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Inca Leapt Canyons With Fiber Bridges
The Tech On-line ^ | 5-8-2007 | John Noble Wilford

Posted on 05/08/2007 7:53:39 PM PDT by blam

Inca Leapt Canyons With Fiber Bridges

MIT Students Plan to Stretch 60-Foot-Long Fiber Bridge Between Campus Buildings

By John Noble Wilford
May 8, 2007
CAMBRIDGE, Mass.

Conquistadors from Spain came, they saw, and they were astonished. They had never seen anything in Europe like the bridges of Peru. Chroniclers wrote that the Spanish soldiers stood in awe and fear before the spans of braided fiber cables suspended across deep gorges in the Andes, narrow walkways sagging and swaying and looking so frail.

Yet the suspension bridges were familiar and vital links in the vast empire of the Inca, as they had been to Andean cultures for hundreds of years before the arrival of the Spanish in 1532. The people had not developed the stone arch or wheeled vehicles, but they were accomplished in the use of natural fibers for textiles, boats, sling weapons — even keeping inventories by a prewriting system of knots.

So bridges made of fiber ropes, some as thick as a man's torso, were the technological solution to the problem of road building in rugged terrain. By some estimates, at least 200 such suspension bridges spanned river gorges in the 16th century. One of the last of these, over the Apurimac River, inspired Thornton Wilder's novel "The Bridge of San Luis Rey."

Although scholars have studied the Inca road system's importance in forging and controlling the pre-Columbian empire, John A. Ochsendorf of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology here said, "Historians and archaeologists have neglected the role of bridges."

Ochsendorf's research on Inca suspension bridges, begun while he was an undergraduate at Cornell University, illustrates an engineering university's approach to archaeology, combining materials science and experimentation with the traditional fieldwork of observing and dating artifacts. Other universities conduct research in archaeological materials, but it has long been a specialty at MIT.

Students here are introduced to the multidisciplinary investigation of ancient technologies as applied in transforming resources into cultural hallmarks from household pottery to grand pyramids. In a course called "materials in human experience," students are making a 60-foot-long fiber bridge in the Peruvian style. On Saturday, they plan to stretch the bridge across a dry basin between two campus buildings.

In recent years, MIT archaeologists and scientists have joined forces in studies of early Peruvian ceramics, balsa rafts, and metal alloys; Egyptian glass and Roman concrete; and also the casting of bronze bells in Mexico. They discovered that Ecuadoreans, traveling by sea, introduced metallurgy to western Mexico. They even found how Mexicans added bits of morning-glory plants, which contain sulfur, in processing natural rubber into bouncing balls.

"Mexicans discovered vulcanization 3,500 years before Goodyear," said Dorothy Hosler, an MIT professor of archaeology and ancient technology. "The Spanish had never seen anything that bounced like the rubber balls of Mexico."

Heather Lechtman, an archaeologist of ancient technology who helped develop the MIT program, said that in learning "how objects were made, what they were made of and how they were used, we see people making decisions at various stages, and the choices involve engineering as well as culture."

From this perspective, she said, the choices are not always based only on what works well, but also are guided by ideological and aesthetic criteria. In the casting of early Mexican bells, attention was given to their ringing tone and their color; an unusually large amount of arsenic was added to copper to make the bronze shine like silver.

"If people use materials in different ways in different societies, that tells you something about those people," Lechtman said.

In the case of the Peruvian bridges, the builders relied on a technology well suited to the problem and their resources. The Spanish themselves demonstrated how appropriate the Peruvian technique was.

Ochsendorf, a specialist in early architecture and engineering, said the colonial government tried many times to erect European arch bridges across the canyons, and each attempt ended in fiasco until iron and steel were applied to bridge building. The Peruvians, knowing nothing of the arch or iron metallurgy, instead relied on what they knew best, fibers from cotton, grasses, and saplings, and llama and alpaca wool.

The Inca suspension bridges achieved clear spans of at least 150 feet, probably much greater. This was a longer span than any European masonry bridges at the time. The longest Roman bridge in Spain had a maximum span between supports of 95 feet. And none of these European bridges had to stretch across deep canyons.

