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The Great Christmas Night Raid
Townhall ^ | 12/22/06 | W. Thomas Smith, Jr.

Posted on 12/22/2006 4:29:21 AM PST by Molly Pitcher

Continental Army General George Washington’s celebrated “Crossing of the Delaware” has been dubbed in some military circles, “America’s first special operation.” Though there were certainly many small-unit actions, raids, and Ranger operations during the Colonial Wars – and there was a special Marine landing in Nassau in the early months of the American Revolution – no special mission by America’s first army has been more heralded than that which took place on Christmas night exactly 230 years ago.

Certainly the mission had all the components of a modern special operation (though without all the modern battlefield technologies we take for granted in the 21st century): “A secret expedition” is how John Greenwood, a soldier with the 15th Massachusetts, described it, as quoted in Bruce Chadwick’s The First American Army.

If nothing else, all the elements for potential disaster were with Washington and his men as they crossed the Delaware River from the icy Pennsylvania shoreline to the equally frozen banks of New Jersey, followed by an eight-mile march to the objective – the town of Trenton.

The river – swollen and swift moving – was full of wide, thick sheets of solid ice. And unlike the romanticized portrayal of the operation in the famous painting by Emanuel Leutze (the one with Washington standing in his dramatic, martial pose; his determined face turned toward the far side of the river), the actual crossing was made in the dead of night, in a gale-like wind and a blinding sleet and snowstorm. Odds are, Washington would have been hunkered down in one of the 66-ft-long wooden boats, draped in his cloak, stoically enduring the bitter cold with his soldiers, some of whom were rowing or poling the boats against the ice and the current.

WASHINGTON’S STRATEGIC CONCERNS

The decision for the crossing and the subsequent raid on Trenton was based on Washington’s belief that he had to do something. Otherwise – as he penned in a private letter – “the game will be pretty near up.”

To the easily disheartened and the cut-and-runners, it might have seemed “the game” was indeed already “up.” After all, many of Washington’s Continental Army were wounded, sick, and demoralized. Recent losses to the British had been severe. Desertion numbers were rising, and enlistment terms were almost up. Reinforcements were poorly trained and ill-equipped. Ammunition was in short supply. The soldiers were not properly outfitted for extreme winter conditions: Clothing was spare. Many men were in rags, some “naked,” according to Washington’s own account. Most had broken shoes or no shoes at all.

THE PLAN

The mission itself, though a huge gamble, was tactically simple.

Washington, personally leading a force of just under 2,500 men, would cross the river undetected, march toward Trenton, and attack the enemy garrisoned in the town at dawn.

Two of Washington’s other commanders, Generals John Cadwalader and James Ewing, were also directed to cross: Cadwalader’s force was to cross and attack a second garrison near Bordentown. Ewing’s force was to cross and block the enemy’s escape at Trenton. Both commanders, discouraged by the weather and the river, aborted their own operations. But according to Maurice Matloff’s American Military History (the U.S. Army’s official history), “Driven by Washington’s indomitable will, the main force did cross as planned.”

Speed of movement, surprise, maneuver, violence of action, and the plan’s simplicity were all key. And fortunately, the elements all came together.

The factors in Washington’s favor were clear: The weather was so bad that no one believed the Continentals would attempt a river crossing followed by a forced march, much less at night. The Continentals were numerically – and perceived to be qualitatively – inferior to the British Army. The Hessians, mercenaries allied to the British and who were garrisoned in Trenton, had a battlefield reputation that far exceeded their actual combat prowess. And no one believed the weary Americans would want to attempt anything with anyone on Christmas.

THE CROSSING

Hours before kickoff, Washington had his officers read to the men excerpts of Thomas Paine’s The American Crisis, a portion of which reads:

“These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict the more glorious the triumph.”

By 4:00 p.m. the force was gathered at McKonkey's Ferry, the launching point for the mission. The watchword, “Victory or death,” was given. When darkness set in, the men climbed into the boats and began easing out into the black river.

Back and forth thoughout the night and into the wee hours of the 26th, the boat crews ferried the little army, a few horses, and 18 cannon across the Delaware. The crossing was complete by 4 a.m., but two hours behind schedule, and the temperatures were plummeting. At least two men, exhausted and falling asleep in the snow, froze to death.

