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Archaeologists May Have Found What Was Once The Biggest City In Italy
The Economist ^ | 11-4-2004

Posted on 11/07/2004 5:27:22 PM PST by blam

Scientific treasure hunters

Nov 4th 2004 | CLUSIUM, OR POSSIBLY NOT
From The Economist print edition

Archaeologists may have found what was once the biggest city in Italy

REAL archaeology bears about as much resemblance to an Indiana Jones movie as real spying bears to James Bond. Excavation—at least if it is to be meaningfully different from grave robbing—is a matter of painstaking trowel work, not gung-ho gold-grabbing. But there is still a glimmer of the grave robber in many archaeologists, and the search for a juicy royal tomb can stimulate more than just rational, scientific instincts.

Few tombs would be juicier than that of Lars Porsena, an Etruscan king who ruled in central Italy around 500BC. Porsena's tomb has been sought for centuries in the rubble under the Tuscan city of Chiusi, which is believed by most authorities to stand on the site of Porsena's capital, Clusium. No sign of it, however, has ever been found. And that, according to Giuseppe Centauro, of the University of Florence, is because everybody is looking in the wrong place.

Lars Porsena's place in history was ensured by his interference in the revolution that made Rome a republic. The last Roman king, Lucius Tarquinius, nicknamed “Superbus” because of his arrogance, was Etruscan. When he was deposed by the revolutionaries, he appealed to Porsena for help. There are conflicting accounts of whether Porsena succeeded in capturing and ruling Rome, or was forced to make peace with the revolutionaries. Either way, most of those accounts agree that he was eventually buried in a fabulous tomb near his home city of Camars, or Clusium as the Romans called it.

The Etruscans were big on tombs—constructing entire cities for the dead to inhabit—but Porsena's was supposedly the biggest of the lot. It was, according to one ancient source, a monument of rectangular masonry with a square base whose sides were 90 metres (about 300 feet) long and 15 metres high. On this base stood five pyramids, four at the corners and one in the centre, and the points of these pyramids supported a ring from which hung bells whose sound reached for miles when stirred by the wind. From this level rose five more pyramids, and from these another five.

Chiusi was clearly once an Etruscan city, but the evidence that it was actually Clusium boils down to the fact that the two names mean the same thing (“closed”). Such nominative determinism is hardly conclusive. Dr Centauro prefers his evidence to be wrought in stone, and he thinks the most persuasive pile of masonry around is actually on a mountainside near Florence.

At the moment, he is awaiting permission from the authorities to start digging there. But the above-ground remains convince him that he has found the real site of Clusium. He believes he has identified two concentric walls 17km (about ten miles) in circumference—certainly big enough to qualify as the biggest city in Italy before the rise of Rome, which is the reputation that Clusium had.

Such a site has not, of course, completely escaped archaeological attention in the past. A dig in an outlying part of it known as Gonfienti has been under way since 1998. Gabriella Poggesi, the archaeologist in charge of the Gonfienti dig, has unearthed the foundations of what was evidently a wealthy settlement on the banks of the Bisenzio river. She has also found evidence of great damage, probably from a flood that swept through in 480BC, after which the houses were abandoned.

This, Dr Centauro believes, is all grist to his theory. In his view, this riverside settlement was an affluent suburb situated on reclaimed land outside the city walls. He thinks it was built to cope with later expansion, and is younger than the site he now calls Clusium.

The outer walls of the main site are three metres thick, several metres high, uncemented and regular in construction. From the style of the masonry, Dr Centauro is convinced the remains are Etruscan. At corners where they have collapsed, small rooms are visible. These, he thinks, would have accommodated the sentries who manned the watchtowers.

So where is the tomb? And is it unlooted? Sadly for goldbugs, its riches are probably gone. In 89BC Cornelius Sulla, a Roman general, sacked Clusium and razed it to the ground. But if the ancient descriptions of the tomb are even a pale reflection of the truth, that amount of masonry is unlikely to have wandered far. So if Dr Centauro's hunch is right, and this is Clusium, the old king's secret may soon be dug up.


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: archaeologists; biggest; city; clusium; etruria; etruscan; found; godsgravesglyphs; italy; rome
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1 posted on 11/07/2004 5:27:25 PM PST by blam
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To: SunkenCiv

GGG Ping.


2 posted on 11/07/2004 5:28:12 PM PST by blam
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To: blam

BTTT


3 posted on 11/07/2004 5:28:22 PM PST by Fiddlstix (This Tagline for sale. (Presented by TagLines R US))
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To: blam

I heard they found the ancestral home of Chef Boyrdee.


4 posted on 11/07/2004 5:31:24 PM PST by Enterprise (The left hates the Constitution. Islamic Fascism hates America. Natural allies.)
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To: blam
Great stuff. I hope they find the tomb also of Gaius Mucius, who tried to assassinate Porsena and showed his bravery, when he was caught, by putting his right hand into the fire. He got the nickname Scaevola ("Lefty") as a result.
5 posted on 11/07/2004 5:36:23 PM PST by Verginius Rufus
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To: Verginius Rufus

Its all a lie.. Karl rove is trying to change the subject! He doesnt want us to look into the voter fraud!!

/ping ;)


6 posted on 11/07/2004 5:37:31 PM PST by GOP_NJ
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To: blam

So, this Lars Porsena was a corrupt Dem power broker, that tried to muscle in on the Republicans in Rome, but they were to strong for him and pushed him back out to the periphery.


7 posted on 11/07/2004 5:39:30 PM PST by claudiustg (Go Sharon! Go Bush!)
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To: blam

I
LARS Porsena of Clusium
By the Nine Gods he swore
That the great house of Tarquin
Should suffer wrong no more.
By the Nine Gods he swore it,
And named a trysting day,
And bade his messengers ride forth,
East and west and south and north,
To summon his array.


II

East and west and south and north
The messengers ride fast,
And tower and town and cottage
Have heard the trumpet’s blast.
Shame on the false Etruscan
Who lingers in his home,
When Porsena of Clusium
Is on the march for Rome.


. . . . Horatius put a stop to that!


8 posted on 11/07/2004 5:39:58 PM PST by Cicero (Marcus Tullius)
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To: claudiustg
Lars? Italian? Roman? sounds like a Scandinavian who took a Italian vacation tour and decided to stay.
9 posted on 11/07/2004 5:44:15 PM PST by Paladin2 (SeeBS News - We Decide, We Create, We Report - In that order! - ABC - Already Been Caught)
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To: blam; FairOpinion; Ernest_at_the_Beach; SunkenCiv; 24Karet; 3AngelaD; 4ConservativeJustices; ...
Ooooh. Thanks for the ping! The description of Lars' tomb, though ancient and eyewitness testimony, is generally considered to be an exaggeration. But General Consideration often leads the troops away from the action. :')
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on, off, or alter the "Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list --
Archaeology/Anthropology/Ancient Cultures/Artifacts/Antiquities, etc.
The GGG Digest
-- Gods, Graves, Glyphs (alpha order)

10 posted on 11/07/2004 5:44:20 PM PST by SunkenCiv ("All I have seen teaches me trust the Creator for all I have not seen." -- Emerson)
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To: Enterprise

Yes, near the ruins of Abadanza.


11 posted on 11/07/2004 5:45:28 PM PST by eagle11
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To: blam
what is ggg ping? Is it a ancient history type ping or no? If so ad me to it please
12 posted on 11/07/2004 5:45:47 PM PST by ezoeni
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To: Paladin2

I guess he was a northern Italian.


13 posted on 11/07/2004 5:48:03 PM PST by claudiustg (Go Sharon! Go Bush!)
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To: eagle11
"Yes, near the ruins of Abadanza."

