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FReeper Canteen ~ Part V of the Mongols ~ December 7, 2004
www.coldsiberia.org ^ | December 7, 2004 | LaDivaLoca

Posted on 12/06/2004 7:56:10 PM PST by LaDivaLoca

 
 

For the freedom you enjoyed yesterday...
Thank the Veterans who served in
The United States Armed Forces.

 
 

Looking forward to tomorrow's freedom?
Support The United States Armed Forces Today!

 
 




ANCIENT WARFARE





Part V of The Mongols

Mongolian Bow

Because the Old Mongols lived in an environment where survival skills were always of the utmost importance, it was a matter of course that they should develop excellent tools, both civilian and military. One piece of equipment that was of great significance in war as well as in the daily life of the Mongols was their composite bow. Perhaps this bow is not quite as well-known in the West as the English longbow, which was the best bow ever to emerge in Europe.

Yet the Old Mongolian bow was incomparably superior to everything seen in the West. Not until the advent of breach-loading firearms in the 1800's was the Mongolian bow decisively surpassed as a long-range shooting tool. Still the original Mongolian bow remains a formidable tool for targeting, war or hunting, and the people around the Bajkal sea regularly used these bows for hunting at least up to the twentieth century.

Military Use

When we are talking about Mongolian bows, the first thoughts go the their military use, although hunting and target practice certainly were more prominent activities. Every day was not filled with war, but hunting and the training of skills were part of the daily routine. However, we will start with the military aspect.

In the military, each soldier carried two bows on horseback. One bow was for long-range shooting, another for shooting at close distances. Also, each soldier had two quivers with arrows for different purposes. To mention but a few of these, there were armor-piercing arrows with a particularly heavy arrowhead of tempered steel, there were incendiary arrows for setting buildings afire and spreading fear in the enemy ranks, as well as whistling arrows for signalling. Of course, the most arrows they carried were ordinary arrows where the arrowhead and length of the shaft were adjusted to the normal range at which the particular type arrow was to be used. The standard, according to James Chambers, was that each soldier should have at least sixty arrows with him or her. Yes; it merits mention once more that the strongest and most courageous Mongolian females rode along with the men and fought bravely. Also, the women who did not ordinarily participate in military activity nevertheless had to learn how to wield the bow, a necessary skill for self-defence as well as hunting.

The Construction

We are now going into the details of the Mongolian bow. As already mentioned, it was the best bow in the world, and probably still is. Even though the modern high-tech compound bows are in some ways more convenient to use and can be made equally powerful, the sheer simplicity of the Mongol composite bow with its complete indepencence of foreign equipment and complicated parts that the archer cannot easily repair or replace makes the Mongol bow on balance a superior solution. In order to show the Mongols and their extraordinary bow the proper respect, the story is mostly told in the present tense, which also serves to emphasize the salient point that these things can be done today as well.

The Mongol bow is not as large and long as the English one, but it is vastly more powerful. The draw weight of an English longbow averages around 70-80 pounds, whereas the Old Mongol bow had a pull that, according to George Vernadsky, averaged at around 166 pounds. Chambers states that the pull varied from 100 to 160 pounds. This seeming discrepancy certainly reflects the fact that draw weight varied with the strength of the user, and with what use the bow had been made for. As could be expected, there was a considerable difference in shooting range. Whereas the English longbow could shoot at distances up to 250 yards or around 228 meters, the Mongol counterpart can hit its target at 350 yards or 320 meters and, if the archer is well trained for the task, even beyond that.

There are people who claim that the Old Mongols could shoot and hit their target over truly astonishing distances. Gongor Lhagvasuren, Deputy Director at the Mongolian National Institute of Physical Education, has written an article called "The stele of Chinggis Khan." There, Lhagvasuren refers to an ancient inscription on a stone found in the basin of the river Kharkiraa, a left tributary of Urlengui river which flows into the trans-Bajkal river Erdene. The text of the inscription, supposedly dated from 1226, may be interpreted as follows: "While Chinggis Khan was holding an assembly of Mongolian dignitaries, after his conquest of Sartaul (East Turkestan), Esungge shot a target at 335 alds" (536m). Lhagvasuren draws the conclusion in his article that such feats were rather common for Mongolian archers during the 1200's, and writes: "This case illustrates the strength, accuracy and sharpness, physical prowess of the Mongolians who lived more than 700 years ago." Whether or not we find it likely that Mongolian archers could regularly hit their targets at the distances Lhagvasuren claims they could, there is no question that they and their and bows are outstanding in all of archery's history.