ATTACKING TRENTON

The next obstacle was the march toward Trenton in blinding snow, sleet, even hail; and on bloody frostbitten feet. “Keep going men, keep up with your officers,” Washington, now on horseback, urged as he rode alongside his advancing infantry.

Just before 8:00 a.m., the advance elements of the American army were spotted on the outskirts of town by a Hessian lieutenant. But by the time he was able to sound the alarm, all hell was breaking loose. Americans were rushing into Trenton with fixed bayonets. The Hessians – some still in their underwear, and nearly all with hangovers from too much Christmas Day celebrating – were attempting to form ranks, but were quickly overrun. Many fled in a panic. Hundreds surrendered. Those who resisted were shot down or run through with the bayonet. The Hessian commander, Col. Johann Rall, was desperately trying to rally his men. But he was shot from his horse, and died later that day.

One of Washington’s junior officers, Lieutenant James Monroe was leading a charge against a Hessian position in the town, when he took a musket ball in the chest and collapsed. Amazingly he survived, and would ultimately become the fifth president of the United States.

The fighting lasted about an hour. Four Americans had been killed and ten-times as many Hessians lay dead in the snow. Some 900 enemy prisoners were rounded up, along with weapons, ammunition, and other desperately needed stores. And Washington’s victorious army was soon marching back along the river road to the waiting boats and the return crossing.

WHAT IT MEANT FOR AMERICA

Days later when many enlistments were up, Washington ordered his commanders to form ranks. He then rode out before the troops, and appealed to their sense of duty as well as the criticality of their fight:

“My brave fellows, you have done all I asked you to do, and more than could be reasonably expected, but your country is at stake … The present is emphatically the crisis which is to decide our destiny.”

Indeed it was in December of 1776, just as it is in December of 2006.

Washington held his little army together. Many of the continentals renewed their enlistments. They then capitalized on their Trenton victory with wins over the British at Trenton (the second go ‘round) on January 2, and Princeton on January 3.

The initial Delaware crossing and the raid on Trenton was the bold, high-risk shot-in-the-arm the nearly disintegrated American army needed in late 1776. The fighting was far from over, and there would be many setbacks for the Americans before the Treaty of Paris was signed formally ending the war in 1783. But the great Christmas night raid in 1776 would forever serve as a model of how a special operation – or a conventional mission, for that matter – might be successfully conducted. There are never any guarantees for success on the battlefield; but with a little initiative and a handful of good Americans, the dynamics of war can be altered in a single night.


TOPICS: Culture/Society; Extended News; Miscellaneous
KEYWORDS: americanrevolution; crossingthedelaware; georgewashington; trenton

1 posted on 12/22/2006 4:29:22 AM PST by Molly Pitcher
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To: Pharmboy

I just love this history!


2 posted on 12/22/2006 4:29:51 AM PST by Molly Pitcher (We are Americans...the sons and daughters of liberty...*.from FReeper the Real fifi*))
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To: Molly Pitcher
“These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict the more glorious the triumph.”

I wonder when he wrote this if Thomas Paine even imagined that 230 years later these words would still ring so true.

3 posted on 12/22/2006 4:38:31 AM PST by commish (Freedom tastes sweetest to those who have fought to protect it.)
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To: commish

As understanding and brilliant as he was, he probably did believe they were words for the ages.


4 posted on 12/22/2006 4:44:14 AM PST by Molly Pitcher (We are Americans...the sons and daughters of liberty...*.from FReeper the Real fifi*))
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To: Molly Pitcher

A most important victory of the Revolution. Today's MSM would have never reported it.


5 posted on 12/22/2006 4:55:34 AM PST by NonValueAdded (Prayers for our patriot brother, 68-69TonkinGulfYachtClub, now more than ever my FRiends.)
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To: commish

That stood right out to me as well...

I agree, it is totally applicable today!!!

Good snag there!!!


6 posted on 12/22/2006 4:58:12 AM PST by stevie_d_64 (Houston Area Texans (I've always been hated))
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To: Molly Pitcher
MSM, 1776:

"Washington has led us into a quagmire. Lets have truce talks with King George, and court marshal Washington."
7 posted on 12/22/2006 4:59:49 AM PST by PA-RIVER
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To: Molly Pitcher

Marine Vignettes #86-89
General John Glover
& His Marblehead Mariners
By John Glover Eastman
August 27, 1999
#86

Introduction


Again and again the question is raised by Marines, "Just what is meant by the Old Corps?"

