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Gobekli Tepe: The World’s First Temple? ( massive carved stones about 11,000 years old )
Smithsonian magazine ^ | November 2008 | # Andrew Curry # Photographs by Berthold Steinhilber

Posted on 11/11/2008 5:08:14 PM PST by Ernest_at_the_Beach

Predating Stonehenge by 6,000 years, Turkey's stunning Gobekli Tepe upends the conventional view of the rise of civilization

Six miles from Urfa, an ancient city in southeastern Turkey, Klaus Schmidt has made one of the most startling archaeological discoveries of our time: massive carved stones about 11,000 years old, crafted and arranged by prehistoric people who had not yet developed metal tools or even pottery. The megaliths predate Stonehenge by some 6,000 years. The place is called Gobekli Tepe, and Schmidt, a German archaeologist who has been working here more than a decade, is convinced it's the site of the world's oldest temple.

(Excerpt) Read more at ...

TOPICS: Culture/Society; Extended News; Foreign Affairs; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: anatolia; blacksea; blackseaflood; bread; catalhoyuk; catalhuyuk; chalcolithic; gobeklitepe; goblekitepe; godsgravesglyphs; prehistory; sanliurfa; turkey; wheat
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To: PjhCPA
I wouldn't blame ya a bit.

51 posted on 11/11/2008 6:27:03 PM PST by SunkenCiv ( finally updated Saturday, October 11, 2008 !!!)
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To: SunkenCiv


52 posted on 11/11/2008 6:34:52 PM PST by Ernest_at_the_Beach (No Burkas for my Grandaughters!)
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To: SunkenCiv

ARRRgh!... Now i have to flush my eyes with acid to rid myself of that horrible image. Where did you find that? under the 11,000 yr. old city you’re talking about?

53 posted on 11/11/2008 6:35:18 PM PST by factoryrat (Better living through American Industrial Might.)
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Were Cavemen Painting For Their Gods?
The Telegraph (UK) | 2-23-2005
Posted on 03/06/2005 3:20:58 PM PST by blam

Macro-Etymology: Paleosigns [writing 20,000 years ago?]
Macro-Etymology Website | prior to May 20, 2005 | the webmasters thereof
Posted on 05/19/2005 11:00:18 PM PDT by SunkenCiv

54 posted on 11/11/2008 6:37:37 PM PST by SunkenCiv ( finally updated Saturday, October 11, 2008 !!!)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

Blow them up! They’re unIslamic!

55 posted on 11/11/2008 6:39:16 PM PST by Arthur McGowan
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach; factoryrat

Heh heh heh...

56 posted on 11/11/2008 6:41:39 PM PST by SunkenCiv ( finally updated Saturday, October 11, 2008 !!!)
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I'm taking a branch...:

Alternative Wheat Cereals as Food Grains: Einkorn, Emmer, Spelt, Kamut, and Triticale


The objective of this paper is to generate the interest of the home baker in the use of cereal grain flours other than common wheat. Presently Kamut and spelt flours are readily available. Triticale flour availability is limited, and the authors are still pursuing agronomic and quality evaluations of einkorn and emmer PI accessions from the USDA-ARS National Small Grain Germplasm Research Facility (NSGGRF), Aberdeen, Idaho.


Origin and Taxonomy

Einkorn is thought to have originated in the upper area of the fertile crescent of the Near East (Tigris-Euphrates regions). Wild einkorn Triticum boeoticum includes both the single grain T. aegilopoides and the two grain T. thaoudar and T. urartu. Cultivated einkorn is T. monococcum, and like wild einkorn has the genome constitution AA (Table 1). In cereal crops the head (inflorescence) if unbranched is called a spike. The spike consists of flowers (spikelets) arranged on the rachis (which is an extension of the stem). The flowers (spikelets) arise from nodes along the rachis which are called rachilla. The spikelet is enclosed by bracts, the glumes, or chaff. The kernels within the spikelet as enclosed in bracts, the lemma, and palea. As an example, kernels of free threshing wheats thresh free of the bracts; barley threshes free of the glumes, while lemma and palea make up the hull of the kernel; einkorn, emmer, and spelt thresh with the complete spikelet intact. A classification and description of Triticum sp. is outlined by Briggle and Reitz (1963). The wild and cultivated einkorn are differentiated by the brittleness of the rachis. The rachis of wild einkorn is brittle and the spikelets readily disarticulate when mature, whereas the rachis of cultivated einkorn is less fragile and remains intact until thrashed.