The Peruvians apparently invented their fiber bridges independently of outside influences, Ochsendorf said, but these bridges were neither the first of their kind in the world nor the inspiration for the modern suspension bridge like the George Washington and Verrazano-Narrows Bridges in New York and the Golden Gate in San Francisco.

In a recent research paper, Ochsendorf wrote: "The Inca were the only ancient American civilization to develop suspension bridges. Similar bridges existed in other mountainous regions of the world, most notably in the Himalayas and in ancient China, where iron chain suspension bridges existed in the 3rd century B.C."

The first of the modern versions was erected in Britain in the late 18th century, the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The longest one today connects two islands in Japan, with a span of more than 6,000 feet from tower to supporting tower. These bridges are really "hanging roadways," Ochsendorf said, to provide a fairly level surface for wheeled traffic.

In his authoritative 1984 book, "The Inka Road System," John Hyslop, who was an official of the Institute of Andean Research and associated with the American Museum of Natural History, compiled descriptions of the Inca bridges recorded by early travelers.

Garcilasco de la Vega, in 1604, reported on the cable-making techniques. The fibers, he wrote, were braided into ropes of the length necessary for the bridge. Three of these ropes were woven together to make a larger rope, and three of them were again braided to make a still larger rope, and so on. The thick cables were pulled across the river with small ropes and attached to stone abutments on each side.


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: bridges; canyons; fiber; godsgravesglyphs; inca

1 posted on 05/08/2007 7:53:41 PM PDT by blam
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To: blam

They were weavers.


2 posted on 05/08/2007 7:54:55 PM PDT by kinoxi
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To: SunkenCiv
GGG Ping.

The Bridge Of San Luis Rey

3 posted on 05/08/2007 7:56:19 PM PDT by blam
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To: blam
even keeping inventories by a prewriting system of knots.

Some researchers believe this was true writing of a unique type we just haven't deciphered yet.

4 posted on 05/08/2007 8:09:49 PM PDT by Sherman Logan (I didn't claw my way to the top of the food chain to be a vegetarian.)
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To: Sherman Logan
"Some researchers believe this was true writing of a unique type we just haven't deciphered yet."

Inca Khipu: An Inca khipu, top, and a khipu at the American Museum of Natural History. The only possible Incan example of encoding and recording information could have been cryptic knotted strings, which are unlike anything that sailors or Eagle Scouts tie. "

String, And Knot, Theory Of Inca Writing

5 posted on 05/08/2007 8:20:58 PM PDT by blam
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To: Sherman Logan

586 On A Quipu

6 posted on 05/08/2007 8:22:55 PM PDT by blam
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To: blam

btt


7 posted on 05/08/2007 9:14:14 PM PDT by Cacique (quos Deus vult perdere, prius dementat ( Islamia Delenda Est ))
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To: blam

586, impressive. How do you make “pentium” on a quipu? ;’)


8 posted on 05/09/2007 8:58:11 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Time heals all wounds, particularly when they're not yours. Profile updated May 7, 2007.)
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To: blam; FairOpinion; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1ofmanyfree; 24Karet; 3AngelaD; 49th; ...
Thanks Blam.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list. Thanks.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on or off the
"Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list or GGG weekly digest
-- Archaeology/Anthropology/Ancient Cultures/Artifacts/Antiquities, etc.
Gods, Graves, Glyphs (alpha order)

9 posted on 05/09/2007 8:58:34 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Time heals all wounds, particularly when they're not yours. Profile updated May 7, 2007.)
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To: blam

Fiber art is very big among homecrafters. They have an entire building for themselves at the fairground. They start with sheep, or goats for all I know, dye and spin their yarn, knit, weave, make everything from socks to wall pictures. Making bridge cables two feet thick would be intense.