The answers to that question are arguable on into infinity it seems, with the opinion of each one differing in some degree from all others. The answer is ultimately different and unique for each individual Marine. Probably in no other military organization has so much emphasis been placed on its history and traditions. And so Marines are especially well versed in the events that have occurred in our Corps since November 10, 1775 and Tun Tavern.

"...but its roots go back much further. The use of fighting men aboard ships was well established by the time of the Phoenicians, and their duties were remarkably similar to those of today's Corps--fighting in naval engagements, boarding enemy ships, and making raids into enemy territory... The Greeks and Romans picked up the ideas of marines from the Phoenicians, and marines have been used by every maritime country since....Official recognition of marines came first from Charles II of England . In 1664 he decreed the formation of the Admiral's Maritime Regiment, later renamed The Regiment of Marines, still later, the Royal Marines. In 1740 three regiments of marines were raised in the American colonies. An early commander was William Gooch of Virginia, and his troops became known as Gooch's Marines....When the revolution came, the Americans found they needed marines of their own...Samuel Nicholas, a Quaker innkeeper, was commissioned the first Marine officer, and recruiting began at the Tun Tavern in Philadelphia."
(Re The Marine Book, by Chuck Lawliss, Thames & Hudson, NY 1992)

BTW, there seems to be some disagreement in the matter of Tun Tavern.
"...the story is untrue. It probably got its start from the fact that Samuel Nicholas, effectively the first Marine Commandant, actually did own a tavern in Philadelphia, the Conestoga Wagon, which apparently served as his headquarters for a time. However, the owner of the Tun Tavern did become a Marine officer, about a year after the creation of the Corps, which probably gave rise to the legend."
(Re Marine Corps Book of Lists, by Albert A. Nofi, Combined Publishing 1997)

That much of the tradition of the U.S. Marine Corps is rooted in the British Royal Marines is self-evident. American colonists had served in the Royal Marines all along. The official colors of both services are scarlet and gold, etc; and later, both services fought together in Samoa, the Boxer Rebellion, World War I, World War II, and Korea, etc.

Eleven states had established their own organized Marine Corps' by the time of the Revolutionary War. And prior to the war, there were those private marines known as "Privateers."

It is hoped that the interested reader here will delve into the references mentioned-- and there are many others--in the interest of finding that things are never quite as they might have seemed, and that there is always more information to be found on any subject; otherwise there always exists the possibility of error by omission as well as for any other reason.

The following 'vignette' is provided courtesy of Mr. John Glover Eastman, and is one of the many items of information that is not as well known as, I think, it should be. It is hereby presented for your attention.

By Editor, Dick Gaines

For my entire life I've heard the family story that General John Glover donated/leased the first armed vessel in our Nation's history to the United Colonies. It was a schooner christened the "Hannah" and was activated on August 1, 1775. General Glover lived in Marblehead, MA but the "Hannah" was berthed in Beverly, MA.

There still exists a "war" of who is to get the historical credit between these two towns. I understand that there were also armed gunboats on Lake Champlain who claim to be the origin of the US Navy, as well. With apologies to extraordinarily courageous men of the "Brown Water" Navy, I feel that the origin of the Navy belongs to ocean going vessels.

I am new to the list and perhaps all of this is old news but for information: Just a few days out of port she recaptured an American vessel that was seized by the British. The Royal Navy started an intensive search for the "Hannah". On 16 October, 1775 she engaged the H.M.S. Nautilus and although heavily out gunned her crew was able to survive this first naval battle of the Revolution. (Note: The 'list' Mr. Eastman speaks of, above, is the Scuttlebutt & Small Chow Marines History List, where this was first posted. -Ed)

As to the importance of General Glover and his Marblehead Mariners to the United States Marine Corps:

Glover's Mariners were comprised of mostly merchant marine sailors and fishermen. When the Continental Army had to be evacuated from their entrapment in New York it was the Marblehead Mariners who placed their muskets in the boats, picked up and heaved the oars. When they reached the evacuation beaches they laid their oars down and picked up their muskets.


When the boats were loaded they reversed the musket/oar cycle and route continually until the entire Army was safely on the other side. Without these Mariners the Continental Army would have ceased to exist and that first Revolution would have been over. That would leave us today with a lot more in common with Canada. ( I strongly believe that if the Revolution had failed, and the reason I referred to it as the "first", was that eventually in the course of history our forefathers would have ousted British rule.)


Into the boats; land on a hostile shore. Sounds like a US Marine to me.

Another event that makes me feel Glover and his unit are the de facto founders of the US Marines is the battle of Treneton. It was, again, the Marblehead Mariners manning the boats that ferried the Army to defeat the British/Hessians at Trenton. ( Regardless of that well known artistic rendering of the crossing, there was no ice and I doubt anyone was standing in the boats.) When the troops were safely across the Mariners grab their weapons and joined in the assault. This victory was another pivotal event in the eventual success of the Revolution. I'm a little shaky on the following point: I believe that the victory at Trenton, besides raising the level of commitment to final victory over the British, caused France to agree to support the Revolution. France's Fleet (Adm. DeGrasse?) trapped the British fleet allowing our victory at the final battle of Saratoga.

Obviously I have family bias but strongly believe that more attention and credit should be given to our Country's first Marines by the present USMC and its previously active duty members.

Nathan Billias, a noted naval historian, showed in his book "General John Glover and his Marblehead Mariners" that my Great Great Great Great Great Grandfather indeed led our first sea going amphibious force and was, at the very least, was the predecessor of the United States Marine Corps. And if you believe that our founding Fathers were Americans and the first citizens of the United States then they should be considered the actual founding of the Corps.

Thank you for listening.

John Glover Eastman
Vietnam '69-'70
E-Mail: namvets@capecod.net

Addendum:

Dick,

My deepest thanks for your interest in my Ancestor's and his
unit's role in the founding of the United States Marine Corps.
Of course you have my permission to present my writings on the
list. If you can locate Nathan Billias' book it may greatly add to your
publication. I do possess a history of General Glover which contains some of the correspondence between him and Washington and the Continental Congress.

Not the brightest moment in then Colonel Glover's career but
maybe of some interest: When the Army was struggling at Valley Forge, Glover received word that his family was starving in Marblehead which I will guess was caused by the British blockade of Boston and loss of revenue. Keep in mind that before the war he was a very successful merchant marine owner and he and his family
lived a life style that coincided with his wealth. His house, which still
stands in Marblehead, attests to that wealth. During the war his fortunes diminished greatly which caused his family's hardship.

He left Valley Forge and headed for his family. He was either
over taken by a messenger or did arrive at Marblehead and shortly after received a personal letter form Washington. Washington was greatly displeased at Col. Glover leaving Valley Forge and used an interesting ploy and very historical phrase to get him to return.

In the letter Washington chastised him for (this is my remembrance of the letter. But it will give you the gist of it.)

" It is men like you who start an honorable endeavor and then
leave it that cause us the most harm. You are like a soldier who will only serve in the summer months and not stay through the harshness of winter." This passage resulting in the term "Summer Soldiers" and "Winter Soldiers".

The letter continued in my thoughts: " You have been with me since the beginning and have made yourself and your unit a most valuable
force in the conduct of the struggle before us. I am aware of the personal issues that confront you but you will do more for your family and all our families by returning to you post. To honor your accomplishments in pursuit of the dream of freedom you are hereby promoted to the rank of General".

The slap and the promotion worked and General Glover returned
immediately to duty. His family went on in a squalid living situation until the blockade was broken. Sadder yet is that when the war was over Glover was almost penniless and died as an impoverished cobbler. The last sentence may be found in Billias' book but I have no recollection of it in that work. This was family lore from generation to generation. I still use this in my work as a Director of a Veterans' Outreach Center in Hyannis, MA. When some one asks how can the country treat its veterans so poorly. I simply reply, "Tradition."

Again my thanks for interest. Any method of telling the story of
General Glover is most welcomed. Two other bits of information just
recalled; There is large statue of the General on Commonwealth Avenue in Boston and in 1969/70 the US Navy commissioned the USS John Glover, a missile frigate I believe. The Navy tracked down all the direct descendents to include my brother,my father and his eight brother and sisters. I, unfortunately was in I Corps with 101st at that time and missed out on the Christening.

Regards,
John Glover Eastman


8 posted on 12/22/2006 5:11:28 AM PST by gunnyg
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Comment #9 Removed by Moderator

To: Molly Pitcher
The watchword, “Victory or death,” was given.

Americans, 1776: "Victory or death."

Americans, 2006: "Victory or, oh what the heck!"

