Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

DDT makes a comeback in effort to halt malaria
Baltimore Sun ^ | 8/27/06 | Scott Calvert

Posted on 08/27/2006 6:44:50 AM PDT by mathprof

Men in blue coveralls and white surgical masks began their annual trek into the countryside here last week. Methodically, they sprayed one home after another with a chemical most Americans probably thought disappeared from use long ago: DDT.

As villagers looked on, the workers doused inside and outside walls with a fine mist. It is a yearly effort to repel and kill mosquitoes that carry malaria - a disease that kills more than a million people a year, mostly children in sub-Saharan Africa.

Advertisement This small kingdom near South Africa is one of a handful of countries still using the pesticide, banned in the United States in 1972 because of its toxic effect on eagles and other wildlife.

But now DDT is poised for expansion in the developing world.

The influential World Health Organization plans to promote DDT as a cheap and effective tool against malaria. And the U.S. government has boosted its budget for malarial insecticide spraying in Africa twenty-fold, to $20 million next year.

The new push for household spraying reflects a growing belief in some quarters that significant progress on malaria will require a third major front, alongside insecticide-treated bed nets and novel anti-malarial drugs.

No one proposes a return to the widespread agricultural use that severely harmed ecosystems in the United States and Europe decades ago. The results of such spraying were famously depicted in Rachel Carson's landmark 1962 book Silent Spring, which launched the modern environmental movement.

Advocates of household spraying say the comparatively minute amounts used in homes pose no known dangers. Any potential risk, they say, is far outweighed by DDT's potency against malaria, as was seen in the late 1940s and '50s when it helped eradicate the disease in the United States and other industrialized nations.

But environmental groups...

(Excerpt) Read more at baltimoresun.com ...


TOPICS: Culture/Society; Foreign Affairs; Front Page News; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: africa; ddt; disease; environmentalism; malaria
Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first previous 1-5051-92 last
To: marktwain

I have a set of short biographical readings in my classroom. Each is about 3 paragraphs long. One of the books had a section on Rachel Carson--I ripped it out and threw it away.


51 posted on 08/27/2006 9:09:25 AM PDT by SoftballMominVA
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: Balding_Eagle

You are correct about that!

I've heard for years that constant exposure of a species to toxic chemicals will over time give advantage to a mutant strain that is resistant. I tend to believe this is probably true with respect to DDT since some species, namely us, aren't affected by the stuff.

So, I think regulated use that guards against reistance and environmental damge as opposed to the outright ban in place since 1972 would be a common sense approach to the issue.

52 posted on 08/27/2006 9:18:13 AM PDT by StACase
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 44 | View Replies]

To: mathprof
a chemical most Americans probably thought disappeared from use long ago...

Not in Iraq. We bought some insect killer because there was a wasps' nest somewhere behind the walls of our office and the huge things kept coming in and flying around. When we read the ingredients, we saw that it's 70% DDT.

Kills the heck out of those wasps.

And none of us have grown third arms or anything like that.

Well, not yet. ;-)

53 posted on 08/27/2006 9:22:56 AM PDT by Allegra (8 more days...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Moonman62
Rachel Carson was part of a corporate conspiracy?

No, she just twisted 'facts' until they fit her personal agenda.

Just like certain FReepers tend to do.

54 posted on 08/27/2006 9:56:39 AM PDT by MamaTexan (I am NOT a 'legal entity'...nor am I a *person* as created by law!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 29 | View Replies]

To: mathprof

Just waiting for the day. The way we build and protect wetlands here, it's only a matter of time before we can enjoy the same.


55 posted on 08/27/2006 10:39:29 AM PDT by Colorado Doug
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Balding_Eagle

DDT isn't a chemical like bleach, which nothing can survive in. If it's in low enough concentrations, some of the targets will survive, and they will be the ones who can survive low concentrations. Then their children will mostly be able to survive that low concentration, and some of the children will even be able to survive stronger concentrations. It's exactly like antibiotic-resistant bacteria. You build up a tolerance in subsequent generations every time you don't wipe out an entire "crop".


