Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

FReeper Canteen ~ Part V of the Mongols ~ December 7, 2004
www.coldsiberia.org ^ | December 7, 2004 | LaDivaLoca

Posted on 12/06/2004 7:56:10 PM PST by LaDivaLoca

 
 

For the freedom you enjoyed yesterday...
Thank the Veterans who served in
The United States Armed Forces.

 
 

Looking forward to tomorrow's freedom?
Support The United States Armed Forces Today!

 
 




ANCIENT WARFARE





Part V of The Mongols

Mongolian Bow

Because the Old Mongols lived in an environment where survival skills were always of the utmost importance, it was a matter of course that they should develop excellent tools, both civilian and military. One piece of equipment that was of great significance in war as well as in the daily life of the Mongols was their composite bow. Perhaps this bow is not quite as well-known in the West as the English longbow, which was the best bow ever to emerge in Europe.

Yet the Old Mongolian bow was incomparably superior to everything seen in the West. Not until the advent of breach-loading firearms in the 1800's was the Mongolian bow decisively surpassed as a long-range shooting tool. Still the original Mongolian bow remains a formidable tool for targeting, war or hunting, and the people around the Bajkal sea regularly used these bows for hunting at least up to the twentieth century.

Military Use

When we are talking about Mongolian bows, the first thoughts go the their military use, although hunting and target practice certainly were more prominent activities. Every day was not filled with war, but hunting and the training of skills were part of the daily routine. However, we will start with the military aspect.

In the military, each soldier carried two bows on horseback. One bow was for long-range shooting, another for shooting at close distances. Also, each soldier had two quivers with arrows for different purposes. To mention but a few of these, there were armor-piercing arrows with a particularly heavy arrowhead of tempered steel, there were incendiary arrows for setting buildings afire and spreading fear in the enemy ranks, as well as whistling arrows for signalling. Of course, the most arrows they carried were ordinary arrows where the arrowhead and length of the shaft were adjusted to the normal range at which the particular type arrow was to be used. The standard, according to James Chambers, was that each soldier should have at least sixty arrows with him or her. Yes; it merits mention once more that the strongest and most courageous Mongolian females rode along with the men and fought bravely. Also, the women who did not ordinarily participate in military activity nevertheless had to learn how to wield the bow, a necessary skill for self-defence as well as hunting.

The Construction

We are now going into the details of the Mongolian bow. As already mentioned, it was the best bow in the world, and probably still is. Even though the modern high-tech compound bows are in some ways more convenient to use and can be made equally powerful, the sheer simplicity of the Mongol composite bow with its complete indepencence of foreign equipment and complicated parts that the archer cannot easily repair or replace makes the Mongol bow on balance a superior solution. In order to show the Mongols and their extraordinary bow the proper respect, the story is mostly told in the present tense, which also serves to emphasize the salient point that these things can be done today as well.

The Mongol bow is not as large and long as the English one, but it is vastly more powerful. The draw weight of an English longbow averages around 70-80 pounds, whereas the Old Mongol bow had a pull that, according to George Vernadsky, averaged at around 166 pounds. Chambers states that the pull varied from 100 to 160 pounds. This seeming discrepancy certainly reflects the fact that draw weight varied with the strength of the user, and with what use the bow had been made for. As could be expected, there was a considerable difference in shooting range. Whereas the English longbow could shoot at distances up to 250 yards or around 228 meters, the Mongol counterpart can hit its target at 350 yards or 320 meters and, if the archer is well trained for the task, even beyond that.

There are people who claim that the Old Mongols could shoot and hit their target over truly astonishing distances. Gongor Lhagvasuren, Deputy Director at the Mongolian National Institute of Physical Education, has written an article called "The stele of Chinggis Khan." There, Lhagvasuren refers to an ancient inscription on a stone found in the basin of the river Kharkiraa, a left tributary of Urlengui river which flows into the trans-Bajkal river Erdene. The text of the inscription, supposedly dated from 1226, may be interpreted as follows: "While Chinggis Khan was holding an assembly of Mongolian dignitaries, after his conquest of Sartaul (East Turkestan), Esungge shot a target at 335 alds" (536m). Lhagvasuren draws the conclusion in his article that such feats were rather common for Mongolian archers during the 1200's, and writes: "This case illustrates the strength, accuracy and sharpness, physical prowess of the Mongolians who lived more than 700 years ago." Whether or not we find it likely that Mongolian archers could regularly hit their targets at the distances Lhagvasuren claims they could, there is no question that they and their and bows are outstanding in all of archery's history.

When we take a closer look at the Mongolian bow, we see that it is an intriguing construction indeed. The backbone of the bow is a wooden frame, which will typically be birch, because that wood is resilient and is also readily available. The total length of the frame is 150-160 cm. When the bow is unstrung, it looks like a semi-circle with a beautifully curvaceous shape, but when a string is attached the whole thing is stretched out so that its limbs are bent inward. Even so, these limbs with string attachments are bent slighly away from the archer, forming a double curve. It is this double curve that delivers explosive acceleration and awesome velocity to the arrow. From these limbs or bends of the bow behind the string attachments where the impact is greatest, the frame is covered with elongated and flattened pieces of mountain sheep's (or other wild or domesticated ungulate's) horn or/and bone which adds snapping power to the resilient wood in the frame. These hard parts form a layer that covers the whole area of the so-called belly, which is the part between the grip and the limbs. Chambers describes how the back parts of the bow, nearest the archer, were those covered with horn and/or bone while the sinew layer was applied to the outer side.

The reader will have noticed that I use the term horn and/or bone. This is because the precise details of how the bows were built could vary over the Siberian area, although the main features are clear. The bone elements, when added, are no more than a small part at the center of the bow, and may originally have served mainly ornamental and possibly magical purposes.

source: http://www.coldsiberia.org/monbow.htm

Next Tuesday Part VI of The Mongols




TOPICS: Free Republic; Miscellaneous; News/Current Events; Political Humor/Cartoons
KEYWORDS: ancientwar; bows; genghiskhan; mongols
Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first previous 1-50 ... 401-450451-500501-550551-562 next last
To: StarCMC
450??
451 posted on 12/07/2004 7:20:46 PM PST by StarCMC (It's God's job to forgive Bin Laden; it's our job to arrange the meeting.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 447 | View Replies]

To: StarCMC
450??
452 posted on 12/07/2004 7:20:48 PM PST by StarCMC (It's God's job to forgive Bin Laden; it's our job to arrange the meeting.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 447 | View Replies]

To: tomkow6

No silly.
It explodes with a little song.


Hehe!


453 posted on 12/07/2004 7:20:55 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 446 | View Replies]

To: tomkow6

MINE!!!!!!!!!!!


454 posted on 12/07/2004 7:21:03 PM PST by tomkow6 (....................Xmas gifts?.......................Xmas gifts?.......................Xmas gifts?.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 449 | View Replies]

To: tomkow6

NOT!


455 posted on 12/07/2004 7:21:20 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 449 | View Replies]

To: tomkow6
Neener Neener Neener!
456 posted on 12/07/2004 7:22:02 PM PST by StarCMC (It's God's job to forgive Bin Laden; it's our job to arrange the meeting.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 454 | View Replies]

To: StarCMC
BRATTStar!!!!!
457 posted on 12/07/2004 7:22:13 PM PST by tomkow6 (....................Xmas gifts?.......................Xmas gifts?.......................Xmas gifts?.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 450 | View Replies]

To: HopeandGlory

Click on the pic!
Here's a Maori that MoJo would love to be related to. Hehe!

458 posted on 12/07/2004 7:23:03 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 436 | View Replies]

To: USAF_TSgt; American Preservative; Alouette; Yehuda; yonif; Nix 2; knighthawk; SJackson; Israeli; ...

I Have a Little Dreidel

459 posted on 12/07/2004 7:23:04 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 399 | View Replies]

To: Kathy in Alaska

It's DRAYDL according to the CD. Kind of weird spelling, huh?

Shoot! What do we know? We ain't very cultured around here. LOL!


460 posted on 12/07/2004 7:24:09 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 459 | View Replies]

To: GummyIII

461 posted on 12/07/2004 7:26:30 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 421 | View Replies]

To: Diva Betsy Ross

Click on the pic!
Here's some ghetto music for you while you look at Cliff Curtis!

462 posted on 12/07/2004 7:26:46 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 460 | View Replies]

To: Kathy in Alaska

Thats Beautiful, but CHILLY


463 posted on 12/07/2004 7:27:58 PM PST by mylife (The roar of the masses could be farts)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 296 | View Replies]

To: MoJo2001

464 posted on 12/07/2004 7:28:13 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 411 | View Replies]

To: MoJo2001

Ooooooh!!! . . . he's a hottie alright . . . but . . sigh!!! . . . not related to me.


465 posted on 12/07/2004 7:30:05 PM PST by HopeandGlory (Hey, Liberals . . . PC died on 9/11 . . . GET USED TO IT!!!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 458 | View Replies]

To: Kathy in Alaska

At least I didn't say: "Look at Ma. She's the younger version of Kathie Lee Gifford". Hehe!


466 posted on 12/07/2004 7:30:28 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 464 | View Replies]

To: MoJo2001; StarCMC; HopeandGlory; All

Someone, anyone.....next showing of the White House Christmas program. I think I need to go home.


467 posted on 12/07/2004 7:32:08 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 432 | View Replies]

To: HopeandGlory; BIGLOOK; Colonel_Flagg; All

Click on the pic!
The All Blacks doing the Haka
The words are below. Everyone
stand up and play along. Hehe!
Hey! We're trying to get some culture
around here. Hehe!


Leader
               KA MATE!                  KA MATE!
           We're going to die!      We're going to die!  


Chorus
               KA ORA,                  KA ORA!
          We're going to live!   We're going to live!


Leader
               KA MATE!                  KA MATE!
           We're going to die!      We're going to die!  
 

Chorus
               KA ORA,                  KA ORA!
          We're going to live!   We're going to live!

               TENEI  TE  TANGATA  PU'RU-HURU
               This is the man,   so hairy

               NA'A  NEI  TIKI      MAI WHAKA-WHITI TE ...
               who fetched,         and made shine  the

     ... RA! HUPANE!            KA-UPANE!
        sun! Upward step!       Another ... !

               A HUPANE!    KA-UPANE!
               An upward step!     Another... !


               WHITI TE RA!
               The sun shines!

               
 HI !

 

468 posted on 12/07/2004 7:33:29 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 465 | View Replies]

To: MoJo2001

469 posted on 12/07/2004 7:36:29 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 466 | View Replies]

To: Kathy in Alaska

I'm trying to diverse your life and you put me in the crib?

Puhlease! It will take more than that. LOL!


470 posted on 12/07/2004 7:38:18 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 469 | View Replies]

To: tomkow6
Good night, Angel Boy. NOW GO TO BED!!! Thanks for your support of our military and their families. And thank you for your service to America.


471 posted on 12/07/2004 7:38:33 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 449 | View Replies]

To: MoJo2001
Is Mr. Curtis wearing a white snorkel jacket in a snow storm or sumthin? Thanks MOJO!!!
472 posted on 12/07/2004 7:41:08 PM PST by Diva Betsy Ross (I am not NOT PC.. And Proud of it!: Merry Christmas! Happy Hanukkah!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 462 | View Replies]

To: MoJo2001
"Samoans tend to be really "remarkable" people"

Never said that; said Kamehameha was one.

As to your rough and tumble young son... Football! He'll do fine!

473 posted on 12/07/2004 7:43:00 PM PST by BIGLOOK (I once opposed keelhauling but have recently come to my senses.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 445 | View Replies]

To: MoJo2001
Image Hosted by ImageShack.us

474 posted on 12/07/2004 7:43:23 PM PST by Petes Sandy Girl (~*~ W 2 ... The Legacy! ~*~)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 362 | View Replies]

To: BIGLOOK

I was just being a smart aleck.

Hehe!


475 posted on 12/07/2004 7:43:57 PM PST by MoJo2001 (Operation Valentine's Day ---Begins January 1st - January 21st..www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 473 | View Replies]

To: HopeandGlory; BykrBayb
Good evening to the Mom's club. Sending love and stuff your way!!!


476 posted on 12/07/2004 7:47:29 PM PST by Diva Betsy Ross (I am not NOT PC.. And Proud of it!: Merry Christmas! Happy Hanukkah!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 462 | View Replies]

To: Petes Sandy Girl
HEY YOU! I was just thinkin about you the other day! Great to see you here!
477 posted on 12/07/2004 7:48:53 PM PST by Diva Betsy Ross (I am not NOT PC.. And Proud of it!: Merry Christmas! Happy Hanukkah!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 474 | View Replies]

To: Kathy in Alaska

11 pm Central time... (an hour and 10 minutes from now.)


478 posted on 12/07/2004 7:49:37 PM PST by StarCMC (It's God's job to forgive Bin Laden; it's our job to arrange the meeting.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 467 | View Replies]

To: Petes Sandy Girl

Welcome, Petes Sandy Girl, to the Canteen. Beautiful graphic!! Thanks.


479 posted on 12/07/2004 7:49:47 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 474 | View Replies]

To: StarCMC

Look at you Ms. Fancy pants!


480 posted on 12/07/2004 7:50:42 PM PST by Diva Betsy Ross (I am not NOT PC.. And Proud of it!: Merry Christmas! Happy Hanukkah!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 451 | View Replies]

To: Diva Betsy Ross

Thank you Miss Betsy . . . I'm hoping my son got to see V.P. Cheney and our Rummy, on this very Historic day in Afghanistan.


481 posted on 12/07/2004 7:50:56 PM PST by HopeandGlory (Hey, Liberals . . . PC died on 9/11 . . . GET USED TO IT!!!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 476 | View Replies]

To: HopeandGlory

Maybe more tomorrow. d:o)


482 posted on 12/07/2004 7:51:18 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 401 | View Replies]

To: Diva Betsy Ross

How do YOU know what my pants look like?? Are you a peeping Diva???


483 posted on 12/07/2004 7:52:21 PM PST by StarCMC (It's God's job to forgive Bin Laden; it's our job to arrange the meeting.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 480 | View Replies]

To: StarCMC; MoJo2001

SHHH! DOn't tell Mojo!


484 posted on 12/07/2004 7:54:09 PM PST by Diva Betsy Ross (I am not NOT PC.. And Proud of it!: Merry Christmas! Happy Hanukkah!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 483 | View Replies]

To: MoJo2001; BIGLOOK
DC Talk - Colored People

485 posted on 12/07/2004 7:54:20 PM PST by StarCMC (It's God's job to forgive Bin Laden; it's our job to arrange the meeting.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 483 | View Replies]

To: MoJo2001
No mo' wa'ha pilau, Tita!
486 posted on 12/07/2004 7:55:44 PM PST by BIGLOOK (I once opposed keelhauling but have recently come to my senses.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 475 | View Replies]

To: Kathy in Alaska

Tomorrow . . . tomorrow . . .I love you tomorrow you're only a day away . . . ;-)


487 posted on 12/07/2004 7:56:06 PM PST by HopeandGlory (Hey, Liberals . . . PC died on 9/11 . . . GET USED TO IT!!!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 482 | View Replies]

To: MoJo2001

You've been busy. Went out for a walk to see Christmas lights and come back to all this music.

A big thank you hug.


488 posted on 12/07/2004 7:56:09 PM PST by fritzz (Even if you are on the right track, you'll get run over if you just sit there." Will Rogers)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 371 | View Replies]

To: StarCMC; MoJo2001

Thanks, Star....I hope that means I have an hour to get home. At least SOMEONE helped out an old lady!


489 posted on 12/07/2004 7:56:31 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 478 | View Replies]

To: StarCMC; Kathy in Alaska; MoJo2001; Diva Betsy Ross; Lady Jag; All
I've enjoyed it...it's WAAAAAAAAAY past my bedtime... g'night, all!!


490 posted on 12/07/2004 7:56:32 PM PST by GummyIII (I feel like I'm diagonally parked in a parallel universe.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 483 | View Replies]

To: GummyIII

Goodnight Miss GummyIII


491 posted on 12/07/2004 7:57:37 PM PST by HopeandGlory (Hey, Liberals . . . PC died on 9/11 . . . GET USED TO IT!!!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 490 | View Replies]

To: Kathy in Alaska; tomkow6

Just remember that the next time Tom is harassing me, ok? He he he!!


492 posted on 12/07/2004 7:57:52 PM PST by StarCMC (It's God's job to forgive Bin Laden; it's our job to arrange the meeting.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 489 | View Replies]

To: MoJo2001
It's DRAYDL according to the CD.

I saw that, but the book says dreidel. So......

493 posted on 12/07/2004 8:00:10 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 460 | View Replies]

To: BIGLOOK; MoJo2001
No mo' wa'ha pilau, Tita!

This is a family forum. Take this dirty talk elsewhere, you two.

494 posted on 12/07/2004 8:00:45 PM PST by Bradís Gramma (Proud Patriots dot com! Check it out!!!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 486 | View Replies]

To: mylife

It was a tad cold that day, earlier this week.


495 posted on 12/07/2004 8:01:51 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 463 | View Replies]

To: Brad's Gramma

Sorry, Ma'am. But nothing said was offensive or ill toward any one.


496 posted on 12/07/2004 8:09:40 PM PST by BIGLOOK (I once opposed keelhauling but have recently come to my senses.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 494 | View Replies]

To: GummyIII
Good night and sleep well, Gummy.
Thanks for helping honor and entertain our troops.


497 posted on 12/07/2004 8:10:48 PM PST by Kathy in Alaska (Support Our Troops! Operation Valentine's Day www.proudpatriots.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 490 | View Replies]

To: GummyIII

Night gum!


498 posted on 12/07/2004 8:11:30 PM PST by Diva Betsy Ross (I am not NOT PC.. And Proud of it!: Merry Christmas! Happy Hanukkah!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 490 | View Replies]

To: Diva Betsy Ross

ME?


499 posted on 12/07/2004 8:11:44 PM PST by Diva Betsy Ross (I am not NOT PC.. And Proud of it!: Merry Christmas! Happy Hanukkah!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 498 | View Replies]

To: Diva Betsy Ross

ME?


500 posted on 12/07/2004 8:11:45 PM PST by Diva Betsy Ross (I am not NOT PC.. And Proud of it!: Merry Christmas! Happy Hanukkah!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 498 | View Replies]


Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first previous 1-50 ... 401-450451-500501-550551-562 next last

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson