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U.S. study defines two clear bird flu strains (2 people dead 14 infected- Azerbaijan)
Alertnet ^ | 3-10-06

Posted on 03/20/2006 7:52:03 AM PST by Mother Abigail

U.S. study defines two clear bird flu strains

ATLANTA, March 20 (Reuters) - The H5N1 strain of bird flu in humans has evolved into two separate strains, U.S. researchers reported on Monday, which could complicate developing a vaccine and preventing a pandemic.

One strain, or clade, made people sick in Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand in 2003 and 2004 and a second, a cousin of the first, caused the disease in people in Indonesia in 2004.

Two clades may share the same ancestor but are distinct -- as are different clades, or strains, of the AIDS virus, the team from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found.

"Back in 2003 we only had one genetically distinct population of H5N1 with the potential to cause a human pandemic. Now we have two," said the CDC's Rebecca Garten, who helped conduct the study.

Speaking to the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases in Atlanta, Garten said the pool of H5N1 candidates with the potential to cause a human influenza pandemic is getting more genetically diverse, which makes studying the virus more complex and heightens the need for increased surveillance.

"As the virus continues its geographic expansion, it is also undergoing genetic diversity expansion," Garten said in a statement.

The H5N1 strain of bird flu has spread across Europe, Africa and parts of Asia and killed about 100 people worldwide and infected about 180 since it re-emerged in 2003.

Although it is difficult to catch bird flu, people can become infected if they come into close contact with infected birds. Scientists fear the virus could mutate into a form that could pass easily between humans, triggering a pandemic in which millions could die.

All influenza viruses mutate easily, and H5N1 appears to be no exception.

"Only time will tell whether the virus evolves or mutates in such a way that it can be transmitted from human to human efficiently," Garten said.

The U.S. Health and Human Services Department has already recognized the two strains and approved the development of a second H5N1 vaccine based on the second clade.

Several companies are working on H5N1 vaccines experimentally, although current formulations are not expected to protect very well, if at all, against any pandemic strain.

A vaccine against a pandemic flu strain would have to be formulated using the actual virus passing from person to person.

For their study, Garten and colleagues analyzed more than 300 H5N1 virus samples taken from both infected birds and people 2003 through the summer of 2005.

The majority of the viruses, including all the human cases, belonged to genotype Z. Now there are two clades of the Z genotype. There were also small numbers of viruses in birds that were genotype V or W or recently identified genotype G.


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: avianinfluenza; h5n1
WHO Suspects 14 People Infected with Bird Flu in Azerbaijan

http://mosnews.com/news/2006/03/20/azerflu.shtml

Experts from the World Health Organization suspect 14 more people are infected with bird flu in Azerbaijan where two girls died of the the H5N1 virus earlier this month, Interfax reported Monday.

A group of WHO experts reported their suspicions after visiting the Salyansky district of Azerbaijan, 150 km to the south of the capital Baku. Earlier three residents of the district were provisionaly diagnosed with bird flu.

Meanwhile, the state commission for preventing the spread of bird flu in Azerbaijan and coordinating the work of relevant government bodies has issued a statement that says no new areas of bird flu outbreak have been discovered, Regnum news agency said.

"Bird flu has not been discovered in new areas. The Health Ministry has said no-one has been hospitalized [with suspected bird flu] in recent days, and that it has stockpiled the medications and disinfectants necessary to prevent and treat the bird flu virus," the statement read.  

1 posted on 03/20/2006 7:52:07 AM PST by Mother Abigail
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To: Marie; cherry; united1000; keri; maestro; riri; Black Agnes; vetvetdoug; CathyRyan; per loin; ...


Post date should read 3-20-06

MA


2 posted on 03/20/2006 7:55:51 AM PST by Mother Abigail
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To: All


Israel poisons poultry in bird flu battle

By Megan Goldin

JERUSALEM, March 20 (Reuters) -

Israel poisoned hundreds of thousands of turkeys and chickens as it sought on Monday to contain an outbreak of the dangerous H5N1 strain of bird flu which has been spreading at an alarming rate.

The virus has rippled out from Asia to the Middle East, Europe and Africa in recent months, with migratory birds seen as the main culprits in spreading bird flu.

Bird flu can infect people who come into close contact with infected poultry and has killed at least 98 people since late 2003.

Experts fear the virus will mutate into a form that passes easily from person to person, sparking a pandemic in which millions could die and which could cripple the global economy.

Europe began discussing the possibility of curbing poultry production to prop up prices.

Israel's neighbour Egypt said on Saturday that a 30-year-old woman had died of bird flu, the country's first reported death from the virus.

The woman was from Qaloubiyah province, about 40 km (25 miles) north of Cairo. Egypt said on Sunday that a man from same area suspected of having the virus had recovered.

Bird flu has flared anew in Asia in recent days.

Malaysia reported a new outbreak of H5N1 among dead chickens in the northern state of Penang.

Six dead chickens were found in Seberang Prai, on the mainland side of a bridge that links the resort island of Penang, one of Malaysia's top tourist attractions.

The U.S. military in Afghanistan has provided some 50 protective suits for cull workers there. Afghanistan aims to start culling on Wednesday.

PROTECTING POULTRY INDUSTRY

Health experts insist that there is no health risk from eating properly cooked eggs and poultry, but bird flu scares have depressed sales of poultry.

Europe should start cutting back on its production of chicks and hatching eggs as a first step to support poultry prices, the EU's farm chief said on Monday.

The EU's main consumer countries have seen poultry prices fall by between 15 and 20 percent in the last five months.

"What is desperately needed is to reduce production. A targeted approach on hatching eggs and chicks would, from my point of view, be the most practical approach," EU Agriculture Commissioner Mariann Fischer Boel told a news conference.

In Israel, birds were being given poisoned water and their carcasses were being buried in large pits. Four million doses of an H5N1 vaccine for chickens were expected to arrive from the Netherlands on Tuesday, the ministry said.

China defended its vaccination policy on Monday, saying its vaccines were the best in the world and that no healthy looking poultry had been founded infected with H5N1.

Bad vaccines for poultry can "mask" diseases. The vaccines protect birds, which often do not show symptoms, but do not guard against infection and the birds can shed the virus in their faeces.

The virus then spreads to more birds, mutates and can even jump species barriers, for example, into humans.

http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L20179626.htm


3 posted on 03/20/2006 8:02:15 AM PST by Mother Abigail
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To: Mother Abigail

This genetic drift should be expected due to natural selection and environmental factors.


4 posted on 03/20/2006 8:03:37 AM PST by Battle Axe (Repent for the coming of the Lord is nigh!)
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To: All


Russia to tighten border checks as it fights bird flu

MOSCOW, March 20 (Reuters) -

Russia plans to tighten border controls and is continuing the mass vaccination of domestic fowl as it seeks to prevent the spread of deadly bird flu, senior veterinary officials said on Monday.

Chief state epidemiologist Gennady Onishchenko, in a letter to regional health officials, proposed preparing medical facilities at ports, airports, railway stations and other border crossings to hospitalise people suspected of having bird flu.

"To prevent the penetration and spread of avian influenza, I propose an increase of sanitary control at check points on the border of the Russian Federation with China, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan," Onishchenko said in the letter.

Bird flu has killed about 100 people worldwide since 2003, spreading from Asia to the Middle East and reaching Europe and Africa along bird migration routes.

The World Health Organisation says there is no evidence so far of human-to-human transmission of the virus, but experts fear the H5N1 bird flu strain could mutate enough to pass easily from person to person and spark an epidemic.

In Russia no cases of bird flu in humans have been registered so far.

On March 10, Russia started a mass vaccination campaign of domestic fowl against bird flu, which has killed 1.34 million birds since the latest wave of the virus hit Russia in February, the Emergencies Ministry said in statement.

The ministry said 3.99 million domestic birds had been vaccinated in the south of European Russia by Monday.

It said that as of March 20, the H5N1 strain had been confirmed in domestic fowl in six regions and in wild fowl in another three.

All the affected regions are situated in the North Caucasus, an area between the Caspian and Black seas on the border with Georgia and Azerbaijan, where bird flu was found last month.

http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L2025700.htm


5 posted on 03/20/2006 8:07:34 AM PST by Mother Abigail
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To: Mother Abigail
What You Should Do To Prepare For An Epidemic (DHHS)
6 posted on 03/20/2006 8:12:19 AM PST by blam
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To: Mother Abigail

Thanks for the ping. I'm watching with great concern.


7 posted on 03/20/2006 8:13:42 AM PST by Judith Anne (Thank you St. Jude for favors granted.)
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To: Battle Axe
Yes, the drift and re-assortment is to be expected.

But every opportunity that H5N1 has to infect a human moves it one step closer to infecting a human who is also infected with a common flu virus.

We do not want to see these two bugs swapping viral information.

MA
8 posted on 03/20/2006 8:15:37 AM PST by Mother Abigail
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To: blam

Also: http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/print?id=1722484
(And shun KFC `beaks & feet' nuggets?)


9 posted on 03/20/2006 8:16:10 AM PST by tumblindice
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To: Judith Anne


Scientists at bird flu lab battle bravely
- 4000 samples pile up for tests each week

New Delhi, March 17: In India's only laboratory equipped to handle the avian influenza H5N1 virus, the cold room is brimming with tiny vials of chicken blood and globs of poultry tissue from across the country.

Several thousand samples arrive each week, packed in ice boxes, from places where farmers have sensed unusual chicken deaths and from routine surveillance sites.

Overwhelmed by the influx, veterinary pathologist Hare Krishna Pradhan, who heads the High Security Animal Disease Laboratory in Bhopal, is fast running out of space and time.
"There is pressure, but my scientists are very good," said Pradhan.

Six out of the eight rooms in the laboratory are now engaged in H5N1 work, distributed across a dozen scientists. In one room, research associate Nidhi Srivastava performs a test to detect the H5 and N1 genetic signatures of the virus. Scientists S. Nagarajan, B. Pattnaik, and C. Tosh run molecular tests on another set of samples.

"We'll learn from this experience — it's preparing us for the future," said Pradhan.

A molecular biologist from Bilaspur and a virologist from Hissar will join the team next week as research associates on a consolidated salary of Rs 13,000 a month.

Pradhan says the lab can handle a maximum of about 2,000 blood samples and 100 tissue and faecal samples a week. It has been receiving 4,000 samples each week over the past month.

The pressure is forcing Pradhan to pick and choose samples. "The top priority is for samples from sites with mortality," he said.

"Such pressure is not good when speed is crucial," said Shahid Jameel, head of virology at the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in New Delhi. "There's a danger of delays in processing samples."

The samples from the outbreak in Jalgaon took more than two weeks for a diagnosis to be made because they were waiting. Another such lab, which Pradhan and others experts have suggested for years, could have helped. Biosecurity labs can't be built in haste.

"From conception to completion, this lab took 25 years," Pradhan says. It cost about Rs 22 crore. Another now might cost up to Rs 40 crore.

http://www.telegraphindia.com/1060318/asp/nation/story_5981562.asp


10 posted on 03/20/2006 8:22:48 AM PST by Mother Abigail
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To: Mother Abigail
Don't get left in the dust ...........

bird flu vaccine stocks to buy...........

....NVAX......HEB......CARN....

11 posted on 03/20/2006 8:31:29 AM PST by CROSSHIGHWAYMAN (Toon Town, Iran...........where reality is the real fantasy.)
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To: Mother Abigail

Not good news but I sure do appreciate the ping Mother Abigail.


12 posted on 03/20/2006 8:43:22 AM PST by Oorang (Tyranny thrives best where government need not fear the wrath of an armed people - Alex Kozinski)
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To: little jeremiah; BearWash; Domestic Church

Ping in case you haven't seen this


13 posted on 03/20/2006 8:44:41 AM PST by Oorang (Tyranny thrives best where government need not fear the wrath of an armed people - Alex Kozinski)
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To: tumblindice

A favorite mock-food that rapidly disintegrate upon contact with air.


