Now about that pesky "Inquisition" thingy....
I know an historian, a convert. He reports that one thing that played into his conversion was his researches into the 13th century and thenabouts and the discovery that -- well, the only think I remember is that in Spain people busted for, say, burglary, might then do something like say, "I think the Manichees are right; whaddya think of that?" so that their trial would be moved to Inquisitorial courts which were considered to be fairer.
Yeah, some inquisitors pretty much lost their morrings, no quesiton about it. But to say "The" Inquisition is to oversimplify profoundly.
And as late as the 1600s in England the penalty for treason was so barbaric (by our standards) that it's hard for me to write it. Features were being "drawn", that is gutted while alive and having your entrails burned before your eyes.
Things like this sort of set the context for evaluating penal codes. heck, even Jefferson's code for Virginia prescribed mutilation for some offenses. It's easy when standing on the shoulders of giants to sneer at people lower than we.