10 posted on 05/09/2007 9:05:51 AM PDT by RightWhale (Repeal the Treaty)
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To: blam; SunkenCiv

http://agutie.homestead.com/files/Quipu_B.htm

Caral: Ancient Peru city reveals 5,000-year-old ‘writing’
July 19, 2005, 22:45, SABC News

Archeologists in Peru have found a “quipu” on the site of the oldest city in the Americas, indicating the device, a sophisticated arrangement of knots and strings used to convey detailed information, was in use thousands of years earlier than previously believed. Previously the oldest known quipus, often associated with the Incas whose vast South American empire was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, dated from about 650 AD.

But Ruth Shady, an archeologist leading investigations into the Peruvian coastal city of Caral, said quipus were among a treasure trove of articles discovered at the site, which are about 5,000 years old. “This is the oldest quipu and it shows us that this society ... also had a system of “writing” (which) would continue down the ages until the Inca empire and would last some 4,500 years,” Shady said. She was speaking before the opening in Lima today of an exhibition of the artifacts which shed light on Caral, which she called one of the world’s oldest civilizations.

The quipu with its well-preserved, brown cotton strings wound around thin sticks, was found with a series of offerings including mysterious fiber balls of different sizes wrapped in “nets” and pristine reed baskets. “We are sure it corresponds to the period of Caral because it was found in a public building,” Shady said. “It was an offering placed on a stairway when they decided to bury this and put down a floor to build another structure on top.”

Pyramid-shaped public buildings were being built at Caral, a planned coastal city 180km north of Lima, at the same time that the Saqqara pyramid, the oldest in Egypt, was going up. They were already being revamped when Egypt’s Great Pyramid of Keops (or Khufu) was under construction, Shady said. “Man only began living in an organized way 5,000 years ago in five points of the globe - Mesopotamia (roughly comprising modern Iraq and part of Syria), Egypt, India, China and Peru,” Shady said, adding Caral was 3,200 years older than cities of another ancient American civilization, the Maya.

http://www.cristobalcolondeibiza.com/2eng/2eng15.htm

THE QUIPU KNOTTED STRINGS
In Fusang: Chinos en América antes de Colón, pages 52-55, Gustavo Vargas Martínez brings up an intriguing subject that would seem to point to yet another cultural link of enormous significance in the life of pre-Columbian South America. He says that ‘special mention should be made of the knotted strings, since not only are they an element of analogical confrontation, but basically, they also represent an acquired system that has to be learnt. In his book, Histoire de la Chine the eminent Jesuit Chinese scholar, P. Martin (*) had already remarked on the ancient Chinese system of knotting strings, many years before the appearance of writing. They used to place the knots at specific intervals, make use of different colours and, by carefully following agreed rules, they created a sign code substituting other ways of counting and writing’. What is most astounding, says Vargas, is that ‘an identical system was discovered among the Incas, so sophisticated that it was used as an official register for their annals, State accounts, astronomical observations, rates and taxes and even as a means of communication, since it was used to carry news and message over long distances’. Among the Incas these strings were called quipus, and the Chinese called them qi pui, ‘back memorising’; in China today the same system is known as chie sheng. It is perfectly obvious for anyone to see that the quipu is a forerunner of the abacus (**), in common use all over Asia up to the present day.


11 posted on 05/09/2007 4:21:01 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (Fair Dinkum!)
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To: blam; SunkenCiv

http://bbs.cri.cn/simple/index.php?t62259.html

Bamboo Bridges


Some of the earliest of all suspension bridges were ones constructed with cables woven from bamboo strips. Throughout their long history, the Chinese have built suspension bridges to span fast-flowing rivers and deep ravines, and the Incas also designed hanging bamboo bridges as marvelous as those of the Chinese, Janssen notes.

In “China Bridge,” a team of experts brought together by NOVA constructed a suspension bridge using bamboo cables to hang the draping structure. Cabled bamboo strips once held up the great Anlan bridge on the Min River, which historians consider one of the engineering marvels of the ancient world. The bridge hung from bamboo cables from roughly the third century until 1975, when steel cables replaced the bamboo.


