Not really. Although it does depend on how you classify "race".
The Spartans certainly classed the Helots as a separate race although we would not.
The Gibeonites were considered a separate race from the Jews and while they were not exactly slaves they were "hewers of wood and drawers of water" i.e. forced service.
That’s not “forced service” ~ it’s “caste difference”. Once you have an hereditary right to “draw water” no one drinks unless you allow them to have water.
When you get down to brass tacks, slavery is the result of which can best perform -- albeit involuntarily -- the labor that is required. And most of that required work is plain old pick-and-shovel labor.
A quick example: In the early years,the Spaniards, in the new world (South America) discovered silver, and, to a less extent cane sugar. They did not want to work these themselves. The aborigines were to a point fair-to-poor slaves, generally lacking the stamina needed/demanded by the Spaniards. Hence the importation of negros, who were far more able to carry out the work required.
IOW, blacks became slaves -- the preferred slave stock --in the New World simply b/c they filled the need. It wasn't any "racist invention".