10 posted on 12/22/2006 6:15:00 AM PST by metesky ("Brethren, leave us go amongst them." Rev. Capt. Samuel Johnston Clayton - Ward Bond- The Searchers)
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To: Molly Pitcher; indcons; Chani; thefactor; blam; aculeus; ELS; Doctor Raoul; mainepatsfan; timpad; ..

The Washington Family Coat of Arms

Freepmail me to get ON or OFF this list.

I would encourage you folks to visit Trenton and the Old Barracks to re-live the Battle. You can stand on the hill where Hamilton set up his artillery and The General stood and sent a 17 y/o James Monroe with a few others to take a Hessian cannon (Monroe was wounded in this encounter).

Thanks to Molly Pitcher for posting. Trenton and the closely following Battle of Princeton were sorely needed wins in a tough campaign. It is because of the stick-to-itiveness of those early Americans that we enjoy the freedoms we have today in the greatest country that ever was, is, and ever will be.

Merry Christmas and/or Happy Hannukah to all of those on the list and to Freepers and their families everywhere.

11 posted on 12/22/2006 6:15:52 AM PST by Pharmboy ([She turned me into a] Newt! in '08)
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To: Molly Pitcher

I had ancestors fighting in this operation.

God Bless George Washington and the brave patriots of America's past.


12 posted on 12/22/2006 6:19:08 AM PST by silverleaf (Fasten your seat belts- it's going to be a BUMPY ride.)
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To: gunnyg
As a student of the Revolution, Gen. Glover is certainly one of my favorites. Tough, smart, dedicated and fair, he and the Marblehead boys he led played key roles in transportation (Battles of Brooklyn, Trenton for example) and fought with their picks once the fight was joined.

One other interesting fact about Gen. Glover was that as a Congregationalist, he believed in the equality of all men. Because of this, he had--throughout the RevWar--an integrated group of mariners/fighters. Usually about 10% of his men were African American, but it got as high as 25%.

13 posted on 12/22/2006 6:21:27 AM PST by Pharmboy ([She turned me into a] Newt! in '08)
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To: All
A very nice, and comprehensive, piece. To understand just how significant an accomplishment the victory of Washington's Continental forces at Trenton was, it has to be placed in the context of the severe battering they had taken over the past summer in a truly disastrous defense of New York and the continual string of defeats they had suffered there. After that, Howe's' fast moving troops under Cornwallis crossed the Hudson River almost undetected and maneuvered Washington's forces out of their only strong point in New Jersey (Fort Lee) and chased them clear across that colony, over the Delaware River, and into Pennsylvania.

That Washington somehow managed to hold his force together and cobble together that offensive move at Trenton was near-miraculous feat.

14 posted on 12/22/2006 6:28:13 AM PST by RedsHunter
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To: RedsHunter
According to an article I read a couple of years ago, one interesting aspect of this raid was that it probably never would have been carried out against British troops. Attacking troops in a garrison in the middle of the night -- especially on Christmas night -- would have been considered a violation of the unwritten rules of "gentlemanly" warfare at the time.

Washington and his officers had no qualms about attacking the Hessians in this manner, though. Since these were mercenaries and were therefore not fighting for their own country, they were basically considered something along the lines of "unlawful enemy combatants" of sorts -- and were not extended the same courtesies and concessions as the British would have been given.

15 posted on 12/22/2006 7:02:23 AM PST by Alberta's Child (Can money pay for all the days I lived awake but half asleep?)
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To: Alberta's Child
I think the rewriting of American history is a crying shame, don't you?

a contingent of the Green Mountain Boys captured Fort Ticonderoga early in the morning of May 10, 1775. Allen demanded surrender from the British commander "in the name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress."

At dawn on May 10, the Americans surprised the British. Not a shot was fired, due to their shock. Allen bounded up to the captains quarters. Captain de la Place, the captain charged out of his quarter with a hatchet. Allen demanded that Ticonderoga was delivered to the Americans. The captain asked Allen by whose authority that he demanded it. Allen replied the Continental Congress demanded it. After that, de La Place handed the fort over to him. 2 days later, Allen captured another fort near Crown Point. They also capture many heavy weapons, including 45 cannons. This gave a great advantage to the Americans for winning the Revolutionary War.


Thanks to the Green Mountain Boys.
16 posted on 12/22/2006 7:25:22 AM PST by hedgetrimmer (I'm a millionaire thanks to the WTO and "free trade" system--Hu Jintao top 10 worst dictators)
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To: Alberta's Child
Washington and his officers had no qualms about attacking the Hessians in this manner, though. Since these were mercenaries and were therefore not fighting for their own country, they were basically considered something along the lines of "unlawful enemy combatants" of sorts -- and were not extended the same courtesies and concessions as the British would have been given.

I'd certainly have to agree with that assessment. Then too, there were some particularly hard feelings against Rall had his unit among the Continentals because of the alleged atrocities committed by the Hessian troops against both military and civilian personnel in both New York and New Jersey in the not-so-distant past -- as well as the Hessians supposed free use of their bayonets on the American forces who had already surrendered to them after the battle of Brooklyn Heights on Long Island and after the surrender of Fort Washington on Manhattan.

17 posted on 12/22/2006 7:38:42 AM PST by RedsHunter
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To: Molly Pitcher

Thanks for posting, Molly.

18 posted on 12/22/2006 7:42:13 AM PST by Diana in Wisconsin (Save The Earth. It's The Only Planet With Chocolate.)
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To: Molly Pitcher
This history rocks! Always worth reading again about the Delaware R. crossing and the Continentals' surprise raid on Trenton. Thanks so much for posting.

Merry Christmas!  :)

19 posted on 12/22/2006 7:46:56 AM PST by TonyRo76 (American by birth. Patriot by choice. Christian by grace.)
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To: Molly Pitcher

This was always one of my favorite Far Side cartoons.

Garde la Foi, mes amis! Nous nous sommes les sauveurs de la République! Maintenant et Toujours!
(Keep the Faith, my friends! We are the saviors of the Republic! Now and Forever!)

LonePalm, le Républicain du verre cassé (The Broken Glass Republican)

20 posted on 12/22/2006 7:58:19 AM PST by LonePalm (Commander and Chef)
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To: hedgetrimmer
Do some research on the Green Mountain Boys . . . their history is one of the most fascinating aspects of the political/historical landscape of North America in the 18th century. While they are honored today as American heroes from the Revolutionary War era, in reality they were a rough equivalent of the modern-day Mahdi Army in Iraq under Moqtada al-Sadr.

The area that is now the state of Vermont (based on "vere mont" -- the French translation for "green mountain") was a disputed territory long before the revolution. The region between Lake Champlain in the west and the Connecticut River in the east had been subject to competing claims by three different British jurisdictions (the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Provice of New York, and the Province of New Hampshire) at various times as far back as the 1660s. Because of the rugged terrain and harsh climate, it was basically ungovernable by any of the three -- and the "Green Mountain Boys" under Ethan Allen was an informal militia that effectively functioned as the only legitimate form of government since its inception in 1770 (some years before the revolution began). The basic purpose of the militia at the time was to allow settlers in this region enforce their New Hampshire land titles against the wishes of the British government (which had awarded these lands to the Province of New York).

Allen and his fellow leaders of the Green Mountain Boys saw the success of the colonists in the American Revolution as a means to negotiate deals with both the British government and the new American government to secure the best arrangement with either one -- to have Vermont join either Lower Canada as a British colony or the new American government as a U.S. state. At the time, the status of Vermont was so uncertain that it was conspicuously absent from the original Thirteen States.

Vermont's historical influences can be seen even to this day -- as Vermont still has a reputation for being among the most libertarian of all states in the U.S.

I know this is a long-winded reply, but it's basically a long way of saying this: Ethan Allen may have carried out the raid on For Ticonderoga "in the name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress," but the Continental Congress had absolutely no authority over the Green Mountain Boys and would have been completely powerless to do anything if he had refused to carry out the raid (hence the captain's question to Allen about "by whose authority that he demanded it [the surrender of the fort].

21 posted on 12/22/2006 7:59:21 AM PST by Alberta's Child (Can money pay for all the days I lived awake but half asleep?)
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To: Pharmboy

22 posted on 12/22/2006 8:35:34 AM PST by george76 (Ward Churchill : Fake Indian, Fake Scholarship, and Fake Art)
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To: gunnyg

Thank you for posting these facts about John Glover and the Marblehead Men!

However, I don't think that the Naval Special Warfare Command would agree that the Marbleheaders belong in the USMC lineage. NSWC has laid claim to Glover and his men as the antecedents of the Special Boat Squadrons.