56 posted on 08/27/2006 10:39:46 AM PDT by Thalos
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 44 | View Replies]

To: Extremely Extreme Extremist
yep...we need to stuff the environmentalist back in their "dumb@ss" hole.

Most of the findings these whack jobs came out with is bull.

They've caused more deaths in Africa than every KKK member would have if they'd taken a gun to all of Africa....

the libs are such phony baloney pseudo-intellectuals.

57 posted on 08/27/2006 11:13:21 AM PDT by Dick Vomer (liberals suck......... but it depends on what your definition of the word "suck" is.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: mathprof

Malaria had practically disappeared from the U.S. well before DDT came into use; nobody seems to know why, and nobody can promise it won't come back.


58 posted on 08/27/2006 1:06:44 PM PDT by Christopher Lincoln
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: mathprof

As a child I lived in Norman, Oklahoma 1951-1955. A DDT fogger on the back of a jeep fogged all the streets on a weekly basis. We children used to run after the jeep within the DDT fog that it was being dispensed. We would follow it for blocks. A fogger of DDT was used at drive-in movie theaters, they fogged every row. I'm 61 now.


59 posted on 08/27/2006 3:56:23 PM PDT by 11B40 (times change, people don't)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Christopher Lincoln
Swazi officials say the proof of DDT's efficacy is in the numbers: Clinical malaria cases dropped from 45,000 in 2000 to 5,000 in 2004. Hospital admissions fell; malaria-related deaths dropped below 10. Most cases involve people from neighboring Mozambique.
60 posted on 08/27/2006 4:16:29 PM PDT by mathprof
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 58 | View Replies]

To: mathprof

One of my very first chores was "painting" screens with DDT every spring.


61 posted on 08/27/2006 4:39:20 PM PDT by ncountylee (Dead terrorists smell like victory)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: mosquewatch.com
I bought into it too.And pelicans supposedly are more numerous post-ban. Even my parents & other old-timers have said so & none of them are environmentalist wackos. Would you let me know if you find out anything, would you?I'd like to know the story on this as well.
62 posted on 08/27/2006 5:00:04 PM PDT by leilani
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 50 | View Replies]

To: Amos the Prophet

CORRECTION:
It was not the CDC but the Dept of Agriculture that banned the use of DDT in spite of no evidence that it was harmful. It was a purile, deceitful and cowardly political action by a Dept Director who was more concerned about angry Marxists than the health of the food supply.


63 posted on 08/27/2006 5:04:36 PM PDT by Louis Foxwell (Here come I, gravitas in tow.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 41 | View Replies]

To: RadioAstronomer
You should have offered to start things off by shooting her.

L

64 posted on 08/27/2006 5:15:13 PM PDT by Lurker (If you want peace, prepare for war.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 8 | View Replies]

To: Gay State Conservative
I wonder what might happen when the mosquitoes develop a resistance to DDT which,if I remember my basic science correctly,is sure to happen.

Mosquitoes will develop a resistance to DDT at the same time humans develop resistance to Malaria. That is, it will take a long time. In the meantime you can save a lot of lives.

65 posted on 08/27/2006 5:21:45 PM PDT by FreedomCalls (It's the "Statue of Liberty," not the "Statue of Security.")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: hosepipe
What is mosquito bacteria?...

I assume it's the bacteria that lives in the digestive system of mosquitoes that is transferred from the host to a human's bloodstream when the mosquito bites them. People don't get diseases from the mosquito per se, but from bacteria and virus pathogens that are transferred from some other creature when the mosquito first feasts on it then goes and bites a human afterwords.