Oh, I read about that area once. It's the sister city of Abba Zabba.

14 posted on 11/07/2004 5:49:29 PM PST by Enterprise (The left hates the Constitution. Islamic Fascism hates America. Natural allies.)
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To: claudiustg
E's pining for the fjords, all the time.
15 posted on 11/07/2004 5:49:52 PM PST by Paladin2 (SeeBS News - We Decide, We Create, We Report - In that order! - ABC - Already Been Caught)
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To: blam

Interesting. I know the Roman Empire was first estbalished in 753 BC. I heard that the Romans came from the Etruscans originally. Some say Basque is related to Etruscan language.


16 posted on 11/07/2004 5:52:33 PM PST by Ptarmigan (Proud rabbit hater and killer)
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To: ezoeni; SunkenCiv
"what is ggg ping? Is it a ancient history type ping or no? If so add me to it please"

GGG stands for Gods, Graves, Glyphs and is an archaeology,anthropology and ancient history ping list. It is managed by FReeper SunkenCiv.

He will add you to the ping list.

17 posted on 11/07/2004 5:57:29 PM PST by blam
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To: blam

thanks pal :o)


18 posted on 11/07/2004 6:01:59 PM PST by ezoeni
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To: Ptarmigan
Interesting. I know the Roman Empire was first estbalished in 753 BC. I heard that the Romans came from the Etruscans originally. Some say Basque is related to Etruscan language.

The date sounds crudely right, but Rome was a Kingdom, then a Republic, then an Empire. The first transition is described in the article, the second occurred after the assassination of Julius Caesar and a complicated civil war in the last century BC.

It's unlikely that the Romans sprung from Etruscan stock. Latin is an Indoeuropean language with similarities to Greek, Celtic, and even Sanskrit. Etruscan is a language isolate, apparently unrelated to anything so far known (including Basque). Only about 300 words of Etruscan have been deciphered, mostly related to funerals and monuments.

The best guess would be that the Etruscans were a remnant of some earlier inhabitants of the Italian peninsula. The Romans probably arrived from the East in later waves of immigration at crudely the same time as the Greeks and Celts.

19 posted on 11/07/2004 6:09:35 PM PST by VadeRetro (A self-reliant conservative citizenry is a better bet than the subjects of an overbearing state. -MS)
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To: VadeRetro

Etruscan is a mysterious language, like Basque or Bushushaski.


20 posted on 11/07/2004 6:10:53 PM PST by Ptarmigan (Proud rabbit hater and killer)
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To: Ptarmigan
the Roman Empire was first estbalished in 753 BC. I heard that the Romans came from the Etruscans originally. Some say Basque is related to Etruscan language.
The Roman Republic was established first. The empire didn't come about until the middle of the 1st century BC. The first emperor is generally held to have been Octavian, better known as Augustus Caesar, nephew (adopted son) of Julius, who retired to a little streetside restaurant in Naples, where he discovered the frozen orange concoction that still bears his name.

Just kidding about that last part, starting with "who retired". Julius was murdered by some political enemies in the Senate because he was waaaay too merciful in his dealings with them during the war with Pompey. :')

The Romans were not Etruscans. The Romans spoke Latin, an Indo-European tongue, and the Etruscans spoke a language that was not. Etruscan texts are almost all found on gravestones and are quite terse as one might imagine them to be. AFAIK only four longer texts survive, one of which is the Lemnos stele on the Aegean island of that name. Even today, with the indigenitis that has swept like a bias through historical studies, Etruscan is still generally (but not universally) regarded as having an origin in the eastern Mediterranean. Welcome to the GGG list by the way, and thanks again for that new topic on the Basque language. :')

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21 posted on 11/07/2004 6:20:53 PM PST by SunkenCiv ("All I have seen teaches me trust the Creator for all I have not seen." -- Emerson)
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To: SunkenCiv

Your welcome. I know the Romans did ecounter the Etruscans.