When we take a closer look at the Mongolian bow, we see that it is an intriguing construction indeed. The backbone of the bow is a wooden frame, which will typically be birch, because that wood is resilient and is also readily available. The total length of the frame is 150-160 cm. When the bow is unstrung, it looks like a semi-circle with a beautifully curvaceous shape, but when a string is attached the whole thing is stretched out so that its limbs are bent inward. Even so, these limbs with string attachments are bent slighly away from the archer, forming a double curve. It is this double curve that delivers explosive acceleration and awesome velocity to the arrow. From these limbs or bends of the bow behind the string attachments where the impact is greatest, the frame is covered with elongated and flattened pieces of mountain sheep's (or other wild or domesticated ungulate's) horn or/and bone which adds snapping power to the resilient wood in the frame. These hard parts form a layer that covers the whole area of the so-called belly, which is the part between the grip and the limbs. Chambers describes how the back parts of the bow, nearest the archer, were those covered with horn and/or bone while the sinew layer was applied to the outer side.

The reader will have noticed that I use the term horn and/or bone. This is because the precise details of how the bows were built could vary over the Siberian area, although the main features are clear. The bone elements, when added, are no more than a small part at the center of the bow, and may originally have served mainly ornamental and possibly magical purposes.

source: http://www.coldsiberia.org/monbow.htm

Next Tuesday Part VI of The Mongols




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KEYWORDS: ancientwar; bows; genghiskhan; mongols
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To: MoJo2001
Speaking who your daddy is....

Dare I bring up horny ol' goats again?

351 posted on 12/07/2004 6:19:57 PM PST by GummyIII (I feel like I'm diagonally parked in a parallel universe.)
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To: GummyIII

Well, if you want to be a Ma's Kid (It's like being a Jerry's kid without the honor or respect.)

Anyhoo, you must answer these questions:

1. Are you willing to be a SLACKER?
2. Do you like to blow things up?
3. Do you prefer to have a Ma that takes a vacation in BLUE STATES?
4. Do you prefer to never know who your "daddy" is?

If so, WELCOME TO THE FAMILY! Hehehe!


352 posted on 12/07/2004 6:21:15 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: Diva Betsy Ross

Well ain't you special? Honestly! No love for MoJo?


Hehehe!


353 posted on 12/07/2004 6:22:12 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: GummyIII

He doesn't need a girlfriend. Who needs that kind of drama? What he needs is some respect from Mr.Tonkin. He needs to feel loved by everyone.

He has feelings too.

I'm so distraught. I'm going to have a piece of chocolate cake to console myself.


354 posted on 12/07/2004 6:23:53 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: HopeandGlory; 68-69TonkinGulfYatchClub; tomkow6; MoJo2001; HiJinx; LaDivaLoca; beachn4fun; ...

U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld speaks to U.S. military Special Operations personnel at Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan, Tuesday, Dec. 7, 2004. Rumsfeld, who was among those who attended the official inauguration ceremony for Afghanistan President Hamid Karzai, is scheduled to travel to Kuwait for the evening. (AP Photo/Larry Downing, Pool)

U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld poses with U.S. military Special Operations personnel at Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan to start his visit to the country, Tuesday, Dec. 7, 2004. Rumsfeld, who was among those who attended the official inauguration ceremony for Afghanistan President Hamid Karzai, is scheduled to travel to Kuwait for the evening. (AP Photo/ Larry Downing)

355 posted on 12/07/2004 6:24:22 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: Kathy in Alaska

I see HEROES!

WooHoo!


356 posted on 12/07/2004 6:25:10 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: MoJo2001
Heehee.. well that is because your status as the queen of everything is known to all! You are superwoman.. no- you are my hero.. no you are THE DIVA!
357 posted on 12/07/2004 6:26:42 PM PST by Diva Betsy Ross (I am not NOT PC.. And Proud of it!: Merry Christmas! Happy Hanukkah!)
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To: 68-69TonkinGulfYatchClub; tomkow6; MoJo2001; HiJinx; HopeandGlory; LaDivaLoca; beachn4fun; ...