66 posted on 08/27/2006 5:28:06 PM PDT by FreedomCalls (It's the "Statue of Liberty," not the "Statue of Security.")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 34 | View Replies]

To: Amos the Prophet

Scattered considerations in the Malaria and DDT issue:

1. William Ruckelshaus became the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s first Administrator when the agency was formed in December 1970 when appointed by President Richard Nixon. During his tenure he oversaw a three-month hearing on DDT, after which he simply ignored the recommendations of scientists (and the draft ruling by the Administrative law Judge) and instituted a politically-inspired DDT ban[citation needed]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Ruckelshaus. I believe he was also a founding member of one of the major latter day environmental organizations during the 1960s as well, perhaps, the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).

2. There several forms of malaria and only the form found in Africa south of the Sahara is typically quite deadly. Those found in South America and SE Asia are more the classic periodic severe fever types. By the early 1960s most all malaria in, at least, southern Africa had been eliminated through use of DDT. Thanks to the EPA ruling use of DDT essentially ceased in Africa with severe resurgence of malaria including the most fatal type which has now been killing 1-2 million people, mostly children, per year. In other words, while you read this piece they are dying at 2-4 per minute.

3. It would be nice to see how long DDT worked before the mosquitoes became immune to it. We do know that the first preventive treatment, chloroquine is now almost totally ineffective, the 2nd treatment Lariam (brand name) that began to be used in the late 1980s is now ineffectual in many areas of the world, (e.g., western suburbs of Phnom Penh) and the most recent drug, Malerone, is now the drug of chose for those that do not want an extended prophylactic treatment regime with doxycycline. Of course, all these options only apply to international travelers, as all but the richest citizens of the third world are much too poor to use them.

4. There may or may not be more brown pelicans now than there would have been sans a DDT ban. Independent variations in the anchovy populations confuse the data. It does appear that DDT tended to thin eggshells in heavy accumulations. The thinning of the shells has been shown to enhance raptor reproduction as some that would die before of failure to peck through the shell can now escape their egg shell tombs.

5. To me the conclusions seem clear and tragic: many millions of humans in the third world were avoidably killed while thanks to West Nile virus and no DDT even more millions of avoidable bird deaths also occurred.

Why does no one hold people who make such bad decisions up to the light of public ostracism?


67 posted on 08/27/2006 6:03:35 PM PDT by SERUM10
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 63 | View Replies]

To: hosepipe

"What is mosquito bacteria?"

Humm. In this case a proofreading error.
Should read mosquito larvae


68 posted on 08/27/2006 6:09:11 PM PDT by Pete from Shawnee Mission
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 34 | View Replies]

To: mathprof

"No one proposes a return to the widespread agricultural use that (ALLEGEDLY)severely harmed ecosystems in the United States and Europe decades ago".

Seems to me that DDT's nefarious reputation was never actually proven in any unbiased study.
Wasn't DDT one of those things it's defender ate without ill affect?


69 posted on 08/27/2006 6:14:02 PM PDT by Richard-SIA ("The natural progress of things is for government to gain ground and for liberty to yield" JEFFERSON)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: StACase
From:

http://nyjtimes.com/Heritage/News/Mar3103.htm

"BGU Developer of Natural Pesticides to get Prestigious Tyler Prize
Prof. Yoel Margalith, of the department of life sciences at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, is to receive today the prestigious Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement at a ceremony in Los Angeles, THE JERUSALEM POST reported.

Margalith is being honored for his discovery of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) naturally occurring bacteria that is lethal to mosquitoes and black flies. According to the Tyler Prize executive committee, Margalith's discovery "saved millions of lives with minimal environmental impact." Discovered 25 years ago, Bti is an environmentally safe biological pesticide found in nature. Used as a biological control agent, the bacteria kill immature mosquitoes before they begin to fly without harming the surrounding flora and fauna, including the natural enemies of larval mosquitoes. The introduction of Bti has led to the control of many fly-and-mosquito borne diseases, such as river blindness in Africa and malarial infections along the Yangtze River in China.