22 posted on 11/07/2004 6:22:01 PM PST by Ptarmigan (Proud rabbit hater and killer)
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To: Ptarmigan

Yeah, Rome was ruled by Etruscan kings (some say founded by Etruscans), eventually kicked them out, and over a period of centuries picked off the Etruscan city-states one by one.


23 posted on 11/07/2004 6:43:31 PM PST by SunkenCiv ("All I have seen teaches me trust the Creator for all I have not seen." -- Emerson)
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To: SunkenCiv
There is a lot of debate over whether the Etruscans came from the eastern Mediterranean (Herodotus says they came from Lydia, in what is now western Turkey) or were always in Italy (as Dionysius of Halicarnassus claimed some 300 years after Herodotus). The Lemnos inscription is similar to Etruscan but I don't know if there is agreement over whether it is the very same language.

The longest Etruscan inscription known is on the Zagreb mummy wrapping--a piece of cloth used to wrap a mummy in Egypt, which was eventually acquired by a collector who brought it to Zagreb. When they removed the wrapping they found an Etruscan text on the cloth. It's now in the archaeological museum in Zagreb.

24 posted on 11/07/2004 6:58:11 PM PST by Verginius Rufus
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To: blam; SunkenCiv
He will add you to the ping list.

Or, she will...

;-)

25 posted on 11/07/2004 7:09:48 PM PST by SteveH
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To: Verginius Rufus

http://www.etruskisch.de/pgs/og.htm

Where Did The Etruscans Come From?

Dieter H. Steinbauer

...Grammatical analysis may compare constructions of both languages, which the linguist calls 'morpho-syntactic', e.g. the endings -le and -si expressing the logical subject connected with past forms of the passive voice in Etruscan -u and Lemnian -o (as to the correlation of these two vowels, see above).

Etruscan (Vc 3.2) ...larthia-le melacina-si mul-u "(was) by Larth Melacina(s) given" und Lemnian holaie-si qokiashia-le...evisth-o "by Holaie kokiashia (?) x-ed" are so convincingly matched that they entitle linguists to postulate a common ancestral stage of both languages which may be termed Proto-Etrusco-Lemnian.

Recently, Carlo de Simone, formerly professor at the university of Tuebingen, has again taken up the idea that Etruscans originating from Italy have settled on the island of Lemnos during the 9th or 8th century BC. But there are no archaeological proofs, and, in addition, the languages are too different to be considered as mere dialects.

Further -- which has been only briefly mentioned here with Luvian maua -- there exist enough similarities between the Etruscan and Lemnian languages and the so-called Anatolian languages (in Asia Minor) to show that the roots of the Etruscans in Italy must be sought in the northwest part of Asia Minor -- approximately in the region of Troy. And this might well form the historical core of that myth of Trojan origin, which the Romans have borrowed from their neighbouring nation, in order to claim it for themselves.

... More linguistic research into Etruscan and Lemnian can be found in: Dieter H. Steinbauer, Neues Handbuch des Etruskischen, Scripta Mercaturæ Verlag, St. Katharinen 1999, ISBN 3-89590-080-X, on pages 357-366, as well as strewn in the following text. This book, unfortunately, is so far only available in German.


26 posted on 11/07/2004 7:10:56 PM PST by SunkenCiv ("All I have seen teaches me trust the Creator for all I have not seen." -- Emerson)
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To: SteveH

Oh sure, just because I choose to wear a girdle...


27 posted on 11/07/2004 7:15:10 PM PST by SunkenCiv ("All I have seen teaches me trust the Creator for all I have not seen." -- Emerson)
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Neues Handbuch des Etruskischen (Subsidia classica) Neues Handbuch des Etruskischen
Subsidia classica

by Dieter H Steinbauer


28 posted on 11/07/2004 7:19:38 PM PST by SunkenCiv ("All I have seen teaches me trust the Creator for all I have not seen." -- Emerson)
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To: VadeRetro
"The date sounds crudely right, but Rome was a Kingdom, then a Republic, then an Empire."

