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First measurements of Earth's core radioactivity
New Scientist ^ | 7/27/05 | Celeste Biever

Posted on 07/27/2005 11:13:59 AM PDT by LibWhacker

EARTH'S natural radioactivity has been measured for the first time. The measurement will help geologists find out to what extent nuclear decay is responsible for the immense quantity of heat generated by Earth.

Our planet's heat output drives the convection currents that churn liquid iron in the outer core, giving rise to Earth's magnetic field. Just where this heat comes from is a big question. Measurements of the temperature gradients across rocks in mines and boreholes have led geologists to estimate that the planet is internally generating between 30 and 44 terawatts of heat.

Some of this heat comes from the decay of radioactive elements. Based on studies of primitive meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites, geologists have estimated Earth's uranium and thorium content and calculated that about 19 terawatts can be attributed to radioactivity. But until now there has been nothing definitive about exactly how much uranium there is in the planet, says geologist Bill McDonough of the University of Maryland in College Park. "There are fundamental uncertainties."

There is one way to lessen this uncertainty, and that is to look for antineutrinos. These particles are the antimatter equivalent of the uncharged, almost massless particles called neutrinos and are released when uranium and thorium decay to form lead. If antineutrinos are being created deep within the planet they should be detectable, because they can pass through almost all matter.

Now, the KamLAND antineutrino detector in Kamioka, Japan, has counted such antineutrinos. An international team of scientists analysed the data and found about 16.2 million antineutrinos per square centimetre per second streaming out from Earth's core. They calculate that the nuclear reactions creating these particles could be generating as much as 60 terawatts, but are most likely putting out about 24 terawatts (Nature, vol 436, p 499). "We have made the first measurements of the radioactivity of the whole of Earth," says John Learned, who heads the KamLAND group at the University of Hawaii in Manoa. The KamLAND group's finding is like unwrapping a birthday present, says McDonough.

With time, as more antineutrinos are detected, KamLAND may be able to determine once and for all whether radioactivity is entirely responsible for heating Earth or whether other sources, such as the crystallisation of liquid iron and nickel in the outer core, also play a significant role. "[Detecting anti-neutrinos] is the way of the future in terms of hard numbers about the system," says McDonough.

Antineutrinos could also reveal the radioactive composition of the crust and mantle, which will give geologists clues as to when and how they formed. But to do that, they will have to be able to pin down exactly where the antineutrinos are coming from, and this will require a whole network of detectors. "We are heading towards doing neutrino tomography of the whole Earth," says Learned. "This is just the first step."


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: antimatter; antineutrino; boreholes; catastrophism; chondrite; composition; core; crust; crystallisation; decay; detector; earth; field; geologists; geology; gradients; heat; iron; jmarvinherndon; kamland; liquid; magnetic; mantle; mines; neutrino; neutrinodetector; neutrinos; nickel; nuclear; output; radioactivity; rock; temperature; terawatts; thorium; tomography; uranium

1 posted on 07/27/2005 11:14:03 AM PDT by LibWhacker
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To: LibWhacker

How did they do that? The deepest well we ever drilled in the history of the world does not even gd deep enough to get 10% close to the center.


2 posted on 07/27/2005 11:15:41 AM PDT by edcoil (Reality doesn't say much - doesn't need too)
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To: LibWhacker
about 19 terawatts can be attributed to radioactivity.

Now the anti-nuke extremists will be forced to boycott the entire planet.

Hmmm.

Not such a bad idea, after all...

3 posted on 07/27/2005 11:19:00 AM PDT by Izzy Dunne (Hello, I'm a TAGLINE virus. Please help me spread by copying me into YOUR tag line.)
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To: edcoil

The article makes it clear that there is no need to dig down near the core. The antineutrinos pass through everything.


4 posted on 07/27/2005 11:19:55 AM PDT by Montfort (Many liberals hate Bush more than they love life.)
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To: edcoil

Neutrinos aren't much interested in 10% or 90% or 100% solid lead. If physics, especially particle physics were easy to do it then everyone would and you could be a pundit.


5 posted on 07/27/2005 11:22:22 AM PDT by dhuffman@awod.com (The conspiracy of ignorance masquerades as common sense.)
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To: LibWhacker
currents that churn liquid iron in the outer core, giving rise to Earth's magnetic field

That is only a surmise. Maybe a hypothesis. Not at all certain. Probably not at all close to reality.

6 posted on 07/27/2005 11:23:32 AM PDT by RightWhale (Substance is essentially the relationship of accidents to itself)
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To: RightWhale

Well, I was ready to believe it!


7 posted on 07/27/2005 11:27:02 AM PDT by mlc9852
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To: mlc9852

Somebody asked a famous physicist maybe 100 years ago what caused the earth's mag field, and he said the iron core could be doing it, and that was that. Nobody has questioned it since, except right here.