12 posted on 05/09/2007 4:44:25 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (Fair Dinkum!)
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To: Fred Nerks
Caral was quite a find:

Caral: The Oldest Town In The New World

13 posted on 05/09/2007 4:47:35 PM PDT by blam
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To: blam

Whew! For a minute after reading the title I thought Evel Knieval was going to be mad because he was upstaged by a bunch of pre-technology age Amerinds.


14 posted on 05/09/2007 4:56:40 PM PDT by wildbill
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To: blam

SpiderInjun!


15 posted on 05/09/2007 5:01:59 PM PDT by Sam Ketcham (Amnesty means vote dilution, & increased taxes to bring us down to the world poverty level.)
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To: blam

Caral, Kuelap on Youtube!

http://youtube.com/watch?v=B27faJKGIMc&mode=related&search=


16 posted on 05/09/2007 6:12:56 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (Fair Dinkum!)
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To: Fred Nerks

Excellent, excellent!


17 posted on 05/09/2007 9:11:16 PM PDT by blam
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To: Fred Nerks; blam
Ruth Shady, an archeologist leading investigations into the Peruvian coastal city of Caral, said quipus were among a treasure trove of articles discovered at the site, which are about 5,000 years old. “This is the oldest quipu and it shows us that this society ... also had a system of “writing” (which) would continue down the ages until the Inca empire and would last some 4,500 years,” Shady said.
What is really says is, A) the site actually nowhere near 5000 years old, B) that these quipu finds on the site are nowhere near 5000 years old and indicate a later reoccupation of the site, or C) that the continuity of 4500 years has been utterly lost in the archaeological record, or just happens to never have been found. I don't see C as a legitimate possibility.
18 posted on 05/10/2007 6:55:25 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Time heals all wounds, particularly when they're not yours. Profile updated May 7, 2007.)
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To: SunkenCiv; blam

granted, quipu are not referred to in this article, but age appears to be established:

http://www.philipcoppens.com/caral.html

Caral is indeed hard to accept. It is very old. Still, its dating of 2627 BC is beyond dispute, based as it is on carbondating reed and woven carrying bags that were found in situ. These bags were used to carry the stones that were used for the construction of the pyramids. The material is an excellent candidate for dating, thus allowing for a high precision.
The town had a population of approximately 3000 people. But there are 17 other sites in the area, allowing for a possible total population of 20,000 people for the Supe valley.
All of these sites in the Supe valley share similarities with Caral. They had small platforms or stone circles. Haas believes that Caral was the focus of this civilisation, which itself was part of an even vaster complex, trading with the coastal communities and the regions further inland – as far as the Amazon, if the depiction of monkeys is any indication.

For an unknown reason, Caral was abandoned rapidly after a period of 500 years (ca. 2100 BC).


19 posted on 05/10/2007 4:00:58 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (Fair Dinkum!)
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To: SunkenCiv; blam

Caral quipu.

20 posted on 05/10/2007 4:08:05 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (Fair Dinkum!)
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To: blam; SunkenCiv

http://www.pbase.com/locozodiac/image/21413413

Caral images.


21 posted on 05/10/2007 4:27:20 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (Fair Dinkum!)
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To: Fred Nerks
"For an unknown reason, Caral was abandoned rapidly after a period of 500 years (ca. 2100 BC)."

And, elsewhere in the world.

2181-2040 Egypt’s First Intermediate Period. It began with the collapse of the Old Kingdom due to crop failure and low revenues due to pyramid building projects. This seemed to coincide with a period of cooling and drying.

22 posted on 05/10/2007 5:08:59 PM PDT by blam
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To: Fred Nerks
"Caral is indeed hard to accept. It is very old. Still, its dating of 2627 BC is beyond dispute, based as it is on carbondating reed and woven carrying bags that were found in situ."

I agee. Seems solid from all that I've seen.