14 posted on 03/20/2006 8:48:06 AM PST by Calpernia (Breederville.com)
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To: Calpernia

LOL!
I use the `nuggets' to grease my truck's undercarriage, but I `spork' the mashed pertaters and cole slaw . . .


15 posted on 03/20/2006 8:57:26 AM PST by tumblindice
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To: Oorang


Additional cases suspected by WHO are relatives of previous victims

Babelfished from Russian:

WHO - WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION: with "bird influenza" could fall ill more than 10 inhabitants of
Azerbaijan

March 20, 2006

The appraisal group of the World Health Organization (WHO - WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION) suspects, that still several inhabitants Of the sal'yanskeyeo region of Azerbaijan, which is located in 150 kilometers to the south of Baku, fell ill with "bird influenza", reported on Monday television channel ANS, referring to the representatives OF WHO - WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION.

This statement the representatives OF WHO - WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION gave after the visit Of the sal'yanskeyeo region, where suspects the presence of disease in 14 inhabitants of the settlements Of Daykend and Sarvan.

The representatives OF WHO - WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION stated that the suspicions to the diseases by virus H5N1 in some inhabitants of settlements arose in them after encounter with the families of the persons, supposedly infected with this illness.

The appraisal group OF WHO - WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, which consists of the epidemiologists and infektsionistov, they are located in The sal'yanskeye region for studying the sources of the disease of the inhabitants of these populated areas.

Previously it communicated about the presence of suspicions to the virus of "bird influenza" in three killed inhabitants Of the sal'yanskeyeo region.

Studies from the side of the specialists OF WHO - WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION confirmed primary diagnosis about the infection of three persons by "bird influenza".
For the first time the virus of "bird influenza" was fixed in Azerbaijan on 9 February. It was discovered in the models of the blood of the killed wild migratory birds on the coast of Caspian Region.


http://txt.newsru.com/world/20mar2006/voz.html




This does not sound like contact with infected birds.

MA


16 posted on 03/20/2006 9:02:52 AM PST by Mother Abigail
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To: LibertarianInExile; tumblindice

I believe you have competition Lib!

(post 15)


17 posted on 03/20/2006 9:24:27 AM PST by Calpernia (Breederville.com)
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To: Oorang
Thanks for the pings; I'm always the last to know anything that comes out in the early morning.

I went through my preps last night and taped short articles to each med -- in case I am not around to explain how to use them. Someone else might understandably be confused about how to use probenecid, for example -- normally a gout drug.
18 posted on 03/20/2006 10:01:12 AM PST by steve86 (Acerbic by nature, not nurture)
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To: Battle Axe
genetic drift is not a result of natural selection only a little related to environment. Antigenic drift is a consequence of an unstable genome
19 posted on 03/20/2006 10:22:50 AM PST by Kelly_2000 ( Because they stand on a wall and say nothing is going to hurt you tonight. Not on my watch)
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To: Mother Abigail
"But every opportunity that H5N1 has to infect a human moves it one step closer to infecting a human who is also infected with a common flu virus."

The more virulent and far more dangerous pandemic strain and subtype will likely acquire mammalian polymorphisms rather than attaining human specificity through a recombination event. Recombination although anticipated and not desired does not scare me as much as the highly virulent H5Ni subtype with acquired mammalian specificity.

20 posted on 03/20/2006 10:25:54 AM PST by Kelly_2000 ( Because they stand on a wall and say nothing is going to hurt you tonight. Not on my watch)
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To: Kelly_2000

New Article

Not very technical but some mention of the 2-3 to 2-6 receptor "switch".

http://health.dailynewscentral.com/content/view/2167/


21 posted on 03/20/2006 10:35:25 AM PST by steve86 (Acerbic by nature, not nurture)
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To: Mother Abigail
This does not sound like contact with infected birds.

No, it really does not.

22 posted on 03/20/2006 10:42:02 AM PST by txhurl
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To: Mother Abigail; Kindly Old Doc Tsu

thanks. passed it on to kodt


23 posted on 03/20/2006 11:13:01 AM PST by King Prout (DOWN with the class-enemies at Google! LONG LIVE THE PEOPLE'S CUBE!)
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To: tumblindice
Preparing for a Pandemic

An Expert Goes Over the Must-Haves if Bird Flu Cripples the Country

March 14, 2006 — - Over the weekend, the government told Americans to start storing canned foods and powdered milk under their beds as the prospect of a deadly bird flu outbreak approaches the United States. The fear is that the bird flu will turn into a pandemic and drastically alter the course of American life for a time.

The Red Cross says that if there's a pandemic, we need to prepare for 10 days of being stuck in our homes, and that we may be without power and water during that time. In the event of a bird flu pandemic, Americans should plan for interruptions or delays in other services: Banks might close, hospitals could be overwhelmed, and postal service could be spotty. Experts also say that people need to begin stocking up on extra food and supplies like protective masks, flashlights, portable radios, batteries and matches.

"When you go to the store and buy three cans of tuna fish, buy a fourth and put it under the bed. When you go to the store to buy some milk, pick up a box of powdered milk, put it under the bed," said Health and Human Services Secretary Mike Leavitt. "When you do that for a period of four to six months, you are going to have a couple of weeks of food. And that's what we're talking about."

Previous pandemics occurred in 1918, 1957 and 1968, and the worst waves of illness seem to pass through communities in a matter of six weeks to eight weeks. Computer models suggest about 30 percent of people could be infected, but not all at the same time.

In the event of a pandemic, people must practice what the health officials call "social distancing," or keeping away from other people's germs. Schools and day-care centers could be closed, sporting events and other large gatherings could be canceled, and shaking hands could become socially unacceptable, at least for a while.

Darlene Washington, the director of disease prevention education at the American Red Cross, came to "Good Morning America" to go over some of the must-haves in the event of a bird flu pandemic.

Water

"We recommend that each member of your family has a gallon of water for each day, so a family of four needs to have 40 gallons of water available and you need that much water stored because there's a chance that your water will get cut off if there's a pandemic," Washington said. "Workers may not be able to make it, and plants may stop operating. Your family will need to drink water and for hygiene, for brushing their teeth and washing their hands."

Food

"You need foods that will not spoil," Washington said. "So you need canned foods like tuna. You also need to get foods that you don't have to heat, because just like your water, your powers may go out, too. In addition, to things like canned tuna, you should start storing peanut butter, protein, bars, crackers. Again, foods that have a long shelf life and that don't need to be heated. Make sure you have enough formula and baby food to get through that 10 days. You have to plan for every member of your family and that includes your pets. So get extra dog food or cat food, and make sure you have extra water for your pets. You need a 10-day supply for everyone."

Power Outages

"Stores are going to run out of what you need, too," Washington said. "So that's why you need to stock up now. And we encourage families to have supplies on hand like flashlights and batteries, matches. Hand-cranked or battery-operated radios, and a manual can opener, because you are going to need to open all those cans of food. And this may not seem important but you must get activities for your children and yourself, games, coloring books, cards."

Cleaning Supplies

"You have to have all those on hand to keep your home clean and to have receptacles for all your trash," she said. "You probably won't have trash service and you need to account for that. You need to make sure to have paper towels, toilet paper and soap. Everything you need to keep your home clean and practice good hygiene."

Medication

"You need to get an additional 10 days of all your prescription medications," Washington said. "You should also have over-the-counter, fever-reducing medications; medications for upset stomach; and cold and flu medication. You'll also want to have fluids like Gatorade and Pedialite, which have electrolytes and will help a family member rehydrate if they get sick. Also, keep a few thermometers around in case someone gets sick."

If a Family Member Gets Sick …

"The first thing is to strengthen your hand washing and to have the infected family member cover his mouth when he coughs," she said. "You should also keep that person isolated in a certain part of the house and identify a family member who will help him. You may have to take turns."

Copyright © 2006 ABC News Internet Ventures

(I wonder what 'wonderous event' is gonna happen after ten days. I noticed that part was missing.)

24 posted on 03/20/2006 11:13:09 AM PST by blam
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To: Kelly_2000

Hello, nice to see you. Prayers for you and your dear family.


