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Major discovery on eve of obelisk’s return (Ethiopia)
The Art Newspaper ^ | Saturday, 2 July 2005 | Martin Bailey

Posted on 07/01/2005 11:39:44 PM PDT by nickcarraway

An important discovery has been made by Unesco archaeologists who were sent to Ethiopia to prepare for the arrival of an ancient obelisk finally returned by Italy after years of delay. At the ancient site of Axum, underground chambers and arcades were found near the original position of the obelisk, beneath an area converted into a parking lot in 1963. The Unesco team, headed by Neapolitan archaeologist Rodolfo Fattovich, found that the site had been a royal necropolis for several dynasties before the kingdom adopted Christianity in around 325 AD. Unesco director-general Koïchiro Matsuura announced that some of the tombs appeared to be intact. “Archaeological excavations would now be required to uncover possible vestiges of major historical interest”, he added. Axum, which dates from 100 BC, was inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 1980. The discovery, announced last month, was made in the central area of Axum, where the obelisk removed to Rome originally stood. It had been seized by Mussolini in 1937 and its return has been a long-running saga. The 25-metre-high obelisk was finally flown into Axum in three sections, between 19 and 25 April, and was greeted with major celebrations (above). The hope is that it will be re-erected by October.


TOPICS: Culture/Society; Extended News; Foreign Affairs; Miscellaneous
KEYWORDS: archaeology; england; ethiopia; ggg; godsgravesglyphs; history

1 posted on 07/01/2005 11:39:45 PM PDT by nickcarraway
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To: nickcarraway

bttt


2 posted on 07/01/2005 11:40:55 PM PDT by Lijahsbubbe (Ted Kennedy - isn't it time for you to diet?)
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To: SunkenCiv

le Ping


3 posted on 07/01/2005 11:45:04 PM PDT by dread78645 (Sorry Mr. Franklin, We couldn't keep it.)
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To: SunkenCiv

Real Old Stony Suff Ping.

4 posted on 07/01/2005 11:45:10 PM PDT by martin_fierro (< |:)~)
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Suff= Stuff


5 posted on 07/01/2005 11:45:35 PM PDT by martin_fierro (< |:)~)
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To: nickcarraway
The 25-metre-high obelisk was finally flown into Axum in three sections

Ha! The ancient space aliens were able to put it there in ONE piece!
6 posted on 07/01/2005 11:49:51 PM PDT by UnbelievingScumOnTheOtherSide (Give Them Liberty Or Give Them Death! - Islam Delenda Est! - Rumble thee forth...)
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To: nickcarraway
At the ancient site of Axum, underground chambers and arcades were found near the original position of the obelisk, beneath an area converted into a parking lot in 1963.

I'm amazed.

Who would have thought Ethiopia had the technology to build a parking lot.

7 posted on 07/01/2005 11:55:37 PM PDT by Gamecock ("Nice" people aren't beaten to a y pulp, nailed onto a cross and then left to suffocate.)
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To: Gamecock
"Who would have thought Ethiopia had the technology to build a parking lot."

Ethiopia, some troops fighting *with spears*, came within a hair's width of defeating Italy.

On October 3, 1935, Italy attacked Ethiopia from Eritrea and Italian Somaliland without a declaration of war. On October 7, the League of Nations unanimously declared Italy an aggressor but took no effective action.

In a war that lasted seven months, Ethiopia was outmatched by Italy in armaments--a situation exacerbated by the fact that a League of Nations arms embargo was not enforced against Italy. Despite a valiant defense, the next six months saw the Ethiopians pushed back on the northern front and in Harerge. Acting on long-standing grievances, a segment of the Tigray forces defected, as did Oromo forces in some areas. Moreover, the Italians made widespread use of chemical weapons and air power. On March 31, 1936, the Ethiopians counterattacked the main Italian force at Maychew but were defeated. By early April 1936, Italian forces had reached Dese in the north and Harer in the east. On May 2, Haile Selassie left for French Somaliland and exile--a move resented by some Ethiopians who were accustomed to a warrior emperor. The Italian forces entered Addis Ababa on May 5. Four days later, Italy announced the annexation of Ethiopia.

On June 30, Haile Selassie made a powerful speech before the League of Nations in Geneva in which he set forth two choices--support for collective security or international lawlessness. The emperor stirred the conscience of many and was thereafter regarded as a major international figure. Britain and France, however, soon recognized Italy's control of Ethiopia. Among the major powers, the United States and the Soviet Union refused to do so.

In early June 1936, Rome promulgated a constitution bringing Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Italian Somaliland together into a single administrative unit divided into six provinces. On June 11, 1936, Marshal Rodolfo Graziani replaced Marshal Pietro Badoglio, who had commanded the Italian forces in the war. In December the Italians declared the whole country to be pacified and under their effective control. Ethiopian resistance nevertheless continued.