Einkorn along with emmer and spelt are often referred to as "the covered wheats," since the kernels do not thresh free of the glumes or the lemma and palea when harvested (Fig. 1). In contrast to the free threshing wheats, the spikes of einkorn disarticulate at threshing (the seed head breaks apart into intact spikelets). The spikes disarticulate with the rachilla apex attached to the base of the spikelet. Einkorn has long narrow glumes which are awned. Cultivated einkorn generally has one kernel per spikelet.

Einkorn became widely distributed throughout the Near East, Transcaucasia, the Mediterranean region, southwestern Europe, and the Balkans, and was one of the first cereals cultivated for food.

Harlan (1981), cites information suggesting that wild einkorn grain was harvested in the late Paleolithic and early Mesolithic Ages, 16,000-15,000 BC. Confirmed finds of wild grain remains have been dated to the early Neolithic (Stone Age) 10,000 BC. (Helmqvist 1955; Zohary and Hopf 1993). Cultivated einkorn continued to be a popular cultivated crop during the Neolithic and early Bronze Age 10,000-4,000 BC giving way to emmer by the mid-Bronze Age. Einkorn cultivation continued to be popular in isolated regions from the Bronze Age into the early 20th century. Today, einkorn production is limited to small isolated regions within France, India, Italy, Turkey, and Yugoslavia (Harlan 1981; Perrino and Hammer 1982).

Agronomy and Production

Historically, einkorn was cultivated in cool environments on marginal agricultural land through the Mid-east and southwestern Europe. Einkorn is still cultivated in harsh environments and poor soil in Italy (Perrino and Hammer 1984). Einkorn selections produced protein and yield equal to or higher than barley and durum wheat when grown under adverse growing conditions (Vallega 1979). Evaluations of 15 einkorn accessions grown in Italy indicate that the yields were significantly lower than that of modern wheats when grown under intensive cropping management (Vallega 1992). However, in this study several progeny of selected einkorn crossings (while lacking in several desirable agronomic traits) produced yields comparable to the modern wheats. Eighty einkorn PI accessions from (NSGGRF) have been evaluated for yield, straw characteristics, and date of heading at the Southern Agricultural Research Center, Huntley, Montana (SARC) from 1992 to the present. The yields of einkorn ranged from 4160 to 120 kg/ha, 1992; 1290 to 130 kg/ha, 1993; 2160 to 220 kg/ha, 1994; and 2400 to 720 kg/ha in 1995. The 1995 yield range represents 25 final PI accession selections (based on yield record and straw strength) of which five produced total yields higher than oats and three higher total yields than the barley and wheat included in the trial. Einkorn grain yields in comparison to spring wheat under dryland cropping were dependent upon growing season environment (Table 2). The protein content of einkorn when threshed in the hull varied from 10% to 26% higher, and the grain from 50% to 75% higher than the protein content (12.5% to 13.5%) of the hard red wheats. Agronomic production practices for spring grains would be applicable to einkorn, which has a tendency to mature later than spring wheat. Einkorn may be most suitable for cropping in lower moisture environments similar to the northern Great Plains area of Montana. The einkorn accessions tested had only moderate straw strength, averaged 109 cm in height, and would be susceptible to lodging in high moisture environments. The susceptibility to diseases is unknown and may be expressed in high moisture environments.

Marketing and Utilization

In the U.S., einkorn production is presently limited to evaluations of PI accessions for agronomic yield and quality traits, and or germplasm sources for plant breeders to improve protein and disease resistance in the development of modern wheats. However recent studies in Europe and Canada emphasized the nutritional quality of einkorn. Grain protein of einkorn accessions and progeny of einkorn crossings were consistently significantly higher than modern wheats (Vallega 1992). The data also indicate that given the significant increase in yields of the progeny and the higher grain protein, progeny lines produced significantly more protein/ha than the modern wheats. The amino acid composition of einkorn was found to be similar to wheat, irrespective of very large variations in total grain protein among the einkorn accessions tested (Acquistucci et al. 1995). The composition and nutritional characteristics of a selected spring einkorn were compared to spelt and hard red spring wheat grown in Canada (Abdel-Aal et al. 1995). The einkorn accession was considered more nutritious than the hard red wheat, based on the higher level of protein, crude fat, phosphorous, potassium, pyridoxine, and beta-carotene. The gluten of the einkorn accession had a gliadin to glutenin ratio of 2:1 compared to 0.8:1 for durum and hard red wheat. Flour and dough characteristics of gluten from 12 einkorn accessions were compared to durum and common wheats (D'Egidio et al. 1993). The einkorn flours were characterized by high protein, high ash, a very high carotene content, and small flour particle size when compared to the modern bread wheats. Dough characteristics of the einkorn accessions were significantly inferior to the modern wheats. The gluten strength was similar to that of soft wheats, but remained sticky, with a low water retention capacity. While breads made from einkorn were considered to be inferior to emmer or spelt breads (LeClerc et al. 1918), Bond (1989) states that breads made from einkorn in France had a light rich taste which left common bread wheat products tasteless and insipid by comparison. Bond also indicated that similar to ancient civilizations the einkorn grains were used in various food dishes such as soups, salads, casseroles, and sauces. The consideration that flour from T. monococcum may be non toxic to individuals with celiac disease (Favret et al. 1984, 1987) as cited by D'Egidio et al. (1993), and Abdel-Aal et al. (1995) suggest that given the nutritional advantage of einkorn and possible consumption by individuals allergic to common wheats, an increased interest will be given to the diploid wheats.


Origin and Taxonomy

The sites of origin of emmer are considered to be similar to einkorn, within the regions of the Near East (Nevo 1988). Wild emmer T. dicoccoides, like wild einkorn is distinguished by the brittleness of the rachis, which disarticulate when mature. The rachis of cultivated emmer T. dicoccum is less fragile and tends to remain intact until threshed. The genomic constituents of emmer are described in Table 1. The genomic constitution AA of emmer is thought to be derived from T. monococcum. Various sources of the BB genome have been suggested, T. speltoides, T. searsii, and T. tripsacoides (Morris and Sears 1967; Kimber and Sears 1987). Emmers are predominantly awned with spikelets consisting of two well developed kernels. Emmer glumes are long and narrow with sharp beaks.

The use of emmer as a cereal food is considered to be contemporary with that of einkorn. Similar to einkorn, the earliest civilizations initially consumed emmer as a porridge prior to developing the process of bread making.

Remnants of wild emmer in early civilization sites date to the late Paleolithic Age 17,000 BC (Zohary and Hopf 1993). Cultivated emmer emerged as the predominant wheat along with barley as the principal cereals utilized by civilizations in the late Mesolithic, and early Neolithic Ages 10,000 BC (Helmqvist 1955; Harlan 1981; Zohary and Hopf 1993). Cultivated emmer dispersion and use by early civilizations greatly exceeded that of einkorn. Due to the addition of the BB genome cultivated emmer could be grown in a wider range of environments including regions having high growing season temperatures. Cultivated emmer became the dominant wheat throughout the Near and Far East, Europe, and Northern Africa from the Neolithic (Stone Age) through the Bronze Age 10,000-4,000 BC. Emmer utilization continued through the Bronze Age 4,000-1,000 BC, during which the naked wheats, primarily the tetraploid species slowly displaced emmer. However, emmer continued to be popular in isolated regions such as south central Russia into the early 1900s. Presently emmer remains an important crop in Ethiopia and a minor crop in India and Italy (Harlan 1981; Perrino and Hammer 1982).

57 posted on 11/11/2008 6:42:55 PM PST by Ernest_at_the_Beach (No Burkas for my Grandaughters!)
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To: BIGLOOK; SunkenCiv

We owe these people Big Time.....Man cannot live without Bread.

58 posted on 11/11/2008 6:44:04 PM PST by Ernest_at_the_Beach (No Burkas for my Grandaughters!)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

We could, but the pbj would get all over our hands.

59 posted on 11/11/2008 6:47:18 PM PST by SunkenCiv ( finally updated Saturday, October 11, 2008 !!!)
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To: SunkenCiv

Back to the BB Game.

60 posted on 11/11/2008 6:52:22 PM PST by Ernest_at_the_Beach (No Burkas for my Grandaughters!)
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Did we plough up the Garden of Eden?
First Post | October 17, 2006
Posted on 10/17/2006 6:10:35 AM PDT by NYer

Is this the world’s oldest statue? [Anatolia, Gobekli Tepe]
The First Post | November 24, 2006 | Sean Thomas
Posted on 11/26/2007 9:01:06 AM PST by SunkenCiv

Turkish Site A Neolithic ‘Supernova’
Washington Times | 4-21-2008 | Nicholas Birch
Posted on 04/21/2008 3:24:52 PM PDT by blam

Mysterious Neolithic People Made Optical Art
Discovery News | September 22, 2008 | Rossella Lorenzi
Posted on 09/25/2008 5:39:23 PM PDT by SunkenCiv


Italian Archaeologist: Anatolia - Home To First Civilization On Earth
Beku Today | 6-20-2003
Posted on 06/22/2003 9:14:54 AM PDT by blam

Ancient Stamp Dating To 5,000 BC Unearthed In Harran (Turkey)
Turkish Daily News | 10-16-2006
Posted on 10/16/2006 6:02:09 PM PDT by blam

61 posted on 11/11/2008 6:55:57 PM PST by SunkenCiv ( finally updated Saturday, October 11, 2008 !!!)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

The map and pictures are at the website.

62 posted on 11/11/2008 6:58:32 PM PST by Ditter
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To: SunkenCiv’s only a model.............

63 posted on 11/11/2008 7:22:21 PM PST by ALASKA (I feel more like I do today than I did yesterday.....)
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To: Lurking Libertarian

12,000 years ago the Arabian/Persian Gulf was dry land. Up until 7,500 years ago the present day Black Sea was called the old Euxine Lake (the ancients referred to what we call the Black Sea as the new Euxine Sea after the isthmus collapsed and sea water flooded into the old lake’s basin).

The shoreline of India at one time extended out 33 kilometers further than it does today. There are flooded cities offshore, some with pyramids.

Marine archeology in India is progressing nicely though you will never hear about it from western archeologists. There is passionate disagreement between European and Indian archeology over how long humans have had established civilisations. The Indians insist it goes back hundreds of thousands of years.

64 posted on 11/11/2008 7:23:49 PM PST by SatinDoll (NO FOREIGN NATIONALS AS OUR PRESIDENT!!)
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To: SunkenCiv

I simply pointed out that we have nothing before the 2nd century BCE that
“specifically” pinpoints Ur of the Chaldees’ location, and that the late 1st
century BCE is the earliest attested statement that Abraham was not of
Chaldea, but of Damascus, Syria. Now of course, this statement by Nicholas
the historian does nothing to support the notion that Abraham was originally
from Urfa (or another nearby unknown UR), in Northern Mesopotamia.

You cannot point to a text and show me where it is “specifically stated”
that Abraham was from UR (Urfa) of Northern Mesopotamia. I have that
advantage over you with the statements made in Judith 5:5-9.

All you can do is “hypothesize,” and, as you know, hypotheses are “a dime a
dozen” in biblical studies without “hard facts” to back them up.

I am aware of all the arguments for the northern UR, but I have never seen
an ancient text (1st century CE or earlier), cited, which stated or implied
Ur lay in Northern Mesopotamia.

Even Josephus, acknowledges what Judith 5:5-9, and Eupolemus (ca. 150 BCE)
state about Chaldea being Abraham’s home:

“Now Abraham had two brethren, Nahor and Haran; of these Haran left a son,
Lot; as also Sarai and Milcha his daughters, AND DIED AMONG THE CHALDEANS,
IN A CITY OF THE CHALDEANS, CALLED UR; and his monument is shown to this
day...Now Terah hating Chaldea, on account of his mourning for Haran, they
all removed to Haran of Mesopotamia, where Terah died...”(Josephus,
Antiquities of the Jews, 1.6.5.)

I note that Josephus seems to believe that a monument of some sort was
erected to Haran’s memory and that this monument still existed in Josephus’
day. When we look at the statements by Judith 5:5-9 and Eupoleumus, both
stating Abraham was of Chaldea, there evidently existed in Josephus’ day a
Chaldean city called Ur. Tell Mugheir/Muqayyar (ancient Uru/Uriwa) did exist
in Josephus’ day, in Chaldea, so it is the most likely candidate (despite
the still later Talmud opting for Uruk/Warka, LXX Orech, Genesis’ “Erech”).
Josephus’ work was written in Greek, surely, he would not deceive his
Greek-reading audience with statements that Urfa of northern Mesopotamia is
in Chaldea ?

The evidence is quite clear, despite its being “late”, from the 2nd century
BCE to the 1st century BCE, Chaldea (Babylonia) is “specifically” stated and
presented as Abraham’s birth-place.

I will say this much about Urfa, the natives point to a shallow pool with
sacred fish, and they call it the “Lake of Abraham”. It is my
nderstanding -correct me if I am wrong- that pools with sacred fish were
generally dedicated to the Fish-goddess Atargatis (known to the Greeks of
Syria as early as the 4th century BCE). I know of nothing in early biblical
literature, identifying sacred fish with Abraham (of course the fish was
later identified with Christ, as ICHTHYS, who in turn had associations with
Abraham in the New Testament).

“Atargatis...whose usual name among Greeks and Romans was “the Syrian
Goddess” (Syria Dea, Dea Syria)...At Ascalon, Atargatis was represented as
half woman, half fish. Fish and doves were sacred to her...” (p.199,
“Atargatis,” Simon Hornblower & Antony Spawforth, Eds., The Oxford Classical
Dictionary, 3rd edition, Oxford University Press, 1996)

“Fish, Sacred. Fish, hard to classify biologically and inhabitants of the
alien world of water, had a considerable role in ancient religion...They
were kept in sanctuaries, and sometimes used to provide oracles (as at Sura
in Lycia). The most famous fish observances were connected with the Syrian
cult of Atargatis (Xen. An.1.4.9; Lucian, Syr.D.), which spread to other
areas (Syll.997 is a set of regulations for the care of the fish of this
cult at Smyrna); the priests ate the fish, which were prohibited to other
worshippers.” (p.599, “Fish, Sacred,” Hornblower & Spawforth)

My best guess, and it is only a guess, is that Urfa’s sacred fish were
originally sacred to Atargatis, “Dea Syria,” and perhaps, after Christianity
arose in this area, Christ as ICHTHYS, the fish, led to an association later
with Abraham ? If this supposition has any validity, then Urfa’s association
with Abraham via its sacred fish, is after Christianity arose in that area.
This would make for a much later “Northern” UR claim than the Chaldean UR of
Judith, Eupolemus, and Josephus.

All the best,


Walter Reinhold Warttig Mattfeld
Walldorf by Heidelberg

65 posted on 11/11/2008 7:41:08 PM PST by Soliton (This 2 shall pass)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach; SunkenCiv
We also have to consider the climate in the area that allowed the bread basket to flourish. The Sahel in Africa once was productive and much larger, capable of supporting vigorous populations. And we also must take into account that wheat beers were often a driving force of civilization. But I digress...

And I was tempted to go off topic to a subject combining climate, agronomy, linguistics and politics. Fertilizer?
66 posted on 11/11/2008 8:48:30 PM PST by BIGLOOK (Keelhaul Congress! It's the sensible solution to restore Command to the People.)
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Comment #67 Removed by Moderator

To: SunkenCiv

I’ll get ya back: Can you imagine what that women smells like?

68 posted on 11/12/2008 4:45:41 AM PST by PjhCPA (stop flapping your gums and DO SOMETHING)
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To: SunkenCiv; Ernest_at_the_Beach
"James Mellaart".
Back in mid 70's I ended up in the hospital for a few days.
During my stay, I ended up purchasing this book along with a number of other archeology works dealing with Egypt, Near East in general.
Much that appears to be new news is really been around a long time for those that search out knowledge, as I know your are acutely aware.
69 posted on 11/12/2008 4:12:21 PM PST by Marine_Uncle (Duncan Hunter was our best choice.)
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To: nkycincinnatikid
Once there was an honored father in the city of Ur in Chaldea and his name was ‘Honored-Father’ and he made a compact with God, and God foretold that he would be the father of many nations and so his name was changed to “Father-Of-Nations”.
70 posted on 11/12/2008 4:24:29 PM PST by allmendream (Wealth is EARNED not distributed.... so how could it be Redistributed?)
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To: Arthur McGowan
I think the term they call them is “from the age of ignorance”; i.e. before Mohamed. Not much intellectual curiosity about the ‘cradle of civilization’, the evidence of which molders beneath their feet.

I still can't believe they blew up those huge thousand year old Buddha’s.

71 posted on 11/12/2008 4:26:55 PM PST by allmendream (Wealth is EARNED not distributed.... so how could it be Redistributed?)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

Just now got around to reading this. Fascinating stuff and thanks a million.

72 posted on 11/12/2008 4:41:46 PM PST by BOBTHENAILER (One by one, in small groups or in whole armies, we don't care how we do it, but we're gonna getcha)
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To: Soliton

Excellent work. And I envy you. Oh! To be able to visit the Cornmarket during the upcoming season.

73 posted on 11/12/2008 5:37:45 PM PST by nkycincinnatikid
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To: Marine_Uncle

Yes, exactly so, well put. Mellaart has had at least three episodes of being a fantasy merchant, which means most of his real work, such as the Catal Huyuk dig almost 50 years ago, didn’t make the mainstream until recent years (there’s a new dig there going on, started up about ten years ago). I think there’s a big fat momma statue of the neolithic that he dug up there, which has made it into art history books (I’ve seen it in a textbook from a friend’s art-schooled daughter).

74 posted on 11/12/2008 5:57:35 PM PST by SunkenCiv ( finally updated Saturday, October 11, 2008 !!!)
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To: Soliton

Hey, thanks!

75 posted on 11/12/2008 6:47:33 PM PST by SunkenCiv ( finally updated Saturday, October 11, 2008 !!!)
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Well, this topic would be the place for it. ;’)

76 posted on 11/12/2008 6:49:23 PM PST by SunkenCiv ( finally updated Saturday, October 11, 2008 !!!)
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...when danger reared it’s ugly head, he bravely turned his tail and fled...

77 posted on 11/12/2008 6:50:14 PM PST by SunkenCiv ( finally updated Saturday, October 11, 2008 !!!)
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To: PjhCPA
I've only got a couple more. I'm not sayin' I'm good at these:
Image and video hosting by TinyPic

78 posted on 11/12/2008 7:05:41 PM PST by SunkenCiv ( finally updated Saturday, October 11, 2008 !!!)
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To: Yehuda

“One word. Plastic.”

79 posted on 11/12/2008 7:07:06 PM PST by SunkenCiv ( finally updated Saturday, October 11, 2008 !!!)
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Comment #80 Removed by Moderator

To: SunkenCiv
"...big fat momma statue of the neolithic..."
Heheh. Those old cultures sure seemed to glorify the big fat ones, while we seem to appreciate the tender slim ones with good looks. Heheh. At any rate, getting late, don't feel obligated to respond, so much is just recycled with some claim to appear new.
81 posted on 11/12/2008 10:05:08 PM PST by Marine_Uncle (Duncan Hunter was our best choice.)
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To: Marine_Uncle; SunkenCiv
Earliest Civilizations of the Near East by James Mellaart

I Must get a copy....

82 posted on 11/13/2008 7:27:06 AM PST by Ernest_at_the_Beach (No Burkas for my Grandaughters!)
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What I would like to see an explanation of how ....domesticated Wheat was is that consistant with a nomad hunter society....?

I grew up in the wheat State,...plowed, planted and harvested the grain...and I am still fascinated by it.

Hays is the heart of the imported hard Red Winter wheat ....brought over by immigrants from Russia via Germany in the mid 1800's....

*************************************some history******************************

Turkey Red Wheat

Children in Russia hand-picked the first seeds of this famous winter wheat for Kansas. They belonged to Mennonite Colonies preparing to emigrate from the steppes to the America prairies. A peace-loving sect, originally from Holland, the Mennonites had gone to the Crimea from Prussia in 1790 when Catherine the Great offered free lands, military exemption and religious freedom. They prospered until these privileges were threatened in 1871. Three years later they emigrated to Kansas, where the Santa Fe R.R. offered thousands of acres on good terms in McPherson, Harvey, Marion & Reno counties, and where the legislature passed a bill which exempted religious objectors from military service. Within a month after landing in New York the Mennonites planted the red~gold grains their children had selected. The harvest was the first of the great crops of hard Turkey Red and its derivatives that have made Kansas the Granary of the Nation.

Erected by Kansas State Historical Society & State Highway Commission

83 posted on 11/13/2008 7:37:18 AM PST by Ernest_at_the_Beach (No Burkas for my Grandaughters!)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

I dumped mine along with a ton of other books I had in my library when I had to sell my home and move back to Philly. No space to set up a library area.

84 posted on 11/13/2008 12:37:05 PM PST by Marine_Uncle (Duncan Hunter was our best choice.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

From the old to the new world. And what a blessing it has been over time. Wheat surely is among the best grain sources based on it’s food value.

85 posted on 11/13/2008 1:12:15 PM PST by Marine_Uncle (Duncan Hunter was our best choice.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

Interesting history of how these particular strains of wheat had entered the American heartland.

86 posted on 11/13/2008 1:13:57 PM PST by Marine_Uncle (Duncan Hunter was our best choice.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

Mellaart’s book has a (probably b&w) pic of this:

87 posted on 11/13/2008 2:55:38 PM PST by SunkenCiv ( finally updated Saturday, October 11, 2008 !!!)
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