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Scientists untangle Inca number-strings (Kept Track of Tax Payments)
news@nature.com ^ | 11 August 2005 | Andreas von Bubnoff

Posted on 08/14/2005 10:47:40 PM PDT by nickcarraway

Knotted threads carry signs of ancient accountancy.

Scientists have picked apart some 500-year-old calculations from the Inca empire.

The team deciphered the maths from a series of 'khipus': elaborate structures of coloured, knotted strings. Researchers have long known that the Inca, who lived along the west coast of South America from AD 1400-1532, used such cords to record numbers. But this is the first mathematical relationship found between khipu. And that may help to work out what kind of information they stored.

Khipus encode numbers as knots in strings hanging from a cord. The closer a knot is to the cord, the higher its value, just as the number 1 can denote 1, 10, or 100 depending on its position.

Numerical value also depends on a knot's shape. Single overhand knots encode tens, hundreds or thousands. Single knots represent ones, and long knots with between 2 and 9 turns encode the numbers 2 to 9.

"The challenging thing is that, while we can read these numerical values that are knotted onto the strings, we don't know what they refer to," says Gary Urton, an anthropologist from Harvard University and lead author of the study, published this week in Science1.

Modern maths

Urton and his colleague Carrie Brezine used twenty-first century computer power to seek numerical relationships between different clumps of string.

They analysed a group of 21 khipus found all together in 1956, near an Inca palace at the archaeological site of Paruchuco, in the Peruvian capital Lima. These are the only khipus found so close to each other, Urton says, making it more likely that at least some of them served similar purposes.

Sure enough, seven of the khipu were numerically related. The summed values of all strings of the same colour of one khipu, for example, matched the sums on the corresponding strings of another khipu. The sums of that khipu, in turn, could be found on the corresponding strings of a third khipu.

The numbers didn't add up perfectly, but Urton thinks this may be because the Inca rounded numbers up or down, or took averages of their results.

Death or taxes?

Urton speculates that these sums might record tax payments. Incans paid their taxes by working a certain number of days per year on state projects. The knotted strings could represent such days, and the sums could represent totals for all work in a certain area, Urton says.

Bill Conklin, a textile archaeologist at the Textile Museum in Washington DC says the study is "terrific, careful and great". But he thinks the numbers are probably records of animal sacrifices. "Sacrifices were very important to the Incas," he says. "If they didn't make the proper sacrifices, it wouldn't rain."

"That could be," says Urton, adding that only further studies will solve the matter. The team has created a database of the numbers, colours and other features of 290 khipus - about half of the 600 found so far. They hope to mine this in search of further patterns.

References Urton G. & Brezine C. J. Science, 309. 1065 - 1067 (2005). | Article |

TOPICS: Culture/Society; Extended News; Foreign Affairs; Miscellaneous; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: godsgravesglyphs; history; inca; khipu; math; peru; quipu

A khipu records numbers through knots in the strings. Both the position and type of the knot sets its value.

1 posted on 08/14/2005 10:47:40 PM PDT by nickcarraway

To: SunkenCiv; blam; Fiddlstix; FairOpinion
Ping

If they had taxes, I am awaiting the discovery of texts by the Incan Walter Williams, explaining why they should do away with taxes.

2 posted on 08/14/2005 10:49:43 PM PDT by nickcarraway (I'm Only Alive, Because a Judge Hasn't Ruled I Should Die...)

To: nickcarraway

Tax records fashioned like a scourge...how fitting.

3 posted on 08/14/2005 10:51:46 PM PDT by Army Air Corps (Four fried chickens and a coke)

To: nickcarraway

So if they "slipped a knot" is that evidence of early tax cheats?

4 posted on 08/14/2005 10:53:30 PM PDT by benjaminjjones

To: Army Air Corps

If they didn't pay they could whip 'em with it.

5 posted on 08/14/2005 10:57:14 PM PDT by Jeff Chandler (Peace Begins in the Womb)

To: Jeff Chandler

That is what I call a penalty!

6 posted on 08/14/2005 10:58:12 PM PDT by Army Air Corps (Four fried chickens and a coke)

To: Army Air Corps
That is what I call a penalty!

With interest!

7 posted on 08/14/2005 10:59:47 PM PDT by Jeff Chandler (Peace Begins in the Womb)

To: Jeff Chandler

Although, there may have been some early S&M types who deliberatly withheld their taxes...

8 posted on 08/14/2005 11:00:57 PM PDT by Army Air Corps (Four fried chickens and a coke)

To: Army Air Corps
early S&M types

What would be the Inca equivalent of "Junior Senator from Massachusetts"?

9 posted on 08/14/2005 11:02:43 PM PDT by Jeff Chandler (Peace Begins in the Womb)

To: Jeff Chandler

That is gut-bustingly hillarious!

10 posted on 08/14/2005 11:05:04 PM PDT by Army Air Corps (Four fried chickens and a coke)

To: Army Air Corps

Bawney is an easy target.

11 posted on 08/14/2005 11:05:47 PM PDT by Jeff Chandler (Peace Begins in the Womb)

To: nickcarraway
Or, they could be tallies kept by Temple Prostitutes priestesses, to keep track of how many furrows any particular farmer would have fertilized by the gods.

From that, taxes owed cold be calculated

12 posted on 08/14/2005 11:49:48 PM PDT by ApplegateRanch (The Marching Morons are coming...and they're breeding more Democrats beyond all reason!)

To: nickcarraway

Looks like a flat tax to me.

13 posted on 08/15/2005 4:28:08 AM PDT by rod1

To: nickcarraway

And I thought Red Tape was bad.

14 posted on 08/15/2005 6:14:15 AM PDT by Jabba the Nutt (Jabba the Hutt's bigger, meaner, uglier brother.)

To: nickcarraway
"The challenging thing is that, while we can read these numerical values that are knotted onto the strings, we don't know what they refer to,"

My guess is that they refer to what States have the best welfare benefits
15 posted on 08/15/2005 6:42:23 AM PDT by grjr21

To: nickcarraway
Thanks Nick. Not gonna ping it, we've had a couple of similar topics. I'd not be surprised if Inca accounting existed for taxes of some kind.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list. Thanks.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on, off, or alter the "Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list --
Archaeology/Anthropology/Ancient Cultures/Artifacts/Antiquities, etc.
The GGG Digest
-- Gods, Graves, Glyphs (alpha order)

16 posted on 08/15/2005 3:54:41 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Down with Dhimmicrats! I last updated by FR profile on Sunday, August 14, 2005.)

To: SunkenCiv
It is believed that the beginnings of Hieroglyphic writing in Egypt began as a means to record tribute sent by the conquered tribes.

We may just own literacy to the tax man. How depressing.

17 posted on 08/15/2005 4:00:29 PM PDT by Harmless Teddy Bear (When I walk into Sanctuary the band plays "Sweet Home Alabama")

To: nickcarraway

I guess that explains their extinction.

18 posted on 08/15/2005 4:05:07 PM PDT by Old Professer (As darkness is the absence of light, evil is the absence of good; innocence is blind.)

To: Harmless Teddy Bear

And we owe geometry to the need to redraw property lines after floods receded, and to figure out land area in order to properly tax agricultural production (that is, to tax the farmer). Here's the three FR topics previously added:

Did ancient Inca communicate through knots?
Associated Press | August 11, 2005 | August 11, 2005
Posted on 08/11/2005 1:18:17 PM PDT by wallcrawlr
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/1461523/posts

Professor Works To Unravel Mysteries Of Khipu: Colored,
Knotted Strings Used By The Ancient Incas
Science Daily | 1-5-2004 | University At Buffalo
Posted on 01/05/2004 9:13:02 AM PST by blam
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1051888/posts

The Monolith of Pokotia
(Sumerian Language etched on Ancient Mesopotamian Items)!
Bernardo Biadós Yacovazzo & Freddy Arce
FR Post 10-19-2002 | Bernardo Biadós Yacovazzo & Freddy Arce
Posted on 10/19/2002 10:28:48 AM PDT by vannrox
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/772170/posts

19 posted on 08/15/2005 4:12:29 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Down with Dhimmicrats! I last updated by FR profile on Sunday, August 14, 2005.)

whoops, three more:

Inca May Have Used Knot Computer Code To Bind Empire
Independent (UK) | 6-23-2003 | Steve Conner
Posted on 06/22/2003 8:08:43 PM PDT by blam
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/933834/posts

Incan Counting System Decoded?
Discovery News | 1-30-2004 | Rossella Lorenzi
Posted on 01/30/2004 8:10:33 AM PST by blam
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1068345/posts

Incan Counting System Decoded?
Discovery News | Feb 3 2004 | By Rossella Lorenzi
Posted on 02/03/2004 6:04:59 AM PST by vannrox
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1070601/posts

20 posted on 08/15/2005 4:15:23 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Down with Dhimmicrats! I last updated by FR profile on Sunday, August 14, 2005.)

 · GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach ·· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic · subscribe · Antiquity Journal & archive Archaeologica Archaeology Archaeology Channel BAR Bronze Age Forum Discovery Dogpile Eurekalert Google LiveScience Mirabilis.ca Nat Geographic PhysOrg Science Daily Science News Texas AM Yahoo  Excerpt, or Link only? Just updating the GGG info, not sending a general distribution. To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list. · History topic · history keyword · archaeology keyword · paleontology keyword ·· Science topic · science keyword · Books/Literature topic · pages keyword ·

21 posted on 07/16/2011 7:54:42 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Yes, as a matter of fact, it is that time again -- https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)

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