8 posted on 07/27/2005 11:31:17 AM PDT by RightWhale (Substance is essentially the relationship of accidents to itself)
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Comment #9 Removed by Moderator

To: LibWhacker
The earth is radioactive?

WE'RE ALL GONNA DIE!!!

10 posted on 07/27/2005 11:33:43 AM PDT by willgolfforfood
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To: dhuffman@awod.com

The neutrino and its friends

Neutrinos are one of the fundamental particles which make up the universe. They are also one of the least understood.

Neutrinos are similar to the more familiar electron, with one crucial difference: neutrinos do not carry electric charge. Because neutrinos are electrically neutral, they are not affected by the electromagnetic forces which act on electrons.

Neutrinos are affected only by a "weak" sub-atomic force of much shorter range than electromagnetism, and are therefore able to pass through great distances in matter without being affected by it. If neutrinos have mass, they also interact gravitationally with other massive particles, but gravity is by far the weakest of the four known forces.

Three types of neutrinos are known; there is strong evidence that no additional neutrinos exist, unless their properties are unexpectedly very different from the known types. Each type or "flavor" of neutrino is related to a charged particle (which gives the corresponding neutrino its name).

Hence, the "electron neutrino" is associated with the electron, and two other neutrinos are associated with heavier versions of the electron called the muon and the tau (elementary particles are frequently labelled with Greek letters, to confuse the layman).


11 posted on 07/27/2005 11:36:26 AM PDT by edcoil (Reality doesn't say much - doesn't need too)
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To: LibWhacker
Just think about all the platinoids in iron core. More than enough to pay off the national debt and go to sound species money.
12 posted on 07/27/2005 11:36:54 AM PDT by GSlob
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To: SycoDon

"No waste, no fuel, just free heat."

What do you mean by free heat? Nothing is Free. We get our water from "free rain" do you get water at your house for free.


13 posted on 07/27/2005 11:37:55 AM PDT by edcoil (Reality doesn't say much - doesn't need too)
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To: SycoDon
As a practical matter, how would the heat at extreme depth be used to generate power? If it is hot enough to compete with natural gas turbines or nuclear plants, it would be hot enough to do serious damage to equipment, and maintenance to equipment at that depth would not be cheap.

There are also questions of heat production. Heat would be drawn off and the natural processes of replacing that heat would be slow, possibly too slow for economic operation.

14 posted on 07/27/2005 11:38:25 AM PDT by RightWhale (Substance is essentially the relationship of accidents to itself)
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To: SycoDon

Geothermal's been around for awhile now. The heat's free, but converting it to electricity turns out not to be. It's the old "the more efficient the system, the higher the cost" thing that only new technology can really address. When the conversion and transmission technologies improve there's no real reason geothermal can't be quite competitive with surface sources - at the moment it's only competitive in areas where you don't have to go too deep for the heat.


15 posted on 07/27/2005 11:45:40 AM PDT by Billthedrill
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To: edcoil

Your ability to cut and paste or forward e-mail is no indication of much of any thing. Yawn. See my tagline.


16 posted on 07/27/2005 11:51:25 AM PDT by dhuffman@awod.com (The conspiracy of ignorance masquerades as common sense.)
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To: Izzy Dunne

LOL!


17 posted on 07/27/2005 11:54:35 AM PDT by <1/1,000,000th%
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To: dhuffman@awod.com

Watch your ego, it makes you appear the idiot.


18 posted on 07/27/2005 11:59:07 AM PDT by edcoil (Reality doesn't say much - doesn't need too)
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To: GSlob

Free silver!


19 posted on 07/27/2005 12:31:19 PM PDT by RightWhale (Substance is essentially the relationship of accidents to itself)
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To: LibWhacker

So, miners actually help in cooling the Earth? Why are the environmentalists against miners and oil drilling? Aren't they supposed to be against global warming? ;)


20 posted on 07/27/2005 12:35:32 PM PDT by Frohickey
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To: LibWhacker
I'd like to see the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory repeat this observation, if it can. There are systematic biases in the KamLAND design that aren't present in the SNO design, although I don't know to what extent they'd affect this particular measurement.
21 posted on 07/27/2005 12:37:29 PM PDT by Physicist
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To: RightWhale

Free Beer!


22 posted on 07/27/2005 12:40:39 PM PDT by Willie Green (Some people march to a different drummer - and some people polka)
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To: LibWhacker

hasn't anyone read verne? everyone knows that in the middle of the earth there's a huge ocean and in the middle there's an island and that's where the dinosaurs still live.
in related news, the reason that atlantis sunk was because they were experimenting with drilling to the earth's core.


23 posted on 07/27/2005 12:48:59 PM PDT by absolootezer0 ("My God, why have you forsaken us.. no wait, its the liberals that have forsaken you... my bad")
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To: RightWhale
What silver? The planet core contains something like 100+ metric tons of platinum for every contemporary planet inhabitant. At present-day prices it would make EVERYONE into a billionaire. (What a horror! Imagine the squalor and corruption it would cause in the third world!)
24 posted on 07/27/2005 1:20:41 PM PDT by GSlob
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To: GSlob

Forget bimetallism. We're going for trimetallism. Think the Fed would ever put their stamp on platinum?


25 posted on 07/27/2005 1:22:21 PM PDT by RightWhale (Substance is essentially the relationship of accidents to itself)
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To: SycoDon

For more on how deep we've dug, Google "Mohole Project"

The rest is addressed pretty well elsewhere here, although the development of the necessary technologies isn't. There are active efforts to solve parts of the technical challenges, but there are limits in the utility of sharing information about them... and as many elements of the technical drivers have "other" applications, you're unlikely to find out much that is useful (or meaningful) without getting a PhD in Physics and an appointment to a government lab.

Still, I expect that "most" of the solution to the technical problems will be made available somewhere around the year 2008 to 2012... in a form that enables functional products to be produced and marketed.


26 posted on 07/27/2005 1:23:10 PM PDT by Sense
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To: RightWhale

Why not? There already are platinum Maple Leaves from Canada and also Australian coins - Koalas or Kangaroos, I forgot which.


27 posted on 07/27/2005 1:25:31 PM PDT by GSlob
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To: SycoDon
Such a energy facility would probably come in the form of a borehole. Here's an example of a borehole:


28 posted on 07/27/2005 1:45:52 PM PDT by thoughtomator (frotho ergo sum)
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To: GSlob
The planet core contains something like 100+ metric tons of platinum for every contemporary planet inhabitant.

Geeze-Louise! That would mean I could finally have a set of platinum cookware!

No more worry about polluting my precious bodily fluids due to aluminium or iron compounds being leached from cooking acidic foods; nor would I need 'dangerous' Teflon coatings!

An added plus: I KNOW my stove doesn't get hot enough to melt or burn the bottom out of an unattended platinum pan.

29 posted on 07/27/2005 1:57:56 PM PDT by ApplegateRanch (The world needs more work horses, and fewer Jackasses!)
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To: ApplegateRanch

Yep, but such cookware will be VERY heavy. Good for family fights, though. Imagine hitting somebody with 10+ pounds platinum frying pan.


30 posted on 07/27/2005 2:04:08 PM PDT by GSlob
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To: GSlob

Well, many recipes do call for "a heavy pan".

Also, just think how much harder it would be for 'The Little Woman' to hurl a 3 qt sauce pot across the room.LOL

And another advantage is that it would make assaying and certain other 'kitchen chemistry' experiments less messy.


31 posted on 07/27/2005 2:16:41 PM PDT by ApplegateRanch (The world needs more work horses, and fewer Jackasses!)
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To: LibWhacker
Fermilab director Robert R Wilson suggested something like this years ago. He suggested that we could use an artifical source of neutrinos to detect oil and coal deposits within the earth.

Although it might be cost-prohibitive, I wonder if we could also use this technique as a means of exploring the interiors of other planets and moons in the solar system.

32 posted on 07/27/2005 6:12:54 PM PDT by RightWingAtheist (Creationism is not conservative!)
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To: LibWhacker

Scientific maverick's theory on Earth's core up for a test
SF Chronicle | Monday, November 29, 2004 | Keay Davidson
Posted on 12/05/2004 11:17:28 AM PST by SunkenCiv
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/1294934/posts


33 posted on 08/26/2005 11:54:11 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Down with Dhimmicrats! I last updated by FR profile on Sunday, August 14, 2005.)
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To: SunkenCiv; libwacker; Fred Nerks

Place marker here....


34 posted on 05/23/2009 3:05:28 PM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach (Support Geert Wilders)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
Sounds promising:

"...Deep geothermal, or “hot rocks”, exploits granite deep in the earth's crust that is heated naturally over millions of years by radiogenic decay from the elements within it. Geodynamics has proven that it can pump water down a 4km well to 300C rocks that heat it and then recover the resultant steam from a second well nearby. By the end of the year, it plans to have a pilot electricity plant in place. It will then look to provide base-load power to the grid by 2012, with a 50 megawatt plant. Its output should eventually reach 10,000 megawatts - the equivalent of 10 to 15 coal-fired power stations..."

Australia looks for power from hot rocks

35 posted on 05/23/2009 5:01:03 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (fair dinkum!)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach; 75thOVI; aimhigh; Alice in Wonderland; AndrewC; aragorn; aristotleman; ...
Thanks Ernest!
J. Marvin Herndon site:freerepublic.com
Google
 
Catastrophism
· join · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post new topic ·

36 posted on 05/24/2009 8:21:10 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/____________________ Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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