Skip to comments.Y Chromosomes Reveal Founding Father (Giocangga)
Posted on 10/25/2005 11:02:09 AM PDT by blam
Published online: 24 October 2005
Y chromosomes reveal founding father
Did conquest and concubines spread one man's genes across Asia?
The Manchu warriors took control of China in 1644.
About 1.5 million men in northern China and Mongolia may be descended from a single man, according to a study based on Y chromosome genetics1.
Historical records suggest that this man may be Giocangga, who lived in the mid-1500s and whose grandson founded the Qing dynasty, which ruled China from 1644 to 1912.
The analysis is similar to a controversial study in 2003, which suggested that approximately 16 million men alive today are descended from the Mongolian conqueror Genghis Khan2.
The male descendants of Giocangga, like Khan's sons and grandsons, ruled over vast swathes of land, living a lavish existence with many wives and concubines. The study published in this month's American Journal of Human Genetics suggests it was a good strategy for reproductive success.
"This kind of male reproductive advantage is perhaps a more important feature of human genetics than we thought," says Chris Tyler-Smith, at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Hinxton, UK, who led both studies.
Documenting the immense fecundity of these conquerors involves overlaying historical records and genetic analyses. Most informative is the small Y chromosome, holed up in the cells of every man, and relatively resistant to change.
Other chromosomes furiously exchange genetic information with each other. But during mating, the Y pairs up with the X, a giant chromosome by comparison and a poor fit for gene swapping. This means that the Y chromosome passes along steadily from father to son through the generations, providing a relatively fixed marker for clues about ancestry.
In the recent analysis, Tyler-Smith and his colleagues in Britain and China examined the Y chromosome of about 1,000 men in eastern Asia. The researchers compared the DNA sequences at numerous locations along the Y chromosome, finding close similarities among 3.3% of the men. That genetic similarity suggests that these men shared a common male ancestor who lived about 600 years ago, give or take a few centuries.
To identify who spawned this prolific Y chromosome, Tyler-Smith and his colleagues turned to their history books. They found Giocangga, whose grandson led the Manchu conquest of China in 1644 and established the Qing dynasty.
A large class of noblemen, descended by law from Giocangga, then ruled the state until 1912. Even a low-rank noble had many concubines, and was presumably expert at spreading Giocangga's chromosome around.
Further supporting Tyler-Smith's theory, the Manchu in the army mixed with only certain ethnic groups, and today these groups have the highest frequency of Giocangga's Y chromosome.
Only Genghis Khan's Y chromosome approaches the prevalence of Giocangga's, popping up in about 2.5% of the men, says Tyler-Smith.
Getting a precise date for the origin of the chromosome is difficult, say geneticists, and pinning it to a historical figure is even less exact.
"But all geneticists know we are living fossils," says Steve Jones of University College London, who adds that the Giocangga hypothesis is "not unreasonable". Martin Richards, a human geneticist at the University of Leeds, UK, says that Tyler-Smith's analysis showing a common origin for the Y chromosome is among the most thorough he has seen.
However, others dispute the findings. The date for the origin of the Y chromosome is much too wobbly to pin on Giocangga, says Stanford's Luca Cavalli-Sforza. He also disputes the study on Genghis Khan and says both findings are overly sensational.
The investigators could help their case by examining the Y chromosome of known descendents of Giocangga. But that might be easier said than done.
Although the noble class had 80,000 members by 1912, the Chinese cultural revolution of the 60s and 70s caused people to hide their noble descent for fear of persecution, and many records were destroyed. Several men today who are known to trace their ancestry back to Giocangga would not yield their DNA, the scientists say.
If this study and the work on Khan are right, they suggest that winning Y chromosomes thrive on hierarchy, patriarchy and conquest. "They tell us that those who regard history as the record of human frailty, weakness and disaster are right," says Jones.
On another thread somebody is looking for some kind of information coded into the DNA by space aliens. This must be world DNA day.
It's good to be the King
Captain Obvious Strikes Again!
Such penetrating insight.
I saw that. I didn't bother to comment though.
Well, I see my calling. The benchmark is set, all there is to do is go forth and multiply.
"Most informative is the small Y chromosome, holed up in the cells of every man, and relatively resistant to change."
Not true. The Y chromosome has the highest mutation frequency of any chromosome.
Its thymidine, not thyamine (that is a vitamin)
Yeah, I know how that feels :)
Hey, no wonder they all look the same!
JUST KIDDING !!
The start of a very new, very wrong, family tree.
LOL! My original link to the King prompted a new thread by someone: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/1508997/posts
"Its thymidine, not thyamine (that is a vitamin)"
Actually, it's thymine. They're related thus says the Columbia Encyclopedia "Combined with the sugar deoxyribose in a glycosidic linkage, thymine forms a derivative called thymidine (a nucleoside)..."
True - I assumed his spelling was a bit generous regarding "thyamine" to be "thymine". But, as you correctly point out, Thymidine (that is the right spelling) is a derivative of Thymine.
No big deal; I was just funnin' ya.
"living fossil"....My 92 YO mother-in-law wears "that" RIBBON, a gift from my daughter.....LOL....
No, and that is appropriate as a management choice. However, Bacon recommended boning up somewhat on these fringe areas of knowledge as part of a full, well-rounded education. That would not imply that any degree of belief is necessary, but some familiarity is necessary to anyone who must deal with people, because people give these fringe subjects much more attention than they deserve in themselves.
We might be more like libraries than dinosaur museums. They might have burnt the Alexandria library in stages and destroyed the source data for Ptolemy's Almagest in the process, but so long as there is a living human the entire story of that which is closest to us, the tattered tent, or most of it, is right there if we learn how to read it.
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There was a pretty remarkable show on PBS about a fellow who's studdying the markers on the Y chromosome. By mapping out the trees of the markers, he determined that mans most ancient relatives are basically what we would call the Kalahari Bushmen. But the odd thing was that the next place the marker was discovered wasn't Europe or Asia, it was the walkabouts... the Australian aborigines.
One fascinating part of the show, not necessarily about genetics, showed the folks who live in the far northern parts of Russia, I guess you'd call them laplanders.
Absolutely dependent on reindeer. Totally. There is no vegetation there, except for meager blue green algae. And the only thing that can eat it is the reindeer. So these folks live, breathe, eat and sleep with one goal in mind: keep the reindeer herds flourishing.
An incredibly specialized niche.
I fail to see any connection between this study and how whiners and losers see history. Am I missing something?
"Did conquest and concubines spread one man's genes across Asia?"
Some guys have all the luck. Nice work, if you can get it.
Seriously though, I did get back my Genographic project results, they are very interesting. I am apparently in Haplogroup R1a, with other interesting results as well.
Just updating the GGG info, not sending a general distribution.
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