Created in 1973, the Tyler Prize is the most prestigious award for environmental science, energy, and medicine.... "

B.T is used to control fly larvae on dairy farms and mosquitoes in ponds. Mosquitoes are vectors for west nile as well as malaria.

Another form of B.T. used as a biological control for cabbage loopers. Do you eat broccoli, cabbage? If so it was probably sprayed with this stuff. Tomatoes? It controls tomato hornworms. B.T has been used since the 1970s.

There is information here on at least one use for a dead mongoose.

http://www.stuffemal.com/stuffed_animals/rikkitikki.html

Another is here. (They make good brushes.)

http://www.dickblick.com/zz066/32a/
70 posted on 08/27/2006 6:57:25 PM PDT by Pete from Shawnee Mission
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 25 | View Replies]

To: SERUM10

Thank you for clarifying the source of the DDT ban. My memory failed me.
I lived in Appalachia during the 50's. DDT was considered a miracle drug by rural people. It saved the lives of countless poor people. Banning it created serious conflict between people living on the land and people who wanted to control the way folks live on the land.
There was a popular song played on all the local radio stations entitled, "Ain't no flies on Jesus, 'cause He's sprayed with DDT."
It can not be stated strongly enough that the EPA from its beginnings has been and remains an enemy of people who depend on living on the land. The only law more grievous is the Endangered Species Act. Both are the result of a mentality expressed by the woman mentioned at the beginning of this thread who believes that all humans should be eradicated. That is the true agenda of these dispicable laws.


71 posted on 08/27/2006 6:58:26 PM PDT by Louis Foxwell (Here come I, gravitas in tow.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 67 | View Replies]

To: leilani

Pelicans are around here in the Gulf Coast of Mississippi big time (post ban). But I don't understand why the rest of the coastal birds survived. This is something I gotta look into, I'm not a enviro whacko, but this brings alot of new questions to my mind.


72 posted on 08/27/2006 7:21:34 PM PDT by mosquewatch.com (No Islam, Know Peace. www.mosquewatch.blogspot.com)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 62 | View Replies]

To: Gay State Conservative
I wonder what might happen when the mosquitoes develop a resistance to DDT which,if I remember my basic science correctly,is sure to happen.

Does the DDT kill the malaria in the blood of the mosquito or does it kill the mosquito?

73 posted on 08/27/2006 7:25:34 PM PDT by Texas Eagle (If it wasn't for double-standards, Liberals would have no standards at all.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: BobL
Here's the question. If 'Buush has killed 1700 people in Iraq (imitating a liberal here)', then how many people has the WHO killed around the world by preventing DDT use? Likely more than the number of people that died in WW2

That, my friend is the key to these arguments. These idiots will sacrifice thousands of lives,(the elderly and young hardest hit) in the name of environmentalism, and act like they are doing us all a favor.

Read a book by PJ O'Rourke called All the Trouble in the World. He covers this type of thinking perfectly.

74 posted on 08/27/2006 7:32:46 PM PDT by lawnguy (Give me some of your tots!!!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 17 | View Replies]

To: mathprof
Rock and Roll!


75 posted on 08/27/2006 7:35:34 PM PDT by Revolting cat! ("In the end, nothing explains anything.")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Pete from Shawnee Mission

Thanks for the post. I assume the microbe isn't a "mongoose" and has the EPA stamp of approval. Along with DDT, it makes a fine weapon in the arsenal against arthropod pests.




76 posted on 08/27/2006 8:01:53 PM PDT by StACase
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 70 | View Replies]

To: mathprof

I don't think it's a coincidence that Rachel Carson's promotion of the killing of 50 or more million people by outlawing DDT dovetails with the coming of age of the Hippies and the Leftie navel gazers during the '60's.

Rachel killed more people than Mao or Stalin or Pol Pot, perhaps not as many as Ghengis Khan.


77 posted on 08/27/2006 8:10:42 PM PDT by Rembrandt (We would have won Viet Nam w/o Dim interference.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: RadioAstronomer

'But environmental groups...
Had an interesting conversation with an extreme radical environmentalist the other day at a restaurant.

She said, and I quote, "wouldn't the world be a much better place if the human race was extinct"?

I asked if she was jesting. Turned out she was completely serious.

She followed up with, and again I quote, "It would be no great loss to me if all the humans in the world died tomorrow".

That is so irrational, even attempting to argue an apposing position is futile at best.'
~~
I understand just exactly the kind of person you're describing. I think a good retort would have been - "well, show your leadership."


78 posted on 08/27/2006 8:13:31 PM PDT by Rembrandt (We would have won Viet Nam w/o Dim interference.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 8 | View Replies]

To: Pete from Shawnee Mission

"The problem with DDT is that it kills pretty much every insect with which it comes in contact, good, bad, indifferent, it just kills them."

If it kills every insect, would that include Jimmah Cahtah?


79 posted on 08/27/2006 8:20:07 PM PDT by Rembrandt (We would have won Viet Nam w/o Dim interference.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 22 | View Replies]

To: StACase

"It's smart to use nature against nature.

Yes, the mongoose was introduced to Hawaii and the folks there just love them."

Kudzu - another example.


80 posted on 08/27/2006 8:22:20 PM PDT by Rembrandt (We would have won Viet Nam w/o Dim interference.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 25 | View Replies]

To: Jim Noble

'I'm no infectious disease specialist
~~
Well, I'm board-certified,and I assure you that DDT is essential to combat malaria.

It will also eliminate West Nile, EEE, and a variety of other undesireables.
~~
Timely, pertinent and excellent post. Thank you! FR is blessed to have people like you among its readership and contributors.


81 posted on 08/27/2006 8:25:57 PM PDT by Rembrandt (We would have won Viet Nam w/o Dim interference.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 36 | View Replies]

To: mathprof

I just finished the excellent book by David McCullough...." Path Between the Seas", about the building of the Panama Canal. We got rid of the malaria there by other ingenious means. No DDT was used, as it wasn't yet invented.

They simply, by hard work, got rid of the mosquitos.


82 posted on 08/27/2006 8:30:36 PM PDT by TheLion
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: StACase