After a failed assassination attempt against Graziani on February 19, 1937, the colonial authorities executed 30,000 persons, including about half of the younger, educated Ethiopian population. This harsh policy, however, did not pacify the country. In November 1937, Rome therefore appointed a new governor and instructed him to adopt a more flexible line. Accordingly, large-scale public works projects were undertaken. One result was the construction of the country's first system of improved roads. In the meantime, however, the Italians had decreed miscegenation to be illegal. Racial separation, including residential segregation, was enforced as thoroughly as possible. The Italians showed favoritism to non-Christian Oromo (some of whom had supported the invasion), Somali, and other Muslims in an attempt to isolate the Amhara, who supported Haile Selassie.

Ethiopian resistance continued, nonetheless. Early in 1938, a revolt broke out in Gojam led by the Committee of Unity and Collaboration, which was made up of some of the young, educated elite who had escaped the reprisal after the attempt on Graziani's life. In exile in Britain, the emperor sought to gain the support of the Western democracies for his cause but had little success until Italy entered World War II on the side of Germany in June 1940. Thereafter, Britain and the emperor sought to cooperate with Ethiopian and other indigenous forces in a campaign to dislodge the Italians from Ethiopia and from British Somaliland, which the Italians seized in August 1940, and to resist the Italian invasion of Sudan. Haile Selassie proceeded immediately to Khartoum, where he established closer liaison with both the British headquarters and the resistance forces within Ethiopia.

8 posted on 07/02/2005 12:04:18 AM PDT by Southack (Media Bias means that Castro won't be punished for Cuban war crimes against Black Angolans in Africa)
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To: martin_fierro

Bedamned. Next the Egyptians will want the one from the Place de la Concorde.

d.o.l.

Criminal Number 18F


9 posted on 07/02/2005 12:04:32 AM PDT by Criminal Number 18F (Support Them -- Praise Them -- Honor Them -- AVENGE Them)
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To: Gamecock
"At the ancient site of Axum, underground chambers and arcades were found near the original position of the obelisk, beneath an area converted into a parking lot in 1963."
I'm amazed.
Who would have thought Ethiopia had the technology to build a parking lot.

Heck...I'm kinda amazed they had an arcade back then. Maybe really really early PONG.

10 posted on 07/02/2005 12:27:48 AM PDT by Khurkris (Sunshine on my shoulder...sweat on my...uhh...brow..yeah...thats the ticket.)
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To: Gamecock; Southack
I'm amazed. Who would have thought Ethiopia had the technology to build a parking lot.

Ethiopia is one of only two African countries that were never colonized (and the other one, Liberia, shouldn't really count since it was formed by freed slaves returning from the US during the diaspora ...hence technically Ethiopia is literally the only African nation that was never colonized). Ethiopia literally destroyed the Italian armies at the battle of Aduwa in 1896, and Italy (under Mussolini this time) invaded but was kicked out in 1941. And note that before this (all the way back to the 16th century) the Ethipian monarchy (which claims direct links to the Solomon dynasty ...and anyways the Ethiopians had the same knack as the Israelis for smacking the collective ar$e$ of anyone who tried to invade them) used to give an @$$ whooping to anyone who came close.

Oh, and as for 'building parking lots' I guess you have never seen some of the enormous coptic churces hewn out of solid rock in mountain sides, plus the various forts and coptic chapels huh?

11 posted on 07/02/2005 12:31:48 AM PDT by spetznaz (Nuclear tipped ICBMs: The Ultimate Phallic Symbol.)
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To: spetznaz
Please allow me to clarify my post:

IT WAS A JOKE

12 posted on 07/02/2005 12:39:07 AM PDT by Gamecock ("Nice" people aren't beaten to a y pulp, nailed onto a cross and then left to suffocate.)
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To: Gamecock

Ethiopia is the home of an Ancient and respected civilization.

The Ethiopian Orthodox Church is one of the oldest Christian Churches and Ethiopia was one of the first countries to adopt Chrisitianity as its State Religion.

Before Ethiopia was Christian, there is evidence that it was a Jewish nation.

Ethiopia is also the home of some remarkable churches - carved right of the living rock in their entirety.

Many people, including this author, believes the original Ark of the Covenent is in the Ethiopian Church of St. Mary in Axum, having been spirited out of the Holy of Holies in the Temple of King Solomon in Jerusalem by Levite Priests, when evil King Manaesseh polluted it with pagan images and sacrifices.

According to the Kebra Nagast, the Queen of Sheba came from Ethiopia and her son Menelek was the son of King Solomon and the founder of the Dynasty of Kings who ruled Ethiopia until the Communists murdered the last Christian Monarch, Haile Selassie, God bless his soul.


13 posted on 07/02/2005 12:45:39 AM PDT by ZULU (Fear the government which fears your guns. God, guts, and guns made America great.)
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To: Southack

Thanks for that. Ethiopia is agreat nation and the Ethiopians are a great people.