23 posted on 05/10/2007 5:10:40 PM PDT by blam
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To: blam

Did you ever come across this?

http://agutie.homestead.com/files/world_news_map/inca_ancient_calendar_andes.html

On another website I came across this paragraph:

In temples such as the one Benfer uncovered, the Andeans constructed offering chambers, used them for ceremonies and then built new chambers above the old. Benfer said this protected the Buena Vista site from looters, who came within one inch of the musician statuary while searching for gold and silver in the ancient temple. The well-preserved offering chamber holds ancient pieces of cotton and burned twigs, and Benfer’s team used the twigs to radio-carbon-date the various components of the excavation site.

http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/520388/#imagetop

“The well-preserved offering chamber holds ancient pieces of cotton and burned twigs...”

That’s exactly what was found at Caral! Methinks they were quipu - not ‘offerings’ but hidden for safekeeping.


24 posted on 05/10/2007 5:33:14 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (Fair Dinkum!)
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To: Fred Nerks
"Did you ever come across this?"

Yes. I think we had a thread about it.

"That’s exactly what was found at Caral! Methinks they were quipu - not ‘offerings’ but hidden for safekeeping."

Their books/records?

25 posted on 05/10/2007 5:36:41 PM PDT by blam
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To: blam
Their books/records?

and their history!

26 posted on 05/10/2007 5:58:18 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (Fair Dinkum!)
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To: blam

http://agutie.homestead.com/files/Quipu_B.htm

In the absence of written records the quipus served as a means of recording history and passed on to the next generation, which used them as reminders of stories. An thus these primitive computers - quipus - had knotted in their memory banks the information which tied together the Inca empire.


27 posted on 05/10/2007 6:01:21 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (Fair Dinkum!)
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To: Fred Nerks

Fascinating. I didn’t realize there was so much info out ‘there’ about this subject.


28 posted on 05/10/2007 6:12:11 PM PDT by blam
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To: blam

http://www.cbik.org/papermaking/en/when/source.htm

Before the invention of writing, many civilizations, including the ancient Chinese, used ropes and knots much like the Inca quipu (a rope and knot apparatus for data conservation), pictograms and markings to record and communicate important information and events. In modern China , marking and knot-tying record-keeping systems were commonly employed as late as 1949 by minority ethnic groups who lacked writing systems.


29 posted on 05/10/2007 6:32:18 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (Fair Dinkum!)
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To: blam

The Quipus and The Royal Commentaries of the Inca

In 1609, the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega published the first volume of his Royal Commentaries of the Incas in Lisbon. He wrote:

The word quipu means both knot or to knot; it was also used for accounts, because they were kept by means of the knots tied in a number of cords of different thicknesses and colors, each one of which had a special significance. Thus, gold was represented by a gold cord, silver by a white one, and fighting men by a red cord.

When their accounts had to do with things that have no color - such as grain and vegetables - they were classified by categories, and, in each category, by order of diminishing size. Thus, to furnish an example, if they had had to count the various types of agricultural production in Spain, they would have started with wheat, then rye, then peas, then beans, and so forth. In the same way, in order to make an inventory of the arms of the imperial army, they first counted the arms that were considered to belong in a superior category, such as lances, then javelins, bows and arrows, hatchets and maces, and lastly, slings, an any other arms that were used. In order to ascertain the number of vassals in the Empire, they started with each village, then with each province: the firs cord showed a census of men over sixty, the second, those between fifty and sixty, the third, those from forty to fifty, and so on, by decades, down to the babes at the breast.

Occasionally other, thinner, cords of the same color, could be seen among one of these series, as though they represented an exception to the rule; thus, for instance, among the figures that concerned the men of such and such an age, all of whom were considered to be married, the thinner cords indicated the number of widowers of the same age, for the year in question: because, as I explained before, population figures, together with those of all the other resources of the Empire, were brought up to date every year.

According to their position, the knots signified units, tens, hundreds, thousands, ten thousands and, exceptionally, hundred thousands, and they were all as well aligned on their different cords as the figures that an accountant sets down, column by column, in his ledger. Indeed, those men, called quipucamayus, who were in charge of the quipus, were exactly that, imperial accountants.

The number of quipucamayus scattered throughout the Empire, was proportional to the size of each place. Thus the smallest villages numbered four, and others twenty, or even thirty. The Incas preferred this arrangement. even in places where one accountant would have sufficed, the idea being that, if several of them kept the same accounts, there was less risk that they would make mistakes.