25 posted on 03/20/2006 12:42:06 PM PST by Judith Anne (Thank you St. Jude for favors granted.)
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To: Kelly_2000

My genetics is OLD...like maybe 35-40 years.

So let's see. You're saying that genetic drift is a result of a population...this hurts my head...allowed to find less resistance.


Are they saying that recombination is present in virii??

BA


26 posted on 03/20/2006 1:47:14 PM PST by Battle Axe (Repent for the coming of the Lord is nigh!)
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To: Kelly_2000
As always excellent comments.

The more virulent and far more dangerous pandemic strain and subtype will likely acquire mammalian polymorphisms rather than attaining human specificity through a recombination event. Recombination although anticipated and not desired does not scare me as much as the highly virulent H5Ni subtype with acquired mammalian specificity."

If you don't mind I would like to expand a bit on the topic for those posters who roll their eyes when these terms are bandied about.

++++++++++++

H5N1 has been changing in a way that helps it infect humans. These changes are called mammalian polymorphisms.

These changes increase the efficiency of H5N1 in attaching to human receptors.

In Turkey we saw large number of cases and increased size of familial clusters indicated transmission to humans was more efficient than had been seen previously.

Virus from one of the patients shows mutations at the receptor-binding site. One of the mutations has been seen previously in viruses isolated from a small outbreak in Hong Kong in 2003.

And most importantly research has indicated that the Hong Kong 2003 viruses bind preferentially to human cell receptors more so than to avian cell receptors.

H5N1 has been evolving by capturing mammalian polymorphisms and these acquisitions are leading to more efficient transmission of H5N1 to humans.

If you are with me so far, then lets look at some more terminology.

Analysis has shown that, compared to previous H5N1 isolates, 20042005 isolates share several amino acid changes - these changes may modulate antigenicity and perhaps other biological functions.

For example, an isolate (VN/JP12-2/05) showed a change from serine to asparagine at position 223 of the HA1 (S223N) that may affect receptor-binding specificity.

The S227N (also called S223N) poymorphism was found in an isolate from a fatal Turkish case.

This change is of concern because it allows H5N1 to grow efficiently at 34 C, the temperature of a human nose in the winter.

The fixing of S227N in the bird population is obviously a cause for concern.

++++++++++++++++++++

Now back to the points at hand.

Our discussion, which may seem a bit esoteric to others, is about these continued changes which (in theory) may lead to a H5N1 that can easily move from human to human - without an avian host.

The question is:

1. Will this pandemic shift occur as a result of a recombinant event where H5N1 and a common human flu virus (with loose morals and a weakness for banana daiquiris) spend some quality time together in a co-infected host.

2. Or will H5N1 acquire (in its world travels) a pandemic mammalian polymorphism that makes it a killer.

Please feel free to correct any errors or restate my cocktail hour summations.

Oh - I have no idea which is the correct answer.
27 posted on 03/20/2006 4:52:19 PM PST by Mother Abigail
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To: blam


Egypt reports third human bird flu case

CAIRO, March 20 (Reuters) - Egypt said on Monday a third suspected human case of bird flu had been discovered and the woman infected was in hospital.

She is the third infected person
Egypt has reported in three days.
All are from Qaloubiyah governorate, about 40 km (25 miles) north of Cairo.

A man admitted to hospital on Sunday recovered after being administered Tamiflu, but a woman died on Friday despite receiving the drug.

Initial tests in the two cases had shown virus infection, but authorities are awaiting further tests for final confirmation.
The state-run MENA news agency did not say whether the woman in the latest case had been tested for the bird flu virus.

"It was proven that she had handled infected birds and slaughtered some of these birds 15 days ago," MENA quoted Health Minister Hatem el-Gabali as saying.

Tamiflu is one of the most effective ways of treating humans with bird flu, which has spread across Europe, Africa and parts of Asia, and killed more than 90 people worldwide since 2003.

The highly pathogenic H5N1 bird flu virus was first found in birds in Egypt last month. So far, 17 of Egypt's 26 governorates and the city of Luxor have reported cases in birds.

http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L20354196.htm


28 posted on 03/20/2006 4:58:26 PM PST by Mother Abigail
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To: Mother Abigail
"A man admitted to hospital on Sunday recovered after being administered Tamiflu."

