The ethnic makeup of Taiwan is 98% ethnically Chinese and 2% aborigines. Of course, in a democracy, there will always be some people with different opinions. Some members in the sub-ethnic Chinese group, the Hoklo-speakers, are pushing for Taiwan Independence and dissolution of ROC. They argue for a new Taiwanese identity, although personally, I think their arguments are invalid and silly at times; exp. some argue they really dont know where their ancestors came from :)
Actually Taiwan is an excellent example why the US should retain the electoral college system versus popular vote system. Taiwn been part of China since 1622. Under late Ming, throughout Qin rule, Taiwan was treated as a peripheral province and suffered benign neglect. The best governors were appointed to the richest and most populated provinces, investments from empire wide taxes were sent to these favored provinces, while Taiwan was a place to send an official if he pissed off his superiors in the Imperial Court. From 1895 to 1945 Imperial Japan ruled Taiwan, though the Chinese in Taiwan were treated as second citizens (like the Koreans), but the Japanese invested in roads, factories and public education. That is why a number of native Taiwanese have pro Japanese attitudes. When Taiwan was returned to the Nationalist Chinese rule after the defeat of Japan in WWII, the Chinese Civil War broke out and the defeated Nationalist Army vacated the mainland to Taiwan in 1949. Facing shortage of money to keep his soldiers paid, Chang Kai Sek seized the property of wealthy Taiwanese families under the pretext that these families supported Japan during World War II when Taiwan was part of Imperial Japan. This act made relations between the established Taiwanese families of Chinese descent and the newly arrived Nationalist Chinese worst and added to the fuel to Taiwanese separatism. Taiwan is really divided between the Chinese descendents of 1622 versus the Chinese descendents of the mainland Nationalists of 1949.