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Culture Shock May Explain Similarity Between Humans
ScienceNOW Daily News ^ | 8 January 2009 | Ann Gibbons

Posted on 01/10/2009 2:19:53 AM PST by neverdem

Although humans come in many shapes and sizes, from the compact Inuit of the Arctic to the willowy Masai warriors of Africa, any two people are a lot more alike genetically than any pair of chimpanzees or gorillas. The reason may be our advanced culture, according to a new study. Our ancestors' different tools, eating habits, and even body decorations limited their mate choices to individuals of a similar culture, the work suggests, reducing the spread of new mutations across many groups. Because only a few of these ancient groups survived, humans are much less genetically diverse than other primates, even though there are many more of us on the planet. Ever since researchers discovered in the 1970s that humans lacked the genetic variation expected of our population size, they have proposed that our ancestors went through a big squeeze: Volcanic eruptions, disease, or climate change created a population "bottleneck" that reduced the number of breeding adults to about 10,000 sometime in the past 100,000 years. But new genetic studies of ancient DNA from Neandertals have found that they and the last ancestor they shared with humans, about 600,000 years ago, also lacked much genetic variation, which would require at least three dramatic bottlenecks--an improbable scenario. Meanwhile, other studies have found that language differences restricted gene flow in recent times in Europe, suggesting that cultural barriers might have limited genetic diversity more consistently than occasional local bottlenecks.

Paleoanthropologists Jean-Jacques Hublin and Luke Premo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, tested this hypothesis by simulating how mating preferences alter gene flow between individuals in different groups. Genetic variability plunged when individuals required mates with the highest degree of cultural similarity, the team reports this week in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Conversely, genetic diversity increased when individuals were less selective about their mates--as is the case in chimpanzees or gorillas, which mate whenever possible with individuals from other groups.

Hublin and Premo propose that if human ancestors selected mates from similar backgrounds, there would have been a lot of inbreeding within different populations, restricting the flow of new mutations to other groups. "If these guys on the other side of the river spoke a different language and had different weapons, you would not try to mate with them or they might kill you," says Hublin. Over time, most populations went extinct, allowing the genes of only a few groups to proliferate, further erasing genetic diversity.

Researchers who have long worked on this problem are eager to test the new hypothesis in living hunter-gatherers. Paleoanthropologist John Hawks of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, for example, plans to ask his students to determine whether there's more intermarriage between hunter-gatherer groups that live close together and, therefore, are likely to have similar cultures. Biological anthropologist Henry Harpending of the University of Utah in Salt Lake City also likes the new explanation for the missing mutations: "It is time that human population geneticists recover from waving the magic wand of 'bottleneck' to try to explain everything."


TOPICS: Culture/Society; News/Current Events; Testing
KEYWORDS: belongsinreligion; biology; genetics; godsgravesglyphs; health; notactivism; notasciencetopic; notnews; propellerbeanie; science; spammer
Culture, population structure, and low genetic diversity in Pleistocene hominins.

Duh!

1 posted on 01/10/2009 2:19:53 AM PST by neverdem
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To: neverdem
So what's the purpose of this...Even if we knew for certain...What end does it produce??...Just how brilliant these "scientists" are?? Another self-serving "Grant" funded by you and me...so some dudes can write a paper and receive accolades.

It's crap science...just like global warming.

2 posted on 01/10/2009 3:33:32 AM PST by Sacajaweau (I'm planting corn...Have to feed my car...)
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To: neverdem

Loadacrap.

There are a lot of reasons that hooman beans are divided as they are but I seriously doubt tattoos are one of them.


3 posted on 01/10/2009 3:58:58 AM PST by Adder (typical basicly decent bitter white person)
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To: neverdem

I guess humans were the only creatures that were affected by the calamities. The moron scientist can never admit that man and monkeys aren’t related.


4 posted on 01/10/2009 4:00:47 AM PST by seemoAR
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To: seemoAR
Glad you cleared that up.



Baby mountain gorilla born in Busch Animal Gardens, Florida, fall, 2005

http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/newsid_4450000/newsid_4454500/4454560.stm
5 posted on 01/10/2009 4:12:06 AM PST by djf (< Tagline closed until further notice. Awaiting bailout >)
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To: seemoAR

Talking to a friend last night...The difference between man and beast...A lion or whatever beast...remains the same forever. He does not “upgrade”. Only humans upgrade and “progress” in sustaining themselves....always looking for the better mousetrap.


6 posted on 01/10/2009 4:16:52 AM PST by Sacajaweau (I'm planting corn...Have to feed my car...)
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To: neverdem
Since the main argument for the calamity caused population bottleneck was the lack of genetic diversity, if the lack of diversity has this other proposed cause, that means there is no evidence for the bottleneck, and therefore no evidence for the calamity. If there was no calamity, there is no reason to try to find out what the calamity was!
7 posted on 01/10/2009 4:22:55 AM PST by Lucius Cornelius Sulla (Just because I am an Oogedy-Boogedy kind of guy!)
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To: seemoAR
"The moron scientist can never admit that man and monkeys aren’t related."

Sorry, but the scientific evidence says they are, and with DNA analysis these days, we can say exactly how closely. The only "morons" in the equation are people who say they aren't related.

8 posted on 01/10/2009 4:23:21 AM PST by Wonder Warthog ( The Hog of Steel)
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To: Sacajaweau

It’s all fun and games until they found the blond guy in the Chinese graveyard.

Somehow they never just get it right.


9 posted on 01/10/2009 4:34:16 AM PST by IrishCatholic (No local communist or socialist party chapter? Join the Democrats, it's the same thing.)
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To: Wonder Warthog

Time will tell who is a moron. ;0)


10 posted on 01/10/2009 4:54:30 AM PST by seemoAR
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To: neverdem
Over time, most populations went extinct, allowing the genes of only a few groups to proliferate, further erasing genetic diversity.

Notice how they carefully dance around what is by far the most likely reason most groups went extinct.

The survivors wiped them out. But in today's world we're supposed to think war and massacre was invented by white men, mostly Americans.

11 posted on 01/10/2009 4:58:42 AM PST by Sherman Logan (Everyone has a right to his own opinion, but not to his own facts.)
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To: seemoAR

Old question , If we came from monkeys How come there are still monkeys? I am not refuting scientific evidence one way or the other, just asking, and why, then, are the species of monkeys and humans that survived so different? ( not counting some of my kinfolk in East Texas :) )


12 posted on 01/10/2009 5:58:08 AM PST by Quickgun
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To: Quickgun
Old question , If we came from monkeys How come there are still monkeys?

You got it wrong. We didn't come from monkeys. Humans and apes descended from a common ancestor. That common ancestor is extinct.

13 posted on 01/10/2009 6:07:17 AM PST by MyTwoCopperCoins
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To: Quickgun

Maybe some of these “educated” people came from monkeys. A lot is written in the Bible about them. ;0)


14 posted on 01/10/2009 6:11:37 AM PST by seemoAR
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To: neverdem
"If these guys on the other side of the river spoke a different language and had different weapons, you would not try to mate with them or they might kill you,"

LOL. Is this what he meant to say?

15 posted on 01/10/2009 6:19:47 AM PST by TruthWillWin
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To: IrishCatholic
"It’s all fun and games until they found the blond guy in the Chinese graveyard."

These people here?

16 posted on 01/10/2009 6:54:53 AM PST by blam
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To: Adder

I don’t know, have you seen some of the pierced, tatooed and scarified haridans that pass for females in the young hip culture?

Nasty!


17 posted on 01/10/2009 6:55:10 AM PST by dangerdoc (dangerdoc (not actually dangerous any more))
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To: blam
Those are Tocharians:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tocharians

They were the only group of Indo-Europeans that went east from the their ur-heimat north of the black sea. All the other groups went north, west, south, or southeast. Maybe they just wanted to be different.

18 posted on 01/10/2009 8:45:51 AM PST by tvdog12345
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To: Sacajaweau
So what's the purpose of this...Even if we knew for certain...What end does it produce??...Just how brilliant these "scientists" are?? Another self-serving "Grant" funded by you and me...so some dudes can write a paper and receive accolades.

If you had read the article you would have known that the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology is in Leipzig, Germany

And it is attitudes like yours that are driving scientists out of this country. The last thing we need is a brain drain of scientists like this. Perhaps you anti-science types could leave instead? That would be a far better trade.

19 posted on 01/10/2009 9:00:21 AM PST by Coyoteman (Religious belief does not constitute scientific evidence, nor does it convey scientific knowledge.)
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To: neverdem

Two words: imagio Dei


20 posted on 01/10/2009 9:04:24 AM PST by LiteKeeper (Beware the secularization of America; the Islamization of Eurabia)
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To: tvdog12345
I know:

The Curse Of The Red-Headed Mummy

Tocharians

"Tocharian donors", possibly the "Knights with Long Swords" of Chinese accounts, depicted with light hair and light eye color and dressed in Sassanian style. 6th century CE fresco, Qizil, Tarim Basin. Graphical analysis reveals that the third donor from left is performing a Buddhist vitarka mudra. These frescoes are associated with annotations in Tocharian and Sanskrit made by their painters.There is evidence both from the mummies and Chinese writings that many of them had blonde or red hair and blue eyes, characteristics also found in present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Central Asia, due to the populations' high genetic diversity. This suggests the possibility that they were part of an early migration of speakers of Indo-European languages that ended in what is now the Tarim Basin in western China. According to a controversial theory, early invasions by Turkic speakers may have pushed Tocharian speakers out of the Tarim Basin and into modern Afghanistan, India, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan."

21 posted on 01/10/2009 9:26:42 AM PST by blam
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To: neverdem

bump for later


22 posted on 01/16/2009 10:42:35 PM PST by neverdem (Xin loi minh oi)
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To: StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1ofmanyfree; 21twelve; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; 31R1O; ...

· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic · subscribe ·

 
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Note: this topic is from January 10, 2009. Thanks neverdem.
Although humans come in many shapes and sizes, from the compact Inuit of the Arctic to the willowy Masai warriors of Africa, any two people are a lot more alike genetically than any pair of chimpanzees or gorillas.
To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach
 

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· The Archaeology Channel · Excerpt, or Link only? · cgk's list of ping lists ·


23 posted on 09/17/2009 3:38:47 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: Sacajaweau

Opposable thumbs help, too.


24 posted on 09/17/2009 3:43:51 PM PDT by La Lydia
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To: neverdem

Ping for...I gotta think about this later.


25 posted on 09/17/2009 4:02:06 PM PDT by 668 - Neighbor of the Beast ( If you have kids, you have no right of privacy that the govt can't flick off your shoulder.)
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To: IrishCatholic
"It’s all fun and games until they found the blond guy in the Chinese graveyard."

"Somehow they never just get it right."

Here are the guys you're referring to. They don't change a thing regarding this article:

The Curse Of The Red-Headed Mummy

26 posted on 09/17/2009 4:46:02 PM PDT by blam
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To: Lucius Cornelius Sulla; neverdem
Here is the cause of the last major genetic bottleneck for humans:

Late Pleostocene Human Population Bottlenecks. . . (Toba)

"The last glacial period was preceded by 1000 years of the coldest temperatures of the Late Pleistocene, apparently caused by the eruption of the Mount Toba volcano. The six year long volcanic winter and 1000-year-long instant Ice Age that followed Mount Toba's eruption may have decimated Modern Man's entire population. Genetic evidence suggests that Human population size fell to about 10,000 adults between 50 and 100 thousand years ago. The survivors from this global catastrophy would have found refuge in isolated tropical pockets, mainly in Equatorial Africa. Populations living in Europe and northern China would have been completely eliminated by the reduction of the summer temperatures by as much as 12 degrees centigrade. "

Some say the worldwide human population fell to as low as 2,000 humans worldwide. No-one says higher than 10,000 worldwide though.

27 posted on 09/17/2009 4:53:46 PM PDT by blam
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To: blam

People don’t realize that Ice Ages come on very suddenly.

That’s why I pay attention to the current temperature trend. I am not looking forward to winter. Not at all.


28 posted on 09/17/2009 5:42:23 PM PDT by Miss Marple
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To: neverdem

I thought the reason was that some catastrophy almost wiped out humanity — to the point that there were very few ancestors of the current population.

Or was that last years “scientific” theory?


29 posted on 09/17/2009 5:59:40 PM PDT by BenLurkin
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