So, Tamiflu does have some benefit.

Does this guy have a better ability to resist a future exposure to the same flu?

29 posted on 03/20/2006 5:16:27 PM PST by blam
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To: Mother Abigail; blam

"a woman died on Friday despite receiving the drug."

"Initial tests in the two cases had shown virus infection, but authorities are awaiting further tests for final confirmation. The state-run MENA news agency did not say whether the woman in the latest case had been tested for the bird flu virus."

"It was proven that she had handled infected birds and slaughtered some of these birds 15 days ago," MENA quoted Health Minister Hatem el-Gabali as saying.

"(I wonder what 'wonderous event' is gonna happen after ten days. I noticed that part was missing.)"

Mmm... She bit the dust 12 days after butchering fowl so I guess you'll get to look at yourself in wonder from the ceiling as you wave bye, bye!


30 posted on 03/20/2006 7:41:46 PM PST by Domestic Church (AMDG... Clockwork Foghorn Leghorn!)
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To: Mother Abigail
I found GG3's post here a very interesting read. It explains explicitely why bird culling will never stop this thing (and why so many other species are picking this thing up).
31 posted on 03/20/2006 10:03:13 PM PST by raygun
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To: Mother Abigail; Dog Gone

Thanks so much for your post 27, MA.

DG--have you seen this thread?


32 posted on 03/20/2006 11:20:11 PM PST by Judith Anne (Thank you St. Jude for favors granted.)
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To: Kelly_2000


This work supports your thesis.

MA




Small Possible Mutation Vectors with H5 Avian Viruses Shown [/B]
Small Possible Mutation Vectors with H5 Avian Viruses Shown
A team of researchers have identified a probable way for the Avian Flu virus to become human to human transmissible. They have found that small chemical "bindings" can change readily, and give the virus the ability to take hold in the human respiratory tract, whereas now it is mostly limited to avian digestive tracts, which is why it has not yet reached human pandemic levels.

News release from Scripps Research Institute:

"Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute, the Centers for Disease Control, and the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology have identified what the researchers described as a possible pathway for a particularly virulent strain of the avian flu virus H5N1 "to gain a foothold in the human population."

The H5N1 avian influenza virus, commonly known as "bird flu," is a highly contagious and deadly disease in poultry. So far, its spread to humans has been limited, with 177 documented severe infections, and nearly 100 deaths in Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, China, Iraq, and Turkey as of March 14, 2006, according to the World Health Organization.

"With continued outbreaks of the H5N1 virus in poultry and wild birds, further human cases are likely," said Ian Wilson, Scripps Research professor of molecular biology and head of the laboratory that conducted the recent study.

"The potential for the emergence of a human-adapted H5 virus, either by re-assortment or mutation, is a clear threat to public health worldwide."

Of the H5N1 strains isolated to date, the researchers looked at A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (Viet04), one of the most pathogenic H5N1 viruses studied so far. The virus was originally isolated from a 10-year-old Vietnamese boy who died from the infection in 2004. The hemagglutinin (HA) structure from the Viet04 virus was found to be closely related to the 1918 virus HA, which caused some 50 million deaths worldwide.

Using a recently developed microarray technology—hundreds of microscopic assay sites on a single small surface—the study showed that relatively small mutations can result in switching the binding site preference of the avian virus from receptors in the intestinal tract of birds to the respiratory tract of humans.These mutations, the study noted, were already "known in [some human influenza] viruses to increase binding for these receptors."
The study was published on March 16, 2006 by ScienceXpress, the advance online version of the journal Science.

Receptor specificity for the influenza virus is controlled by the glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) on the virus surface. These viral HAs bind to host cell receptors containing complex glycans—carbohydrates—that in turn contain terminal sialic acids.

Avian viruses prefer binding to a2-3-linked sialic acids on receptors of intestinal epithelial cells, while human viruses are usually specific for the a2-6 linkage on epithelial cells of the lungs and upper respiratory tract.
Such interactions allow the virus membrane to fuse with the membrane of the host cell so that viral genetic material can be transferred to the cell.

The switch from a2-3 to a2-6 receptor specificity is a critical step in the adaptation of avian viruses to a human host and appears to be one of the reasons why most avian influenza viruses, including current avian H5 strains, are not easily transmitted from human-to-human following avian-to-human infection. However, the report did suggest that "once a foothold in a new host species is made, the virus HA can optimize its specificity to the new host."

"Our recombinant approach to the structural analysis of the Viet04 virus showed that when we inserted HA mutations that had already been shown to shift receptor preference in H3 HAs to the human respiratory tract, the mutations increased receptor preference of the Viet04 HA towards specific human glycans that could serve as receptors on lung epithelial cells," Wilson said. "The effect of these mutations on the Viet04 HA increases the likelihood of binding to and infection of susceptible epithelial cells."

The study was careful to note that these results reveal only one possible route for virus adaptation. The study concluded that other, as yet "unidentified mutations" could emerge, allowing the avian virus to switch receptor specificity and make the jump to human-to-human transmission.

The glycan microarray technology, which was used to identify the mutations that could enable adaptation of H5N1 into the human population in the laboratory, could also be used to help identify new active virus strains in the field by monitoring changes in the receptor binding preference profile where infection is active, according to Jeremy M. Berg, the director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The glycan microarray was developed by The Consortium for Functional Glycomics, an international group led by Scripps Research scientists and supported by the NIGMS.

"This technology allows researchers to assay hundreds of carbohydrate varieties in a single experiment," Berg said. "The glycan microarray offers a detailed picture of viral receptor specificity that can be used to map the evolution of new human pathogenic strains, such as the H5N1 avian influenza, and could prove invaluable in the early identification of emerging viruses that could cause new epidemics."


33 posted on 03/21/2006 5:31:49 AM PST by Mother Abigail
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To: Mother Abigail

Very interesting. Thanks for posting.


34 posted on 03/21/2006 7:41:49 AM PST by EternalHope (Boycott everything French forever. Including their vassal nations.)
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To: raygun; fortheDeclaration
thx 4 your #31......

FTD....I have MAJOR 'puter' problems.....ongoing via enemy...

Titus 1:2.....Romans 10:17

Maranatha!

35 posted on 03/21/2006 8:15:20 AM PST by maestro
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To: Mother Abigail
Interesting article, but while it posits possibility it completely ignores probability.

There's nobody that can say how probable an H5N1 receptor specificity mutation from a2-3 to a2-6 antigens would be; nobody knows what specific genetic sequence defines either. And without that knowledge one can't even begin to speculate about probabilities based on random combinatorial/permutative assessment. The bottom line: nobody knows just how likely such mutation is. It may be VERY likely, or highly unlikely. Nobody knows, nor can anybody at present even hint they might know (they'd be lying if they do).

36 posted on 03/21/2006 11:47:23 AM PST by raygun
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To: BearWash
thanks for the link :-) there is quite a lot of rivalry in various labs which is not helping , lot's of "reinventing the wheel" going on - our labs included in that comment
37 posted on 03/23/2006 3:42:06 AM PST by Kelly_2000 ( Because they stand on a wall and say nothing is going to hurt you tonight. Not on my watch)
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To: Mother Abigail
HI MA:-)

Thanks for your post and corroborative support :-)

38 posted on 03/23/2006 7:43:24 AM PST by Kelly_2000 ( Because they stand on a wall and say nothing is going to hurt you tonight. Not on my watch)
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To: Mother Abigail
That was a great post MA and I often forget to explain myself on-line sorry for that ;-)
39 posted on 03/23/2006 8:14:05 AM PST by Kelly_2000 ( Because they stand on a wall and say nothing is going to hurt you tonight. Not on my watch)
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To: Mother Abigail
Say, regarding that babelfished post regarding relatives dying: it's been haunting me for days.

Is that not suggestive - scary - to you?

I realize they could have had the same chicken for dinner but...

40 posted on 03/23/2006 12:15:28 PM PST by txhurl
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