It's interesting that when Rome was still a small city-state, relatively unknown, Alexander the Great decided to go around Rome and leave it alone on his conquest of the known world.

29 posted on 11/07/2004 7:24:31 PM PST by TheCrusader ("the frenzy of the Mohammedans has devastated the Churches of God" - Pope Urban II, 1097 A.D.)
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Clusium
LoveToKnow 1911 Online Encyclopedia
© 2003, 2004 LoveToKnow
It was according to Roman tradition one of the oldest cities of Etruria and indeed of all Italy, and, if Camars (the original name of the town, according to Livy) is rightly connected with the Camertes Umbri, its foundation would go back to pre-Etruscan times... The chief interest of the place lies in its extensive necropolis, which surrounds the city on all sides... The most remarkable group of tombs is, however, that of Poggio Gaiella, 3 m. to the N., where the hill is honeycombed with chambers in three storeys (now, however, much ruined and inaccessible), partly connected by a system of passages, and supported at the base by a stone wall which forms a circle and not a squarea fact which renders impossible its identification with the tomb of Porsena, the description of which Pliny (Hist. Nat. xxxvi. 91) has copied from Varro... A conception of the size of the whole necropolis may be gathered from the fact that nearly three thousand Etruscan inscriptions have come to light from Clusium and its district alone, while the part of Etruria north of it as far as the Arno has produced barely five hundred. Among the later tombs bilingual inscriptions are by no means rare, and both Etruscan and Latin inscriptions are often found in the same cemeteries, showing that the use of the Etruscan language only died out gradually.

30 posted on 11/07/2004 7:32:49 PM PST by SunkenCiv ("All I have seen teaches me trust the Creator for all I have not seen." -- Emerson)
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To: TheCrusader
It's interesting that when Rome was still a small city-state, relatively unknown, Alexander the Great decided to go around Rome and leave it alone on his conquest of the known world.

All the challenges were the other way, to the east. The mighty and cosmopolitan Persian Empire was the greatest power in the world, so far as anyone in Europe knew. This is exactly what Alexander undertook, telling Darius II at the outset of the war that he considered all the Persian lands and vassals to be his own.

I think I have read that there was a quite formidable empire on the Indian subcontinent which might have offered the overextended expedition a greater challenge than any thus far encountered had Alexander ventured beyond the lower Indus in modern Pakistan. We'll never know. The weary Macedonian troops refused to go any farther from their known world.

31 posted on 11/08/2004 10:17:13 AM PST by VadeRetro (A self-reliant conservative citizenry is a better bet than the subjects of an overbearing state. -MS)
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To: Carry_Okie

ping


32 posted on 11/08/2004 10:23:16 AM PST by farmfriend ( In Essentials, Unity...In Non-Essentials, Liberty...In All Things, Charity.)
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To: VadeRetro

I think (perhaps wrongly) that Claudius was of Etruscan stock. (Would that be I Claudius as opposed to II Claudius? We are talking about Graves though.)


33 posted on 11/08/2004 10:28:50 AM PST by Doctor Stochastic (Vegetabilisch = chaotisch is der Charakter der Modernen. - Friedrich Schlegel)
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To: VadeRetro
Darius II

I've dropped a Darius somewhere along the way. Darius III.

34 posted on 11/08/2004 10:32:42 AM PST by VadeRetro (A self-reliant conservative citizenry is a better bet than the subjects of an overbearing state. -MS)
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To: Doctor Stochastic
Don't remember that detail, but I loved that miniseries. There's no question the Etruscans were absorbed rather than wiped out by Rome.
35 posted on 11/08/2004 10:33:49 AM PST by VadeRetro (A self-reliant conservative citizenry is a better bet than the subjects of an overbearing state. -MS)
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To: VadeRetro
"All the challenges were the other way, to the east."

Thanks for your reply, I appreciate your knowledge. I enjoy learning about history, and I've got a lot more reading to do.

My personal opinion on why Alexander left the city-state Rome alone was that Rome had already gained a reputation as feirce fighters. Not that Alexander felt that he couldn't have overtaken them, but he didn't need the unnecessary casualties. Sort of like when a grizzly bear occassionally backs down from a wolverine when contested over a kill. If the grizz isn't hungry and he's got better things to do, he'll forgo the potential wounds being inflicted during the fight. If the grizzly is hungry and needs the food, the wolverine will usually become part of his meal.

36 posted on 11/08/2004 2:50:18 PM PST by TheCrusader ("the frenzy of the Mohammedans has devastated the Churches of God" - Pope Urban II, 1097 A.D.)
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To: TheCrusader
There really wasn't much to the west when Alexander succeeded his father in the 330's BC. Rome, a small Italian city-state, had been sacked and burned by Celtic Gauls in 387 BC and not fully rebuilt until about 380. It was just re-emerging and there was nothing much else in those barbaric hinterlands anyway.
37 posted on 11/08/2004 3:05:49 PM PST by VadeRetro (A self-reliant conservative citizenry is a better bet than the subjects of an overbearing state. -MS)
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To: VadeRetro
I think I have read that there was a quite formidable empire on the Indian subcontinent which might have offered the overextended expedition a greater challenge than any thus far encountered had Alexander ventured beyond the lower Indus in modern Pakistan.

Alexander got as far as the Kashmir region of India, but found the Indians were more full of fight than the Persians had been, at least since their defeat at Gaugamela, or any of the minor kingdoms. He also learned that even if he conquered India, there was China beyond that, making his dream of conquering the whole world seem much more distant. At the same time, disease (probably Black Death), famine and thirst were taking their toll as well. Alexander entered India with something like 120,000 men and returned to Babylon with a quarter of that

38 posted on 11/08/2004 3:20:12 PM PST by Heyworth
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To: Heyworth
I shouldn't do anything from memory, but I keep trying. Another flub. Rechecking my map, I was remembering Alexander's turn-around point farther downriver than where it happened. The actual spot on the Beas, an Indus tributary, is up-country.

Alexander defeated a former Persian vassal named Porus, but stopped well short of Nanda, the plum prize on the subcontinent. Author Robin Lane Fox (The Search for Alexander) seems to think Nanda could have been overcome--it fell within a few years to the upstart Chandragupta--had Alexander not tried to cross the Punjab in the monsoon season.

39 posted on 11/08/2004 3:54:54 PM PST by VadeRetro (A self-reliant conservative citizenry is a better bet than the subjects of an overbearing state. -MS)
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To: VadeRetro; Ptarmigan

Well, the common folk of early Roma were of Italic stock (as were others from the Latin grounds to the south and east of Rome) but they definitely WERE on the border between Italics and Etruscans and the Romans DID have Etruscan kings until Tarquin the Bold. They possibly did have some Etruscan blood


40 posted on 11/09/2004 10:41:30 PM PST by Cronos (W2K4)
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To: Ptarmigan

bushushaski? Is that the langue from Chechnya/Ingushetia/Dagestan?


41 posted on 11/09/2004 10:42:08 PM PST by Cronos (W2K4)
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To: TheCrusader; VadeRetro
Alexander the Great decided to go around Rome and leave it alone on his conquest of the known world.

huh???? Alex didn't even head west to conquer the Illyrians -- he headed to conquer the civilised states in the East -- Persia in particular. The Persian Empire was ripe for picking -- remember the Persians practically came up with the notion of an Empire, with bureaucracies and administration in place. The Persian Shah was also very weak (just a decade earlier, Macedonian mercenaries had nearly helped a minor son take the throne, so they knew the country) and by just tipping it over, he got a developed Empire falling into his lap

Rome at that time had just been sacked by the Celts (well, around that time).

When Alex reached India, he nearly got routed by a very minor Indian King -- Purva. His soldiers heard of the mighty Magadhan Empire (based in the Gangetic plains) with its gigantic army and basically told Alex to shove it -- they wouldn't head any further east.

Incidently, Greek commanders got Indianized and many settled in northern India, or moved east -- in what is now Kashmir there are folks (hunzas?) who are supposed to be near pure Greeks), while in Bengal tales of demonic figures and the Devi goddess are supposed to be linked to tribals fighting against a force led by Northern Indians with Greek mercenaries.
42 posted on 11/09/2004 10:49:50 PM PST by Cronos (W2K4)
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To: TheCrusader
My personal opinion on why Alexander left the city-state Rome alone was that Rome had already gained a reputation as feirce fighters.

well, I don't think he considered them worthy of being conquered -- just as the Romans decided it was not worth going into Germania in the 1st century
43 posted on 11/09/2004 10:50:55 PM PST by Cronos (W2K4)
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To: TheCrusader

Remember that Rome was sacked by the Gauls at around that time and then slowly rebuilt herself to fight in the Punic wars -- the third Punic war was the catalyst that pushed Rome into superpower status and helped her in her fight against the Alexandrine kingdoms in Greece, Syria and Egypt


44 posted on 11/09/2004 10:52:34 PM PST by Cronos (W2K4)
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To: VadeRetro
Author Robin Lane Fox (The Search for Alexander) seems to think Nanda could have been overcome--it fell within a few years to the upstart Chandragupta--had Alexander not tried to cross the Punjab in the monsoon season.

Well, Chandragupta (the founder of the Mauryan Empire) did lead a gigantic army -- and his grandson Ashoka did rule over an Empire that incorporates most of what is now India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma (to some Extent) with vassalages in Central asia and the Tibetan plateau
45 posted on 11/09/2004 10:55:00 PM PST by Cronos (W2K4)
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To: Cronos
I was simply reporting Fox, not particularly agreeing with him. That was a very chewed-up Macedonian force by the time it turned around. (And some of its worst traveling lay ahead.)
46 posted on 11/10/2004 7:08:49 AM PST by VadeRetro (A self-reliant conservative citizenry is a better bet than the subjects of an overbearing state. -MS)
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To: Cronos

Maybe. That's anyone's guess? They tried to link with Basque and Ainu.


47 posted on 11/10/2004 6:04:53 PM PST by Ptarmigan (Proud rabbit hater and killer)
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To: blam
Just updating the GGG information, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list. Thanks.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on or off the
Gods, Graves, Glyphs PING list or GGG weekly digest
-- Archaeology/Anthropology/Ancient Cultures/Artifacts/Antiquities, etc.
Gods, Graves, Glyphs (alpha order)

48 posted on 09/09/2006 9:15:31 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Saturday, September 2, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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Gods
Graves
Glyphs
Just updating the GGG info, not sending a general distribution.



To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach
 

·Dogpile · Archaeologica · Mirabilis.ca · LiveScience · Biblical Archaeology Society ·
· Discover · Bronze Age Forum · Science Daily · Science News · Eurekalert · PhysOrg ·
· Nat Geographic · Texas AM Anthro News · Yahoo Anthro & Archaeo · Google ·
· Archaeology · The Archaeology Channel · Excerpt, or Link only? · cgk's list of ping lists ·
· History topic · history keyword · archaeology keyword · paleontology keyword ·
· Science topic · science keyword · Books/Literature topic · pages keyword · ·


49 posted on 07/28/2010 4:49:25 PM PDT by SunkenCiv ("Fools learn from experience. I prefer to learn from the experience of others." -- Otto von Bismarck)
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To: blam

thanx


50 posted on 07/28/2010 4:50:33 PM PDT by whence911 (Here illegally? Go home. Get in line!)
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