Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

Toxic Gases Caused World's Worst Extinction
Discovery News ^ | 2/4/09 | Michael Reilly

Posted on 02/04/2009 1:26:44 PM PST by NormsRevenge

Feb. 4, 2009 -- An ancient killer is hiding in the remote forests of Siberia. Walled off from western eyes during the Soviet era and forgotten among the endless expanse of wilderness, scientists are starting to uncover the remnants of a supervolcano that rained Hell on Earth 250 million years ago and killed 90 percent of all life.

Researchers have known about the volcano -- the Siberian Traps, for years. And they've speculated that the volcanic rocks, which cover an area about the size of Alaska, played a role in runaway global warming that led to the end -- Permian mass extinction, the worst dying the planet has ever seen.

Now a team of researchers led by Henrik Svenson of the University of Oslo in Norway have performed a series of experiments, showing the volcano employed an arsenal of deadly weapons during its 200,000-year-long assault on the biosphere.

Prime among them was carbon. Searing magmas from the volcano intruded into the Tunguska Basin in eastern Siberia, a region laden with thick deposits of coal, oil and gas. Heat from the molten rock baked the hydrocarbons, turning the area into the world's largest fossil fuel-burning plant. In all, the volcano may have belched as much as 100,000 gigatons of carbon into the air (all of humanity emits about eight gigatons of carbon annually).

That's more than enough to cause a global climate apocalypse. But the team also wanted to know what happened when lava infiltrated the area's abundant salt deposits. When heated in a laboratory to 275 degrees Centigrade (527 degrees Fahrenheit), the salts released a host of toxic gases, chief among them methyl chloride, an efficient ozone-killer.

"This is the first geologically realistic evidence that ozone collapse during the end-Permian could have actually happened," Svenson said.

But there is still a lot of uncertainty surrounding the findings, Linda Elkins-Tanton of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology said.

"There is evidence of a large number of genetic mutations in the fossil record around this time," she said, which could be the result of an onslaught of ultraviolet radiation due to a weak ozone layer. "But the idea of ozone destroyers is pretty new. The question is whether or not the eruptions were powerful enough to inject gases into the stratosphere."

The answer may come from close examination of hundreds of pipe-like structures strewn throughout the Tunguska Basin. Often 300 meters (984 feet) in diameter, Svenson's team believes the pipes are ancient volcanic craters left over after the lethal mix of carbon and chlorine gases exploded into the atmosphere.


TOPICS: Culture/Society; Miscellaneous
KEYWORDS: catastrophe; catastrophism; caused; extinction; godsgravesglyphs; helixmakemineadouble; massdying; massextinctionevent; notachance; permian; permiantriassic; siberia; siberiantraps; sillyvolcanologists; toxicgases; triassic; tunguska; worst

1 posted on 02/04/2009 1:26:44 PM PST by NormsRevenge
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge
the volcanic rocks, which cover an area about the size of Alaska

Code for Sarah Palin's fault...

2 posted on 02/04/2009 1:30:09 PM PST by Old Sarge (Obama Dozed, People Froze)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge
How the Dinosaurs went extinct:



Pull my finger!!

3 posted on 02/04/2009 1:31:30 PM PST by Reaganesque
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge

carbon based Global Warming...Oh Really.


4 posted on 02/04/2009 1:31:49 PM PST by Explodo (Pessimism is simply pattern recognition)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge
Searing magmas from the volcano


MAGMA!

5 posted on 02/04/2009 1:32:40 PM PST by Old Sarge (Obama Dozed, People Froze)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge
How dinosaurs REALLY went extinct:


6 posted on 02/04/2009 1:34:10 PM PST by Lazamataz (Illegal Zombies: Just Eating the Brains that Ordinary Americans Won't Eat)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge

scientists? Lately the world’s most overused and abused word.


7 posted on 02/04/2009 1:40:24 PM PST by devere
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge

Two hundred and fifty million years ago? AHA...pre catalytic converter days, huh? Well no wonder!


8 posted on 02/04/2009 1:41:00 PM PST by Oldpuppymax (AGENDA OF THE LEFT EXPOSED)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge
But there is still a lot of uncertainty surrounding the findings, Linda Elkins-Tanton of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology said.

You betcha! But if they renew her grant, she'll make more astounding discoveries, I'm sure.

Meantime, we should send Al Gore back in a time machine to collect the carbon credits from that evil volcano.

9 posted on 02/04/2009 1:45:25 PM PST by Cicero (Marcus Tullius)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: CougarGA7

I am become Death, the shatterer of Worlds.

10 posted on 02/04/2009 1:48:57 PM PST by Tijeras_Slim
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Tijeras_Slim

yo quiero pull my finger?


11 posted on 02/04/2009 2:00:01 PM PST by absolootezer0 (thank God for Chicago: makes Detroit look wholesome by comparison.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: absolootezer0

It wasn’t me, I was not even born yet.


12 posted on 02/04/2009 2:01:35 PM PST by Rebelbase
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 11 | View Replies]

To: Rebelbase

that doesn’t mean you won’t/didn’t do it in the future/past.


13 posted on 02/04/2009 2:08:13 PM PST by absolootezer0 (thank God for Chicago: makes Detroit look wholesome by comparison.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

To: Tijeras_Slim

Lol.


14 posted on 02/04/2009 2:22:35 PM PST by Cicero (Marcus Tullius)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge
So what is exactly the news here? That the discovery channel finally discovered it?

The Day The Earth Nearly Died - programme summary

15 posted on 02/04/2009 2:44:58 PM PST by Between the Lines (For their sin of 50 million abortions God gave them over to be an ObamaNation {Romans 1:24-32})
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge

Researchers have known about the Siberian Trap for years:

1 e4 c5 2 d4 cxd4 3 c3 dxc3 4 Nxc3 Nc6 5 Nf3 e6 6 Bc4 Nf6 7 Qe2 Qc7 8 O-O Ng4 9 h3?! Nd4!


16 posted on 02/04/2009 5:30:10 PM PST by ChessExpert (The Dow was at 12,400 when Democrats took control of Congress. What is it today?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: ChessExpert

And white will either lose his king or his queen.


17 posted on 02/04/2009 10:15:42 PM PST by ChessExpert (The Dow was at 12,400 when Democrats took control of Congress. What is it today?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 16 | View Replies]

To: decimon

Toxins may have doomed ancient forests
Discovery | July 14, 2009 | Michael Reilly
Posted on 07/15/2009 7:23:55 AM PDT by decimon
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2293105/posts


18 posted on 12/12/2009 7:19:58 AM PST by SunkenCiv (My Sunday Feeling is that Nothing is easy. Goes for the rest of the week too.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1ofmanyfree; 21twelve; 24Karet; ...

· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic · subscribe ·

 
Gods
Graves
Glyphs
Note: this topic is from February 4, 2009. Thanks NormsRevenge.

Blast from the Past. Pinging it anyway. :')

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach
 

·Dogpile · Archaeologica · ArchaeoBlog · Archaeology · Biblical Archaeology Society ·
· Discover · Nat Geographic · Texas AM Anthro News · Yahoo Anthro & Archaeo · Google ·
· The Archaeology Channel · Excerpt, or Link only? · cgk's list of ping lists ·


19 posted on 12/12/2009 7:21:20 AM PST by SunkenCiv (My Sunday Feeling is that Nothing is easy. Goes for the rest of the week too.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 75thOVI; aimhigh; Alice in Wonderland; AndrewC; aragorn; aristotleman; Avoiding_Sulla; BBell; ...

Note: this topic is from February 4, 2009. Thanks NormsRevenge.
 