Thank God that monster Mengistu is dead.

I read somewhere that one of the reasons the Copts survived in Egypt whne the Muslims took over was threats by the Christian Ethiopians to cut off the water from the Nile if the Muslims wiped them out.


14 posted on 07/02/2005 12:53:32 AM PDT by ZULU (Fear the government which fears your guns. God, guts, and guns made America great.)
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To: nickcarraway

Forgive me for asking but it sounds like this site of interest is in a large town or city, so what if the ethiopians don't want a glorified graverobbing expedition disrupting their lives. Sorry if is sound unrefined. I know learning from the past is important, but what will really be learned from an excavation besides the particular customs of the people that lived in this specific area?


15 posted on 07/02/2005 12:55:35 AM PDT by Better Dead Than Red (Davis College Republicans (Best Party on Campus))
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To: Better Dead Than Red

Whoever understands the past, controls the future.

This is probably to the Ethiopians what Gettysburg and Ticonderoga are to us.

As a Christian, I look forward to finding more information about the history of this, one of the first Christian nations on earth.


16 posted on 07/02/2005 1:00:02 AM PDT by ZULU (Fear the government which fears your guns. God, guts, and guns made America great.)
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To: Southack

Read in AM - Amazing history. Thanks. :-)


17 posted on 07/02/2005 1:11:10 AM PDT by Tunehead54 (In honor of our bravest in armed service to our nation.)
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To: ZULU

Perhaps I should explain a little better. I just want to know what the ethical guidelines are for archeologists. I know I wouldn't want people in the future digging up my grave it all they learn from it is what I wore at formal events. Not that I have to worry about it though as I plan to be cremated, you know, so I don't take up space.


18 posted on 07/02/2005 1:11:30 AM PDT by Better Dead Than Red (Davis College Republicans (Best Party on Campus))
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To: Better Dead Than Red

I think Archaeologists are guided by the laws of the nations in which they operate.

In Egypt provisions are made in the event people have to be relocated as a result of excavation. In other instances excavations are not conducted or are conducted beneath existing structures without damaging them.

I don't believe people are simply kicked out or privaye property simply confiscated without repayment today.

Its not the 1800's. Archaeology isn't Heinrich SChliemen digging trenches through mounds anymore. Its becmoe a quite sophisticated science employing very refined techniques.


19 posted on 07/02/2005 1:23:54 AM PDT by ZULU (Fear the government which fears your guns. God, guts, and guns made America great.)
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To: Khurkris
Maybe really really early PONG.

I think it was Donkey Kong.
20 posted on 07/02/2005 1:56:52 AM PDT by carumba
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To: nickcarraway

http://www.addisredsea.com/

Ethiopian restaraunt in Boston on Tremont. Interesting food, moderate to inexpensive. The ethnic beer is on the sweet side.


21 posted on 07/02/2005 3:57:04 AM PDT by Lessismore
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To: ZULU

from www.farhorizon.com/ Africa/ethiopia.htm

Eight hundred years ago King Lalibela created a marvelous gift to the world. Often called the Eighth Wonder of the World, Lalibela contains towering churches that were carved from the soft, volcanic tuff in which they stand. Some lie almost completely hidden in deep trenches, and others stand in open quarried caves. A complex and bewildering labyrinth of tunnels and narrow passageways with crypts, grottoes, and galleries connects them all. Within this mystical world, priests go about their daily tasks, seemingly oblivious of the outside world. Standing 38 feet tall with seventy-two pillars, Medhane Alem is not only the largest in Lalibela, it is the largest monolithic rock-hewn church in the world. The oldest of the churches, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, Bet Maryam is the only Lalibela monolith with a porch. The remains of exquisite early frescoes can be seen on the ceiling and upper walls, and there are many elaborately carved details on the piers, capitals, and arches.

Hey! A monolith with a porch!!!,..now that's a motivating incentive to carve out all that rock!

22 posted on 07/02/2005 4:09:03 AM PDT by Cvengr (<;^))
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To: nickcarraway

re-erected.

There is a joke somewhere.


23 posted on 07/02/2005 8:03:14 AM PDT by TASMANIANRED (Democrats haven't had a new idea since Karl Marx.)
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To: dread78645; martin_fierro; nickcarraway; blam; FairOpinion; Ernest_at_the_Beach; ...
Thanks dread78645 and martin_fierro for the pings, and nick for the topic.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on, off, or alter the "Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list --
Archaeology/Anthropology/Ancient Cultures/Artifacts/Antiquities, etc.
The GGG Digest
-- Gods, Graves, Glyphs (alpha order)

24 posted on 07/02/2005 8:55:05 AM PDT by SunkenCiv ('Power corrupts and PowerPoint corrupts absolutely.' -- Vint Cerf)
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To: spetznaz
Not a very accurate description of Ethiopian military success.

They defeated the Italians at Aduwa simply because they outnumbered them by a huge amount. Also the Ethiopians were well armed including the new Maxim machine guns.

The Italians did defeat them rather easily in the late 30's, contrary to a previous post on this thread.

25 posted on 07/02/2005 9:01:47 AM PDT by yarddog
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To: SunkenCiv

very interesting.


26 posted on 07/02/2005 10:27:06 AM PDT by ken21 (it takes a village to steal your child + to steal your property! /s)
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To: martin_fierro

Do you have a phallic symbol ping list?


27 posted on 07/02/2005 10:28:55 AM PDT by woofie (An invisible man marries an invisible woman. The kids were nothing to look at)
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To: Cvengr

That's new to me. Amazing, those pics absolutely make my mind wander.


28 posted on 07/02/2005 11:02:52 AM PDT by Pagey (Whether Hillary Clintons' attacks on America are a success or a failure depends upon YOU TOO!)
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To: nickcarraway

Hey, maybe they'll find the Ark of the Covenant!

http://www.jcsm.org/MISC/ArkofCovenant.htm


29 posted on 07/02/2005 11:11:10 AM PDT by poindexters brother
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To: Cvengr

extraordinary ... amazing ... beautiful ... otherworldly ...


30 posted on 07/02/2005 11:30:02 AM PDT by Countyline
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To: yarddog
They defeated the Italians at Aduwa simply because they outnumbered them by a huge amount. Also the Ethiopians were well armed including the new Maxim machine guns. The Italians did defeat them rather easily in the late 30's, contrary to a previous post on this thread.

The fact still remains that they were never colonized. And the 'easy victory' the Italians had over the Ethiopians in the late 30s (Oct 1935) was because the Italians used bombers, plus liberal use of mustard gas chemical attacks, coupled with attacks on civilian villages. Oh, and even with the military advantages that the Italians had over Ethiopia in 1935, plus the targets they were picking on, this 'easy victory' still took 7 months. And even after that point there were many uprisings, one which led to the Italians killing 30,000 people who were seen as 'threats' (mostly the educated people). Italy managed to get their footing established with ease in Eritrea as well as Italian Somaliland (and they settled heavily in Eritrea), but Ethiopia was always a problem. The Ethiopian resistance, with British help, had the Italians out by 1941. I believe it was 1943 (or thereabouts) that King Vittorio Emanuele III had Mussolini's power negated , and Italy was out of WW2 by 1943.

As for the battle of Adawa in the late 1800s, that battle had a number of interesting ramifications. One of the more interesting ones was the effect on Japan:

In Japan, Ethiopia became appreciated as the first non-Caucasian power to defeat Europeans, an achievement the Japanese were to duplicate in warfare against Russia in 1904. This appreciation led to a sense of affinity that bore fruit for decades thereafter. Ethiopian intellectuals looked to Japan as a model for modernizing their ancient monarchy; the Meiji Constitution served as a model for the Ethiopian Constitution of 1931. When Italy invaded Ethiopia again in the mid-thirties, many Japanese citizens (if not the regime formally) expressed solidarity with Ethiopians, sending shipments of many thousands of swords to help Ethiopians in their plight.

31 posted on 07/02/2005 11:48:21 AM PDT by spetznaz (Nuclear tipped ICBMs: The Ultimate Phallic Symbol.)
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To: UnbelievingScumOnTheOtherSide
Ha! The ancient space aliens were able to put it there in ONE piece!

LOL. No more Art Bell for you!

32 posted on 07/02/2005 11:51:48 AM PDT by radiohead (Proud member of the 'arrogant supermagt')
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33 posted on 04/21/2006 7:44:10 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Southack
Haile Selassie made a powerful speech before the League of Nations in Geneva in which he set forth two choices--support for collective security or international lawlessness. The emperor stirred the conscience of many and was thereafter regarded as a major international figure.

Haili Selassi became the leader of Ethiopia after the Italiens were tossed out. His new title Emperor Haili Selassi.
Ethiopia had a pavilion at the 1967 World's Fair in Montreal. Happened to be visiting the World's Fair site the day Emperor Haili Selassi visited their pavilion ... he had a large entourage with him, probably much of it security. The Emperor was small in stature, not much over 5 feet tall. He was impeccably dressed in uniform with the medals and shoulder roping. I can state with some degree of confidence that I'm probably the only individual in all of FReeperland that ever saw Emperor Selassi in person.
I've lived in the U.S. forty plus years and have yet to see a President, other than on TV, in magazines, or in the paper.

34 posted on 04/21/2006 8:07:32 AM PDT by BluH2o
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35 posted on 06/11/2008 9:56:26 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/_________________________Profile updated Friday, May 30, 2008)
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