Vice President Cheney watches a U.S. military reenlistment ceremony for members of the 25th Infantry Division (Hawaii), at Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan to start his visit to the country, Tuesday Dec. 7, 2004. Cheney continued into Kabul, Afghanistan, to attend the official inauguration ceremony for Afghanistan President Hamid Karzai and is scheduled to return to Washington following the ceremony. (AP Photo/Larry Downing, Pool)

Vice President Cheney takes a knee during a photo session Tuesday Dec. 7, 2004 with soldiers from the 25th Infantry Division (Hawaii) following a U.S. military medal ceremony at Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan to start his visit to the country. At left is Army Specialist Robert Ososkie from Waterford, Michigan, Cheney, and, right, Army 1st Lt. Brian Oglesby from East St. Louis. (AP Photo/Larry Downing, Pool)

358 posted on 12/07/2004 6:29:02 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: Diva Betsy Ross; Kathy in Alaska

MAAaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa!!

DBR isn't feeling well. She's talking funny again. Let's send her and Neil to Tahiti for a V-A-C-A-T-I-O-N!

Thanks Ma!


359 posted on 12/07/2004 6:29:25 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: MoJo2001
How about a chocolate goat?


360 posted on 12/07/2004 6:29:50 PM PST by GummyIII (I feel like I'm diagonally parked in a parallel universe.)
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To: MoJo2001
Mojo! Stephen don't need no stinkin help makin a mess. He is a master at it! Today he striped down to his Birthday suit and ran around the house as fast as he could. I now have to duct tape the diaper around him. I am thinking I may just go all the way and tape him to his bed so I can get some sleep... ( I am kidding! I think?!)
361 posted on 12/07/2004 6:31:00 PM PST by Diva Betsy Ross (I am not NOT PC.. And Proud of it!: Merry Christmas! Happy Hanukkah!)
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To: GummyIII; Diva Betsy Ross; 68-69TonkinGulfYachtClub; Kathy in Alaska; All

Awwwww....it's okay!
MoJo will start a campaign to save you!

362 posted on 12/07/2004 6:31:06 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: Kathy in Alaska; 68-69TonkinGulfYachtClub

Thanks for posting those pics Kathy.

It was so good to see the Secretary
and Vice President with troops today.

BTW: I always thought Tonkin was referring to himself when he mentioned Mr.Goat. Huh! Learn something new every day!

Anyway, it won't be the first time somebody has got Tonkins goat. I'm sure.


363 posted on 12/07/2004 6:31:06 PM PST by uncleshag (Send the Light !)
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To: GummyIII

Always room for one more, but no whining!!


364 posted on 12/07/2004 6:33:06 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: MoJo2001
Oh and Jimmy.. well he told me that he had more fun doing math today than he had at the Candy store. We went and picked out 1/2 lb. of handmade chocolates. Jimmy likes doing vern diagrams more than eatin candy!

I have a dichotomy in my home at all times!

365 posted on 12/07/2004 6:33:06 PM PST by Diva Betsy Ross (I am not NOT PC.. And Proud of it!: Merry Christmas! Happy Hanukkah!)
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To: MoJo2001
I am feelin kind of sad for MR. Goat!
366 posted on 12/07/2004 6:34:29 PM PST by Diva Betsy Ross (I am not NOT PC.. And Proud of it!: Merry Christmas! Happy Hanukkah!)
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To: GummyIII; MoJo2001

I'm hoping to get to see that tonight. I put a stickie on my tv before I went on vacation. If I miss it, I expect SOMEONE to provide tape or cd or a further schedule.


367 posted on 12/07/2004 6:35:30 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: Kathy in Alaska

Golly, gee, thanks...grin...(do I get my own room????)


368 posted on 12/07/2004 6:35:51 PM PST by GummyIII (I feel like I'm diagonally parked in a parallel universe.)
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To: Diva Betsy Ross

How sad do you feel? Put it in money terms! Like in, I will donate to the FREE MR.GOAT MOVEMENT? It will be bigger than FREE WILLY! Let's not forget that Willy was FREED and was showed no love and thus kicked the bucket. NOT OUR MR.GOAT!


369 posted on 12/07/2004 6:35:59 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: Diva Betsy Ross

Trust me, Mr. Goat will think he's died and gone to heaven...


370 posted on 12/07/2004 6:36:25 PM PST by GummyIII (I feel like I'm diagonally parked in a parallel universe.)
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To: 68-69TonkinGulfYachtClub; Kathy in Alaska; Fawnn; bentfeather; HiJinx; tomkow6; Radix; Spotsy; ...
Shall we play some music?

Don't forget to click on the hyperlinks!

Song: Raindrops Keep Fallin' On My Head
Artist: BJ Thomas

Hold up a candle and a lighter in support
of Mr.Goat!


Raindrops keep fallin' on my head
And just like the guy whose feet are too big for his bed
Nothin' seems to fit
Those raindrops are fallin' on my head, they keep fallin'

So I just did me some talkin' to the sun
And I said I didn't like the way he got things done
Sleepin' on the job
Those raindrops are fallin' on my head, they keep fallin'

But there's one thing I know
The blues they send to meet me won't defeat me
It won't be long till happiness steps up to greet me

Raindrops keep fallin' on my head
But that doesn't mean my eyes will soon be turnin' red
Cryin's not for me
'Cause I'm never gonna stop the rain by complainin'
Because I'm free
Nothin's worryin' me

[trumpet]

It won't be long till happiness steps up to greet me

Raindrops keep fallin' on my head
But that doesn't mean my eyes will soon be turnin' red
Cryin's not for me
'Cause I'm never gonna stop the rain by complainin'
Because I'm free
Nothin's worryin' me

Aside: DUH! Didn't dummy know he could go to Wally World (Walmart)
and buy an umbrella for about 2 bucks made from China? Hello?





 

371 posted on 12/07/2004 6:37:00 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: Kathy in Alaska; MoJo2001

The first lady is such a classy lady. I couldn't even imagine Hillary being such a gracious hostess. She is so "real"...and you can tell the folks there really love her. It was a joy to watch just to see that... but wait 'til you see that gingerbread house....wow....


372 posted on 12/07/2004 6:38:07 PM PST by GummyIII (I feel like I'm diagonally parked in a parallel universe.)
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To: GummyIII; Diva Betsy Ross

Wow!

Gosh Gummy! Ma never told us you knew about the Goats, Birds, and Bees the like. Wanna explain to us? DBR and I need illustrations.

LOL!


373 posted on 12/07/2004 6:38:08 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: Kathy in Alaska; GummyIII

Do you see why I never get a vacation?

Ma is always needing something. Sheesh!


374 posted on 12/07/2004 6:39:15 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: MoJo2001

You are breaking my heart... Poor poor little Mr. Goat. and the music dedication got me all choked up. Boohoo! Mr. Goat.. Oh Mr. Goat ..WHY? ( wait is that true about Willy?)


375 posted on 12/07/2004 6:39:47 PM PST by Diva Betsy Ross (I am not NOT PC.. And Proud of it!: Merry Christmas! Happy Hanukkah!)
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To: MoJo2001

HOWLING!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Trust me, I could show you/draw you pictures and never blush. After several years of teaching biology to 10th graders, nothing flusters me. (I don't teach that anymore...but I used to...lol.)


376 posted on 12/07/2004 6:40:27 PM PST by GummyIII (I feel like I'm diagonally parked in a parallel universe.)
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To: Diva Betsy Ross

Yep! Keiko lived on in someone's chop suey!


377 posted on 12/07/2004 6:41:10 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: MoJo2001
How do you type out Gummy's 3?
378 posted on 12/07/2004 6:41:25 PM PST by Diva Betsy Ross (I am not NOT PC.. And Proud of it!: Merry Christmas! Happy Hanukkah!)
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To: HopeandGlory
Glad to have you and any FRiends that you might bring along. How 'bout a little gingerbread to go with it?MMMMMM!

379 posted on 12/07/2004 6:41:29 PM PST by LUV W (WE DID NOT WAVER; WE DID NOT TIRE; WE DID NOT FALTER; AND WE DID NOT FAIL!! GWB ROCKS!!!!!!!!)
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To: Excuse_My_Bellicosity

WOW!!! Look at all that stuff that needs to be blown up!! Good pictures, EMB!!


380 posted on 12/07/2004 6:41:41 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: GummyIII; Diva Betsy Ross

Gummy's got me worried!

She keeps saying "trust me" about the "love" thing for Mr.Goat.

This really worries me.

Hehehe!


381 posted on 12/07/2004 6:42:19 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: Diva Betsy Ross

3 Capital I's.

It takes me about a minute to remember as well.
(Psst..don't tell anyone. LOL!)


382 posted on 12/07/2004 6:43:05 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: Kathy in Alaska

We're going to blow up our bedroom if you don't stop Mr.Tonkin from giving away for FREE Mr.Goat. Hello? He didn't even try EBay for a profit. Sheesh. LOL!


383 posted on 12/07/2004 6:43:59 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: tomkow6

WOW!


384 posted on 12/07/2004 6:44:27 PM PST by 82Marine89 (Robin Hood was a democrat.)
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To: GummyIII
Gummy! You are a teacher!!! I need some advice... can you help me? I just want to know this one little thing.... Why are kids so very - BUSY ALL THE TIME? Just kidding. I think, I mean- I am afraid I already know the answer. Mine are 6 and 2- it is going to get worse- isn't it? ;}
385 posted on 12/07/2004 6:45:06 PM PST by Diva Betsy Ross (I am not NOT PC.. And Proud of it!: Merry Christmas! Happy Hanukkah!)
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To: AZamericonnie

Those guys are going to eat like Kings...Nice catch!


386 posted on 12/07/2004 6:45:38 PM PST by BIGLOOK (I once opposed keelhauling but have recently come to my senses.)
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To: tomkow6

Dear Bro,
Queen Nefertete did not look like Rosie Perez. LOL!


387 posted on 12/07/2004 6:46:04 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: BIGLOOK

Hello!
*HUGS*


388 posted on 12/07/2004 6:46:42 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: AZamericonnie

Hey Diva!
*HUGS*
How are you doing tonight?
I'm just bored to tears. LOL!


389 posted on 12/07/2004 6:47:14 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: MoJo2001; Diva Betsy Ross

I have some ocean front property really cheap in these h'yar hills.....trust me....


390 posted on 12/07/2004 6:47:27 PM PST by GummyIII (I feel like I'm diagonally parked in a parallel universe.)
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To: Kathy in Alaska

BLESSINGS ON OUR VICE PRESIDENT!!

391 posted on 12/07/2004 6:47:32 PM PST by LUV W (WE DID NOT WAVER; WE DID NOT TIRE; WE DID NOT FALTER; AND WE DID NOT FAIL!! GWB ROCKS!!!!!!!!)
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To: GummyIII; Diva Betsy Ross

Could you translate that to Ghetto?

That seems too proper for me.

TANK U!


392 posted on 12/07/2004 6:48:23 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: MoJo2001

My honor, Mojo, Talofa!


393 posted on 12/07/2004 6:48:33 PM PST by BIGLOOK (I once opposed keelhauling but have recently come to my senses.)
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To: MoJo2001; All

For The Kid

394 posted on 12/07/2004 6:48:49 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: BIGLOOK

It doesn't get much better than blackened gator! Yummy


395 posted on 12/07/2004 6:49:07 PM PST by AZamericonnie (They say I have ADD but they just don't understand.....oh look! A chicken!)
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To: BIGLOOK

I wonder when The Rock will
hit the big screen with his movie
about King Kamehameha!

396 posted on 12/07/2004 6:50:38 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: Kathy in Alaska

It's a small world? How small? Well? I await an answer!


397 posted on 12/07/2004 6:51:37 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: Diva Betsy Ross
Dearheart, you don't want to know....you just don't want to know....grin. Just enjoy it. (Where do I send the sympathy card??)


398 posted on 12/07/2004 6:52:02 PM PST by GummyIII (I feel like I'm diagonally parked in a parallel universe.)
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To: Kathy in Alaska

Walt Disney music during his reign. Unlike the crap Disney puts out these days. May Walt Disney RIP.


399 posted on 12/07/2004 6:52:26 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
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To: Kathy in Alaska

Nope!!!


400 posted on 12/07/2004 6:52:34 PM PST by HopeandGlory (Hey, Liberals . . . PC died on 9/11 . . . GET USED TO IT!!!)
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