Catastrophism
 
· join · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post new topic · subscribe ·
 

20 posted on 12/12/2009 7:24:14 AM PST by SunkenCiv (My Sunday Feeling is that Nothing is easy. Goes for the rest of the week too.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Reaganesque

I wonder if the appearance of bean plants during the Age of the Dinosaurs had anything to do with it.


21 posted on 12/12/2009 7:40:28 AM PST by wildbill (You're just jealous because the Voices talk only to me.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: devere

Perhaps we need to resume the Inquisition and end the quest for knowledge


22 posted on 12/12/2009 7:40:42 AM PST by bert (K.E. N.P. +12 . Lukenbach Texas is barely there)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge
Now a team of researchers led by Henrik Svenson of the University of Oslo in Norway have performed a series of experiments, showing the volcano employed an arsenal of deadly weapons during its 200,000-year-long assault on the biosphere.

Prime among them was carbon. Searing magmas from the volcano intruded into the Tunguska Basin in eastern Siberia, a region laden with thick deposits of coal, oil and gas. Heat from the molten rock baked the hydrocarbons, turning the area into the world's largest fossil fuel-burning plant. In all, the volcano may have belched as much as 100,000 gigatons of carbon into the air (all of humanity emits about eight gigatons of carbon annually).

So 100,000 gigatons in a 200,000-year-long assault comes to .5 gigatons/year this is a joke right? Not near enough carbon to do any harm.

23 posted on 12/12/2009 7:59:25 AM PST by Mike Darancette (Copenhagen Climate Summit; Shovel Ready)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Mike Darancette

You’ve just proved that mankind’s 8 GT/yr is a real problem...


24 posted on 12/12/2009 8:43:28 AM PST by null and void (We are now in day 325 of our national holiday from reality. - 0bama really isn't one of US.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 23 | View Replies]

To: smoothsailing
"Stupid" volcanoe ping.
25 posted on 12/12/2009 8:45:44 AM PST by Gene Eric (Your Hope has been redistributed. Here's your Change.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge

>> “Heat from the molten rock baked the hydrocarbons,...”

OMG, secondary effects - not possible!


26 posted on 12/12/2009 8:47:33 AM PST by Gene Eric (Your Hope has been redistributed. Here's your Change.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: null and void; NormsRevenge; SunkenCiv; Oynx; Marty62; crosstimbers
Aha,...we must have that Carbon Trading go forward say the powers ...at the Copenhagen Summit...

Leaked Copenhagen Summit Document

27 posted on 12/12/2009 9:52:58 AM PST by Ernest_at_the_Beach ( Support Geert Wilders)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 24 | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge; Marine_Uncle
Heat from the molten rock baked the hydrocarbons, turning the area into the world's largest fossil fuel-burning plant.

ROFL....I bet they have an application in for a grant!

28 posted on 12/12/2009 9:55:17 AM PST by Ernest_at_the_Beach ( Support Geert Wilders)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Gene Eric; NormsRevenge

29 posted on 12/12/2009 11:33:35 AM PST by smoothsailing
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 25 | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge

I recently read this interesting narrative regarding the “Great Permian Extinction.”

“This period marks the end of pivotal evolutionary development in marine life and the opening of the transition period leading to the subsequent ages of land animals.”

“This age was one of great life impoverishment. Thousands of marine species perished, and life was hardly yet established on land. This was a time of biologic tribulation, the age when life nearly vanished from the face of the earth and from the depths of the oceans. Toward the close of the long marine-life era there were more than one hundred thousand species of living things on earth. At the close of this period of transition less than five hundred had survived.”

“The peculiarities of this new period were not due so much to the cooling of the earth’s crust or to the long absence of volcanic action as to an unusual combination of commonplace and pre-existing influences—restrictions of the seas and increasing elevation of enormous land masses. The mild marine climate of former times was disappearing, and the harsher continental type of weather was fast developing...”

“Land was rising all over the world as the ocean beds were sinking...”