Every year, an inventory of all the Inca’s possessions was made. Nor was there a single birth or death, a single departure or return of a soldier, in all the Empire, that was not noted on the quipus. And indeed, it may be said that everything that could be counted, was counted in this way, even to battles, diplomatic missions, and royal speeches. But since it was only possible to record numbers in this manner, and not words, the quipucamayus assigned to record ambassadorial missions and speeches, learned them by heart, at the same time that they noted down the numbers, places and dates on their quipus; and thus, from father to son, they transmitted this information to their successors. The speeches exchanged between the Incas and their vassals on important occasions, such as the surrender of a new province, were also transmitted to posterity by the amautas, or philosophers, who summarized them in simple, clear fables, in order that they might be implanted by word of mouth in the memories of all the people from those at court to the inhabitants of the most remote hamlets. The harauicus, or poets, also composed poems based on diplomatic records and royal speeches. These poems were recited for a great victory or festival, and every time a new Inca was knighted.

When the curacas and dignitaries of a province want to know some historical detail concerning their predecessors, they asked these quipucamayus, who were, in other words, not only the accountants, but also the historians of each nation. The result was that the quipucamayus never let their quipus out of their hands, and they kept passing their cords and knots through their fingers so as not to forget the tradition behind all these accounts. In fact, their responsibility was so great and so absorbing, that they were exempted from all tribute as well as from all other kinds of service.

All laws, ordinances, rites, and ceremonies throughout the Empire were recorded by these same means.

When my father’s Indians came to town on Midsummer’s Day to pay their tribute, they brought me the quipus; and the curacas asked my mother to take note of their stories, for they mistrusted the Spaniards, and feared that they would not understand them. I was able to reassure them by re-reading what I had noted down under their dictation, and they used to follow my reading, holding on to their quipus, to be certain of my exactness; this was how I succeeded in learning many things quite as perfectly as did the Indians.

http://agutie.homestead.com/files/Quipu_B.htm


30 posted on 05/10/2007 6:42:20 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (Fair Dinkum!)
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To: blam

CODE OF THE QUIPU: DATABOOKS

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/research/quipu-ascher/index.htm


31 posted on 05/10/2007 6:56:05 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (Fair Dinkum!)
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To: Fred Nerks

I wonder how many chapters there are in that book?

32 posted on 05/10/2007 7:00:50 PM PDT by blam
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To: kinoxi
You got that right sonny.


33 posted on 05/10/2007 7:01:05 PM PDT by battlegearboat
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To: blam

...an excerpt from Lao Tzu, chapter 80 as translated by Wing-Tsit Chan in A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy, P175.
The whole section is as follows:

Let there be a small country with few people.
Let there be ten times and a hundred times as many utensils
But let them not be used.
Let the people value their lives highly and not migrate far.
Even if there are ships and carriages, none will ride in them.
Even if there are armor and weapons, none will display them.
Let the people again knot cords and use them (in place of writing).
Let them relish their food, beautify their clothing, be content with their homes, and delight in their customs.
Though neighboring communities overlook one another and the crowing of cocks and barking of dogs can be heard,
Yet the people there may grow old and die without ever visiting one another.

http://www.chineseknotting.org/laotzu80.html


34 posted on 05/10/2007 7:05:43 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (Fair Dinkum!)
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To: blam

Fiber bridges? Don’t tell Rosie O.

She’ll say, in all history, fire has never melted fiber.


35 posted on 05/10/2007 7:06:39 PM PDT by exit82 (Sheryl Crow is on a roll)
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To: blam

Not worth the hassle. Wait for it to come out in needlepoint.

36 posted on 05/10/2007 7:11:59 PM PDT by Covenantor
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To: blam

http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/research/quipu-ascher/data/intro-2.pdf

illustrations here of various knots. Encyclopaedia.


37 posted on 05/10/2007 7:20:44 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (Fair Dinkum!)
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