23 posted on 12/22/2006 8:47:40 AM PST by SOLTC
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To: Alberta's Child
Enjoyed your right-on comments re: Allen and the Green Mountain Boys, Fort Ticonderoga et al; I had the opportunity to visit the restored Fort a while back and it was an experience that should not to be missed by anyone in the general vicinity. It's collection of period weaponry is of particular interest and scope.

(On a side note, one of my ancestors, Major Amos Morrill of the New Hampshire Grants, was with Allen and Arnold when they took Fort Ti by stealth in 1775. Of course, there's no mention in the family genealogy that specifies exactly where he was when Johnny Burgoyne's expeditionary forces showed up to retake possession, virtually unopposed, in 1777. (g) )

24 posted on 12/22/2006 9:04:52 AM PST by RedsHunter
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To: Pharmboy

Merry Christmas bump!


25 posted on 12/22/2006 9:13:51 AM PST by Dr. Scarpetta
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To: SOLTC

Hmmm....
Thanx, but I am really not impressed w/whatever any stinkin' gub-mint entity thinx bout anything--fuggem!


26 posted on 12/22/2006 9:14:51 AM PST by gunnyg
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To: george76

Boyoboy, that's good! Thanks for posting...


27 posted on 12/22/2006 9:16:44 AM PST by Pharmboy ([She turned me into a] Newt! in '08)
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To: Dr. Scarpetta

Thank you--and all the best to you and yours this Christmas season!


28 posted on 12/22/2006 9:19:34 AM PST by Pharmboy ([She turned me into a] Newt! in '08)
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To: Molly Pitcher

BTTT


29 posted on 12/22/2006 9:26:02 AM PST by Gritty (Nobody fights for the flag of hedonism, not even the hedonists themselves. - Paul Belien)
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To: Pharmboy

I wonder if he is related to my family. My grandfather, William Augustus Glover, was a Secret Service operative on the White House detail during the Teddy Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson administrations. My late mother would have probably known as she was the family historian. She put together a family book- I'll have to check.


30 posted on 12/22/2006 9:29:59 AM PST by SoCal Pubbie
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To: SoCal Pubbie

He would've likely been your grandfather's grandfather. That shouldn't be too hard to check, but wouldn't such a famous ancestor as Gen. Glover be known in your family?


31 posted on 12/22/2006 9:59:41 AM PST by Pharmboy ([She turned me into a] Newt! in '08)
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To: Molly Pitcher; Pharmboy

Thanks for the post and the ping.


32 posted on 12/22/2006 10:10:35 AM PST by aculeus
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To: Pharmboy

Thanks PB for the ping. A sidebar, from the Icky-pedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_of_the_Armies

During his lifetime, George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) never held the rank "General of the Armies." During the American Revolution he held the title of "General and Commander in Chief" of the Continental Army.

George Washington was not answerable to Continental Congress or the President of Congress while he commanded the Continental Army. In that regard, George Washington was the only person in United States history to actively command with complete authority all military forces of the United States.

[and he was worthy of that level of trust and responsibility, perhaps uniquely so]

A year prior to his death, Washington was appointed by President John Adams to the rank of Lieutenant General in the United States Army during the Quasi-War, after he had left office as President of the United States. Washington never exercised active authority under his new rank, however, and Adams made the appointment mainly to frighten the French, with whom war seemed certain.

Making up for lost time, and to maintain George Washington's proper position as the first Commanding General of the United States Army, he was appointed, posthumously, to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States by congressional joint resolution of January 19, 1976, approved by President Gerald R. Ford on October 11, 1976, and formalized in Department of the Army Special Order Number 31-3 of August 13, 1978, with an effective appointment date of July 4, 1776. The appointment confirmed George Washington as the most-senior United States military officer - more senior than Pershing because the date of Washington's posthumous commission predates Pershing by 143 years, but still subordinate in rank to the Commander In Chief. By normal US Military policy and precedent, no person may be elevated in seniority before their original date of appointment or enlistment.

Since George Washington is considered to be the most senior military officer, permanently outranking all other military officers, except the Commander In Chief, it is inferred that Washington's rank is considered a six star general, but there has never been any six-star insignia authorized or manufactured, since the rank of a five star general has already been established.


33 posted on 12/22/2006 10:18:58 AM PST by SunkenCiv (Don't bother, I haven't updated my profile since 11/16/06. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Molly Pitcher

If you like this synopsis, be sure to read "WASHINGTON'S CROSSING" by David Hackett Fischer. You'll love it.


34 posted on 12/22/2006 11:41:09 AM PST by ProtectOurFreedom
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To: ProtectOurFreedom
I already did! And before that Fischer's Paul Revere's Ride That book is an amazing read!
35 posted on 12/22/2006 12:32:07 PM PST by Molly Pitcher (We are Americans...the sons and daughters of liberty...*.from FReeper the Real fifi*))
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To: Molly Pitcher
I loved Paul Revere's Ride, too. Wasn't that an incredible story? How different from the grade school version we learned of the lanterns in the Old North Church, Revere's midnight ride followed by the British troops marching to Lexington and Concord. I was absolutely amazed at the carnage the colonials rained down on the brits on their retreat over the Battle Road.
36 posted on 12/22/2006 12:50:58 PM PST by ProtectOurFreedom
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To: ProtectOurFreedom

It's really one of my favorite history books...would make a great movie. It seems like the screenplay is all there in the book, already written.


37 posted on 12/22/2006 2:14:35 PM PST by Molly Pitcher (We are Americans...the sons and daughters of liberty...*.from FReeper the Real fifi*))
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To: Pharmboy
Probably. I suspect there is no relation, but who knows. On my mother's side they go way back almost to the Mayfower, but I';m not sure what the name was then. i do know some where Nye's. I guess I'm distantly related to Louise Nye.
38 posted on 12/22/2006 2:47:34 PM PST by SoCal Pubbie
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To: Pharmboy

I live but two miles away from the site of THE Crossing. I will be there on Christmas day for the reenactment.


39 posted on 12/22/2006 2:52:41 PM PST by Clemenza (Never Trust Anyone With a Latin Tagline)
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To: Molly Pitcher

I thought the exact same thing about how great a movie would be of either book. Gibson's "The Patriot" was a good human interest story and visually appealing, but didn't do a thing for communicating history or making it understandable. Either of the two books would make great war movies.


40 posted on 12/22/2006 3:15:13 PM PST by ProtectOurFreedom
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To: Alberta's Child
in reality they were a rough equivalent of the modern-day Mahdi Army in Iraq under Moqtada al-Sadr.

Is that so.
41 posted on 12/22/2006 6:11:47 PM PST by hedgetrimmer (I'm a millionaire thanks to the WTO and "free trade" system--Hu Jintao top 10 worst dictators)
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To: george76

LOL! Oh that's a good one!


42 posted on 12/22/2006 9:21:25 PM PST by SuziQ
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To: Diana in Wisconsin

One of my favorite pictures

Merchant Marine BTTT


43 posted on 12/22/2006 9:38:05 PM PST by Cold Heart
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To: Molly Pitcher
"The Hessians – some still in their underwear, and nearly all with hangovers from too much Christmas Day celebrating . . ."

The Hessians were Calvinists, complete with chaplains graduated form the University of Marburg. They held prayer services on Wednesdays and Sundays. They did not celebrate Christmas with drinking, if they even celebrated Christmas at all!!!

I challenge anyone to find me an example of ovservant Calvinists in the eighteenth century who celbrated Christmas in such a manner.

" – were attempting to form ranks, but were quickly overrun."

Wrong. The three battalions in Trenton DID form up at pre-appointed rallying points. Rall's intention was to march out and meet the enemy, so he made no provision for defending the houses themselves. He lost because he decided to attack INTO the town again to recover the brigade's baggage. Had he cut his lossses, acknowledged defeat, and retreated, Washington would have captured nothing more than the brigade's cannons and supplies.

"Many fled in a panic. Hundreds surrendered."

One company of Knyphausen's battalion cut its way clear and escaped towards Bordentown. Hardly fleeing in panic. Another battalion, I think it was Lossberg's, was on the verge of making its escape as well, but was informed by a courier that the brigade was instructed to lay down its arms.

It continues to amaze me that the writers of "popular history" insist on perpetuating stories that actually DIMINISH Washington's achievement, by describing a victory over a diorderly band of drunkards. Eyewitness accounts from the Continental officers themselves tell a quite different story.

44 posted on 12/24/2006 12:16:28 AM PST by Goetz_von_Berlichingen
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