“Two new climatic factors appeared—glaciation and aridity. Many of the earth’s higher regions had become arid and barren...”

“Gradually the inland lakes and seas were drying up all over the world. Isolated mountain and regional glaciers began to appear...”

“Throughout these times of climatic change, great variations also occurred in the land plants. The seed plants first appeared... The insects underwent a radical change. The resting stages evolved to meet the demands of suspended animation during winter and drought...”

“The gradual cooling of the ocean waters contributed much to the destruction of oceanic life...”


30 posted on 12/12/2009 12:02:54 PM PST by concentric circles
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge

bump


31 posted on 12/12/2009 12:10:49 PM PST by VOA (I)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: smoothsailing

LOL - priceless!


32 posted on 12/12/2009 1:54:01 PM PST by Gene Eric (Your Hope has been redistributed. Here's your Change.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 29 | View Replies]

To: null and void
You’ve just proved that mankind’s 8 GT/yr is a real problem.

No, I think I was saying the .5 GT/yr wasn't and couldn't have been the problem. As to what other noxious stuff came from the Siberian volcanism I will not comment. But if we're now doing 8 GT/yr and the earth temperatures are going down ....

33 posted on 12/12/2009 6:20:12 PM PST by Mike Darancette (Copenhagen Climate Summit; Shovel Ready)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 24 | View Replies]

To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

I guess I am not prepared to comment. I am not quite old enough to remember the event unfold.


34 posted on 12/12/2009 6:52:51 PM PST by Marine_Uncle (Honor must be earned....)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 28 | View Replies]

To: Mike Darancette; null and void; All

The atmospheric effects of a supervolcano would not have been spread out evenly over a prolonged period. There would have been episodes of intensity followed by quieter periods. Furthermore, we have not proved there was not a monster boloid component that might have triggered the production of the Siberian Trappes, and torn the atmosphere apart.

I have long been of the opinion that the atmospheric disturbance of the KT meteor strike(s) destroyed the ozone layer. I see this as the explanation as to why birds (feather protected), small mammals (fur and nocturnal), alligators (hid under mud banks), and the like were able to survive.

Two books of interest are: When Life Nearly Died: The Greatest Mass Extinction of all Time, Michael J. Benton, 2003 and The Great Dying, Kenneth J. Hsu, 1986. Hsu, of course, wrote before the meteor explanation for the death of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago had been accepted.


35 posted on 12/12/2009 8:47:51 PM PST by gleeaikin
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 33 | View Replies]

To: gleeaikin
That amount of CO2 could be easily absorbed by the biosphere over that period of time. The bolide component is interesting but a smoking gun has yet to be found.

Now the K-T event is a different story. We have the crater and other evidence that is pretty incontrovertible. At pretty much the same time there was a massive volcanic event that produced the Deccan Traps. This volcanism may have been caused or exacerbated by the impact.

36 posted on 12/12/2009 9:36:25 PM PST by Mike Darancette (Copenhagen Climate Summit; Shovel Ready)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 35 | View Replies]

To: Old Sarge

you can see russia from the area about the size of alaska


37 posted on 12/13/2009 7:59:37 AM PST by beebuster2000
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: NormsRevenge; Salamander; Slings and Arrows; Markos33
"Toxic Gases Caused World's Worst Extinction"

This finally explains why I have never found a dinosaur in my bathroom.
38 posted on 12/13/2009 8:02:27 AM PST by shibumi (" ..... then we will fight in the shade.")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: shibumi; NormsRevenge
"In all, the volcano may have belched as much as 100,000 gigatons of carbon into the air (all of humanity emits about eight gigatons of carbon annually).

That's more than enough to cause a global climate apocalypse."


"Nooooooooooo! No volcano! It was a"...
Jurassic Fart Pictures, Images and Photos

39 posted on 12/13/2009 10:19:09 AM PST by Semper Mark (Merry Christmas.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 38 | View Replies]

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson