page , they do the rest.
Make sure you enter fax # like this 12025551212 (no spaces or -)


Is the number you want them to SEND FREE FAX covered?

Complete list of areas they SEND FREE FAXES to


38 posted on 10/11/2004 1:33:54 PM PDT by 68-69TonkinGulfYachtClub (GET OUT THE VOTE NOV 2 ! IF YOUR NEIGHBORS OR RELATIVES NEED A RIDE TO THE POLLS OFFER TO HELP)
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To: Fedora

This traitorous demagogue is even more dangerous than I thought!

My wish is that all the ignorant, uncaring citizens stay away from the voting booths so the caring citizens can prevent this A$$hole from becoming President.

He would give up our advantage in Nuclear weapons, attempt to negotiate with the terrorists, gut our intelligence agencies, give the same benefits to Iran that Klintoon did, and raise taxes until our economy collapsed. Talk about frightening! WOW.


39 posted on 10/11/2004 1:52:33 PM PDT by LaGrone
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To: Fedora

WOW - Most comprehensive post I've ever seen. Still burns me up how this TRAITOR duped people into letting him run for POUS.


40 posted on 10/11/2004 1:52:54 PM PDT by Gucho
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To: LaGrone

I agree--he is dangerous indeed, and a risk we can't afford at this point in our nation's history. We were lucky we survived Clinton. After 9/11 if we make the same mistake in allowing someone like that to be elected, I shudder to think what will happen.


41 posted on 10/11/2004 1:58:57 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: Gucho

Yes; and what also gets me is how the Democrats and media surely know his true nature and yet they support him anyway.


42 posted on 10/11/2004 2:00:30 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: Fedora

bump


43 posted on 10/11/2004 2:11:24 PM PDT by Pietro
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To: Fedora
Some of the stuff in the footnotes also touches on groups linked to Shrillery which may prove useful info in the future.

I'm all ready for Hillary 2008. They are two birds of a feather. The more I can add, the better.

44 posted on 10/11/2004 2:16:44 PM PDT by christie (John F. Kerry Timeline - http://www.archive-news.net/Kerry/JK_timeline.html)
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To: Fedora

"media surely know his true nature and yet they support him anyway."

MSM to me equels WMD Incorperated.


45 posted on 10/11/2004 2:17:59 PM PDT by Gucho
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To: christie

One thing I noted about Hillary I wanted to make sure I mentioned to you is the VVAW/Bob Kunst connection--see Note 242 for the link to Kunst's pro-Hillary site.


46 posted on 10/11/2004 2:38:16 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: Gucho

"MSM to me equels WMD Incorperated."

LOL! That should be the name of an ABC affiliate! :)


47 posted on 10/11/2004 2:44:19 PM PDT by Fedora
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To: Fedora
Thanks. I'll take a look at it.
48 posted on 10/11/2004 2:51:17 PM PDT by christie (John F. Kerry Timeline - http://www.archive-news.net/Kerry/JK_timeline.html)
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To: Fedora

Kerry's got more Commie connections than Pete Seeger! (Thanks for the ping!)


49 posted on 10/11/2004 2:53:49 PM PDT by NotJustAnotherPrettyFace (Michael <a href = "http://www.michaelmoore.com/" title="Miserable Failure">"Miserable Failure"</a>)
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To: Fedora
A seminal work.

Congratulations. And thanks.

50 posted on 10/11/2004 3:19:49 PM PDT by okie01 (The Mainstream Media: ARROGANCE & IGNORANCE ON PARADE)
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