"Mosquito resistance against DDT

In some areas DDT has lost much of its effectiveness, especially in areas such as India where outdoor transmission is the predominant form. According to V.P. Sharma, "The declining effectiveness of DDT is a result of several factors which frequently operate in tandem. The first and the most important factor is vector resistance to DDT. All populations of the main vector, An. culicifacies have become resistant to DDT."
~~~
Wikipedia is highly controversial and highly suspect because for a long time, anyone, like YOU for example, could edit each and every entry thereby inserting their own biases and disinformation. Of course, I'm sure you wouldn't insert disinformation, now would you?


83 posted on 08/27/2006 8:31:07 PM PDT by Rembrandt (We would have won Viet Nam w/o Dim interference.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 43 | View Replies]

To: RadioAstronomer; mathprof
She followed up with, and again I quote, "It would be no great loss to me if all the humans in the world died tomorrow".

You should have told her:

"Think Globally - Act Locally - Off Yourself"

84 posted on 08/27/2006 8:31:33 PM PDT by tarheelswamprat (You can kill all the orcs you want but ya gotta take the ring to Mordor to end it...)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 8 | View Replies]

To: Gay State Conservative

"But am I correct to suspect that the vector of these diseases will,over time,develop a resistance to the DDT thus putting the people of various tropical regions right back where they started?"

Your question pre-supposes that some individuals will survive, develop limited or total immunity and pass it on genetically. I don't believe that any individuals, in significant numbers, survive. Hence, no passing on of survivability genes.


85 posted on 08/27/2006 8:37:39 PM PDT by Rembrandt (We would have won Viet Nam w/o Dim interference.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 49 | View Replies]

To: leilani

"I bought into it too.And pelicans supposedly are more numerous post-ban. Even my parents & other old-timers have said so & none of them are environmentalist wackos. Would you let me know if you find out anything, would you?I'd like to know the story on this as well."

The environmental wackos assured us that the Alaskan pipeline was the death knell of the caribou population. That population has exploded and they like hanging out next to the pipeline since it provides a source of warmth. That probably makes them more amorous, hence more caribou.


86 posted on 08/27/2006 8:43:17 PM PDT by Rembrandt (We would have won Viet Nam w/o Dim interference.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 62 | View Replies]

To: hosepipe
I presume the OP is talking about bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, commonly abbreviated to "BT" or "BTI".

It's a naturally occuring bacteria that occurs in several variants - one form (var. kurstaki) kills worms, grubs, etc - often used by gardeners on squash vine borers, but also genetically engineered into corn to control cutworms, etc.

The israelensis form is quite useful for killing mosquitoes, gnats and other Diptera species. It's sold as "Mosquito Dunks," for ponds, birdbaths, etc. They're basically little floating donuts of mosquito death.

I personally favor a broader-spectrum approach - there are many chemicals that kill mosquitoes quite nicely (in addition to the BT mentioned above), like malathion, pyrethroids, etc. Bed nets impregnated with these alternatives are effective in limiting the spread as well.

SW

87 posted on 08/28/2006 3:23:48 AM PDT by Snidely Whiplash
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 34 | View Replies]

To: FreedomCalls
Mosquitoes will develop a resistance to DDT at the same time humans develop resistance to Malaria. That is, it will take a long time.

This is categorically untrue, for a variety of reasons, not the least of which revolves around the reproductive cycle of a mosquito (2-3 weeks) versus that of a human being (~20 years).

Secondly, there are tons of observed instances of DDT resistance in mosquitoes. Sri Lanka, for one, is teeming with DDT resistant skeeters.

Vietnam stopped using DDT in 1991, yet their malaria rates plummeted. Why? Mosquito nets, distribution of anti-malarial drugs, and education (gasp!). They managed to reduce the death rate from malaria by 97% in six years, and the infection rate went down by 59%.

SW

88 posted on 08/28/2006 3:40:33 AM PDT by Snidely Whiplash
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 65 | View Replies]

To: backhoe

Ping, for your archives.


89 posted on 08/28/2006 4:30:33 AM PDT by Straight Vermonter
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Straight Vermonter

Thanks! ^


90 posted on 08/28/2006 4:48:00 AM PDT by backhoe (Just an Old Keyboard Cowboy, Ridin' the Trakball into the Dawn of Information)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 89 | View Replies]

To: Rembrandt; StACase
Ok, Rembrandt, I will amend what I said to this extent; it is smart to use natural controls in an intelligent way.

In the case of mongoose and kudzu was any significant research was ever done prior to their release into the environment? I'm sure it was not. Big difference.

Unless we can figure out how to bring back continent ice sheets to scour North America clean kudzu is here to stay. Its free, its like heat resistant spinach, its covers the south so..

Some recipes:

Kudzu rice quiche (I don't care for quiche myself.)

http://www.recipezaar.com/94289

from this site:

"It's everywhere! So we might as well do something with it. Every part of the Kudzu plant is usable. Try young Kudzu leaves in place of spinach. Deep fried Kudzu leaves are like potato chips. Do a pot of rolled stuffed Kudzu leaves instead of using cabbage... Use the root powder in place of cornstarch and for frying squash or other vegetables....... Make Kudzu wine!"


http://home.att.net/~ejlinton/jelly.html
91 posted on 08/28/2006 6:58:05 AM PDT by Pete from Shawnee Mission
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 80 | View Replies]

To: mathprof

Does DDT kill only mosquitos? What other insects does it kill?

I have a nice swamp beside my house I'd like to erradicate.


92 posted on 08/28/2006 9:43:27 AM PDT by MD_Willington_1976
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]


Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first previous 1-5051-92 last

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson