Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

The John Galt Effect
Human Events ^ | February 19, 2009 | Dr. Arthur Robinson

Posted on 02/27/2009 6:24:36 AM PST by AZLiberty

A hidden effect of the November 4 elections and the national events that preceded them during this past year is perhaps best called the “John Galt Effect” in honor of Ayn Rand’s famous character in Atlas Shrugged.  It is occurring to a very significant extent.

Our technological civilization stands upon the shoulders of many generations of free Americans and the great accomplishments that they bequeathed to us. Among those Americans and their counterparts in other countries have been a small special group of people whose unusual genius, work ethic, and love for their specialties were especially outstanding. These men, by their examples, their creations, and their leadership of free enterprises, have led our civilization upward. One of the greatest privileges of my life has been to know a few such people.

Without this small group of people, the technological attainments of their generations would not have taken place. We know the names of a few of them, but there were many more—constituting perhaps one person in a thousand. Ayn Rand called these people the “men of the mind.” In Atlas Shrugged, under the leadership of John Galt, they withdrew their services. They would only work in freedom. They would not work under tyranny.
In reality, most men of the mind never withdraw. They love their work too much to stop and—most of them—love their fellow men too much to desert them. The forces of tyranny depend upon this. Without these people, even the small technological advances required by Marxist and Socialist societies would not occur. Yet, while the men of the mind do not fully withdraw, they have families and other loved ones for whom they are responsible and to whom they are more devoted than to the state.

As the pendulum of politics now swings toward tyranny in the United States and dangers to those whom they love increase, these men and women partially turn their talents more toward their personal responsibilities. Part of their thoughts, efforts, and ingenuity are lost to society—and this loss cannot be recovered by either negative or positive incentives.

Throughout our country today, the men of the mind (women, too) are watching the awful scene in Washington and its reflection in state and local capitals throughout the United States. They understand the consequences of the government oppression that has dogged their own footsteps for many years and that will grow much worse in the near future. So, they are taking actions to protect themselves and their families. We have no way to measure the societal effects of this distraction of the men of the mind. There are immediate effects upon our well being and long term effects from the things that they are no longer working full time to create.

What is the cost of the distraction of our real leaders—of the men of the mind—of the John Galts among us? I estimate that it is greater than the trillions of dollars being lost on government printing presses. Call this Y2009K—and this time it is very real.

Our existing power plants are still operating; our petrochemical plants are still producing; our military defense is still performing; our food supplies are still flowing; and the rest of the technological infrastructure upon which our lives depend is largely still in place. But the key people—not those we see but those we do not see because they are constantly engaged in real work—are seriously distracted and now partially engaged in personal survival.

Of one thing we can be certain. When the essentials of our civilization begin to seriously falter and this causes real harm, those who would be our masters and their fellow travelers in the media, academia, business, and politics will cast blame upon some of these men of the mind—and drag them before us for punishment. Our John Galts know this, too, and it is a further distraction for them.

Some of these people are leading great enterprises. Others are in the basements of our power plants and other heavy industries. Some are closeted away in universities quietly at work on the next generations of possible advances in science and engineering. They are easily recognized—by their genius and by the love of their work that permeates their whole beings.

One way to recognize them is that they constantly talk about their work to anyone who will listen.

Now they are distracted.

What are they talking about today?



Additional material from Science and Public Policy Institute:

Atlas Shrugged Resources:

•    Book Chapter Summaries:
    http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/atlasshrugged/

•    An Audio Study of John Galt’s Speech:
    http://atlasshrugged.com/book/a-study-of-galts-speech.html

•    The Book and its Ideas:
    http://atlasshrugged.com/book/



TOPICS: Business/Economy; Editorial; Philosophy; Politics/Elections
KEYWORDS: 111th; atlasshrugged; aynrand; bho44; bhobudget; economy; galt; humanevents; rand
Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-100101-129 next last
Who, you ask?
1 posted on 02/27/2009 6:24:36 AM PST by AZLiberty
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: AZLiberty

Thanks for posting. Who is John Galt?


2 posted on 02/27/2009 6:28:13 AM PST by unkus
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: AZLiberty

...and so it begins.


3 posted on 02/27/2009 6:28:29 AM PST by ozark hilljilly (I don't even think I think!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: ozark hilljilly

We have the John Galt effect,
and the Bubba effect.


4 posted on 02/27/2009 6:31:00 AM PST by MrB (The 0bamanation: Marxism, Infanticide, Appeasement, Depression, Thuggery, and Censorship)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: MrB

I think I’m somewhere twixt the 2.
But more Bubba than Galt.
Can there be a redneck shrugger?


5 posted on 02/27/2009 6:32:47 AM PST by ozark hilljilly (I don't even think I think!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 4 | View Replies]

To: AZLiberty

If the economy collapses, will all infrastructure collapse as well? Will civil disorder and anarchy rule? What kept us together in the last Depression was the belief in God and that things will get better. But as atheism and consumerism takes the place of God, what will be the standard to which we will hold ourselves accountable? As a nation together and solidified for our future we could overcome, but as a nation divided into tribal enclaves (who thought diversity was a better idea than assimilation?)what will be our fate?


6 posted on 02/27/2009 6:33:46 AM PST by BipolarBob (Even the earth is bipolar.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: ozark hilljilly

“I’m shruggin’, and if any a’ you feds come ‘round ‘n say somethin’ ‘bout it, ya better bring a bunch a’ ya...”


7 posted on 02/27/2009 6:34:29 AM PST by MrB (The 0bamanation: Marxism, Infanticide, Appeasement, Depression, Thuggery, and Censorship)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: MrB

; )


8 posted on 02/27/2009 6:37:13 AM PST by ozark hilljilly (I don't even think I think!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: AZLiberty

Atlas Shrugged should be required reading for all Freepers.


9 posted on 02/27/2009 6:39:48 AM PST by jabonz08 (When rights become privileges, only the privileged will have rights.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: BipolarBob

Better buy some ammo. You should already have the guns by now.


10 posted on 02/27/2009 6:44:22 AM PST by MichiganConservative (You are a slave. The government is your owner and master. For many slaves, it is also their god.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: BipolarBob
If the economy collapses, will all infrastructure collapse as well? Will civil disorder and anarchy rule? What kept us together in the last Depression was the belief in God and that things will get better. But as atheism and consumerism takes the place of God, what will be the standard to which we will hold ourselves accountable? As a nation together and solidified for our future we could overcome, but as a nation divided into tribal enclaves (who thought diversity was a better idea than assimilation?)what will be our fate

Go to an Academy Sports Store and look at the shelves that hold or held rifle ammo and ask the clerk how long the back order is on an AR-15. "THE ANSWER MY FRIEND IS BLOWING IN WIND."

11 posted on 02/27/2009 6:44:27 AM PST by cpdiii (roughneck, oilfield trash and proud of it, geologist, pilot, pharmacist, iconoclast.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: AZLiberty

The ‘social contract’ of our nation has been broken by the attitude of present society. ‘Progressives’ have convinced society that the public has a ‘right’ to your property (taxes) and your talents (hard work, productivity) that exceeds charitable proportions. Many small business owners feel that they are going to be punished for their success. Netting $250,000 in a small business doesn’t happen overnight, sometimes it takes years. That’s who these tax increases are going to hit. The super rich are not gong to be affected much. They have the resources to hire tax attorneys, lobbyists,politicians etc to protect their ‘wealth’.
“The way to crush the bourgeoisie is to grind them between the millstones of taxation
and inflation.”(V I Lenin)


12 posted on 02/27/2009 6:45:31 AM PST by griswold3 (a good story is more compelling than the search for truth)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: jabonz08

The notion of requiring someone to read it would violate the premise.


13 posted on 02/27/2009 6:46:43 AM PST by patton (America is born in Iceland, and dies in California)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: MichiganConservative

You should already have both


14 posted on 02/27/2009 6:47:55 AM PST by P8riot (I carry a gun because I can't carry a cop.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: griswold3
“The way to crush the bourgeoisie is to grind them between the millstones of taxation and inflation.”(V I Lenin)

If Obama is a patriot his economic policy is idiocy beyond belief. If he is a committed socialist quasi communist (which I believe) his actions on the economy are perfectly logical and in keeping with the plan to destroy it. The man is dangerous.

15 posted on 02/27/2009 6:50:07 AM PST by cpdiii (roughneck, oilfield trash and proud of it, geologist, pilot, pharmacist, iconoclast.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

To: BipolarBob

I’ve been kicking these same thoughts around now for some time. I think a collapse in today’s environment will be much scarier. The inner cities are jungles and I would not want to be anywhere near those areas of public housing, drug abuse, gangs, guns, etc....if and when this thing comes crashing down.


16 posted on 02/27/2009 6:52:08 AM PST by Boanarges
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: jabonz08
Atlas Shrugged should be required reading for all Freepers.

Replace all Freepers with all Americans and I agree with you.
17 posted on 02/27/2009 6:52:49 AM PST by Dr.Zoidberg
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: cpdiii

Not just rifle ammo, either.
Mr. Legs brought me a box of aluminum(!) rounds for my glock, since they were all out of brass and wouldn’t say when they were getting more.


18 posted on 02/27/2009 6:53:01 AM PST by LongElegantLegs (Embrace what is wrong.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 11 | View Replies]

To: ozark hilljilly
Can there be a redneck shrugger?

I saw Ragnar Danneksjold (sp?) as the "redneck shrugger!" LOL!

Does anyone else?

19 posted on 02/27/2009 6:58:49 AM PST by Lou L
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: AZLiberty

Better buy the book quickly, before 0bama bans it.


20 posted on 02/27/2009 7:03:45 AM PST by Raster Man
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Lou L

“I saw Ragnar Danneksjold (sp?) as the “redneck shrugger!” “

I didn’t see him in that way, but he was my personal favorite out of all of them!
I saw him as a wild Viking type-more down to earth and ‘everyman’ than the more eggheady others. (Which is a good thing in this case!)


21 posted on 02/27/2009 7:03:47 AM PST by ozark hilljilly (I don't even think I think!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 19 | View Replies]

To: Boanarges
The inner cities are jungles and I would not want to be anywhere near those areas of public housing, drug abuse, gangs, guns, etc....if and when this thing comes crashing down.

Anyone residing in an urban area would be well served by keeping a small emergency rations pack and a full tank of gas ready at all times. We are at the the tipping point (No not the Global Warming Hoax one) in which Obama may trigger revolt (which would simplify identifying the dissidents.

22 posted on 02/27/2009 7:06:32 AM PST by BipolarBob (Even the earth is bipolar.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 16 | View Replies]

To: AZLiberty

I am someone who is thinking these things. I am making preparations to walk away.

I am a member of a national sales organization. Last year my agency was ranked 13th out of over 4500 independent agencies. I brought in over $10,000,000 in new business contracts. I worked nearly eighty hours a week, and I made close to a mid 6-figure income.

If the new Onazi budget and tax proposals go through I will be paying nearly half of my salary to the government. I do not wish to do this, so I will cut my production, move to a smaller office, or close my office altogether. I will lay off most or all of my staff. Additionally, the company I work for will take a 5-6 million dollar hit as a result of my descrease in new contract sales. My new business plan will go into effect the day the tax increase goes through.

I will take the extra forty hours per week that I am not working, and I will fly fish. I will hunt. I will build the cabin in the north country that I have always wanted, and I will turn as much of my business as I am able into cash-only sales.

I will not, however, fund the fascist monstrosity that is the Obama machine more than I need to. I would happily have a vastly reduced standard of living, than contribute to the tyrannical overthrow of my country or live as a cash-generation machine for our breahtakingly despotic king. If I stand alone in my beliefs, than so be it. I don’t think I am alone, however.


23 posted on 02/27/2009 7:13:01 AM PST by snowrip (Liberal? YOU ARE A GUTLESS SOCIALIST LOSER WITH NO RATIONAL ARGUMENT.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: AZLiberty
"Among those Americans and their counterparts in other countries have been a small special group of people whose unusual genius, work ethic, and love for their specialties were especially outstanding. These men, by their examples, their creations, and their leadership of free enterprises, have led our civilization upward."

Sounds like the demonized and hated White male.

24 posted on 02/27/2009 7:14:16 AM PST by blam
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: BipolarBob

If the economy collapses, will all infrastructure collapse as well? Will civil disorder and anarchy rule?

My Opinion-—

We will really see the survival of the fittest....mentally,emotionally,and spiritually.


25 posted on 02/27/2009 7:14:38 AM PST by Le Chien Rouge
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: ozark hilljilly

I R one...


26 posted on 02/27/2009 7:15:56 AM PST by Dubh_Ghlase (Therefore, send not to know For whom the bell tolls, It tolls for thee.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: AZLiberty
The disadvantage of specialization in ones life is becoming obvious. You are a more easily controlled subject as such. The true Galts among us have realized this and acted accordingly. The specialization vs generalization gap will soon become very obvious.

Can you grow your own food? Heat your house? Protect your loved ones?

The move away from specialization will reduce the control of Big Brother and will return control to the individual.

Shrugging, as it's referred to, is not about doing less work, it's about working for your own benefit so that you may help those that you choose.

27 posted on 02/27/2009 7:21:08 AM PST by whodathunkit (Shrugging as I leave for the Gulch)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: AZLiberty

It still isn’t illegal to retire. But one day, it might be.


28 posted on 02/27/2009 7:23:44 AM PST by Mr. Jeeves ("One man's 'magic' is another man's engineering. 'Supernatural' is a null word." -- Robert Heinlein)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: AZLiberty
Did Ayn Rand have prophetic abilities because you just can't make this stuff up?!

sw

29 posted on 02/27/2009 7:33:20 AM PST by spectre (sw )(Congress lied...the economy died)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Lou L
Ragnar Danneksjold had his own ship. He robbed other ships of government money, to take back what was ripped off from people.

Somebody has to squeeze that book into a movie. And the script must be written far away from Hollywood. And be filmed farther away.

30 posted on 02/27/2009 7:55:37 AM PST by BobS
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 19 | View Replies]

To: snowrip
"If I stand alone in my beliefs, than so be it. I don’t think I am alone, however."

You are not alone. I can't talk about what I do; just say I'm in the microwave engineering field and a lot of countries are scared and buying aerospace things that go BOOM.

About a month ago, a few of us decided not to buy anything that was taxed unless necessary. Get full use out of what we have until replacement time comes. The goal for that is to make the people that voted for these people in CA and the federal gov't pay those taxes. Started decoupling from investments and bought obviously valuable things like platinum, gold.

31 posted on 02/27/2009 8:20:10 AM PST by BobS
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 23 | View Replies]

To: Mr. Jeeves

I’ve been in my chosen profession for 25+ years. I suppose I could be forced to work, either at gunpoint or through impoverishment; but I have enough experience to make certain that my efforts result in a net ‘negative’ without detection, if need be.

I’m sure most experienced people could become rather incompetent in the same way if enslaved...


32 posted on 02/27/2009 8:23:50 AM PST by Reagan80 ("Government is not the solution to our problem, Government IS the problem." -RR; 1980 Inaugural)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 28 | View Replies]

To: snowrip

I thought it would be interesting to transpose real people to the characters in Atlas Shrugged. I know some of you may disagree with my judgment but I would like to invite one and all to provide their candidates to fill the shoes of each of the main characters in the book:

1)Dagny Taggart: Sarah Palin

2)Hugh Akston: William F Buckley Jr.

3)Ragnar Danneskjold: Ronald Reagan (lowered the top tax rate from 70% to 28%)

4)Hank Rearden: Thomas Edison

5)Ellis Wyatt: T Boone Pickens

6)Francisco d’Anconia: Rush Limbaugh (driving people crazy)

7)James Taggart: Harry Reid

8)Dr.Robert Stadler: Alan Greenspan

9)Dr. Floyd Ferris: Al Gore

10)Richard Halley: George Gershwin

11)Lillian Rearden: Nancy Pelosi

12)Eddie Williers: Joe the Plumber

13)Wesley Mouch: Barack Obama

14)John Galt: TBD


33 posted on 02/27/2009 8:31:42 AM PST by techno
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 23 | View Replies]

To: techno

good list


34 posted on 02/27/2009 8:40:29 AM PST by demsux
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 33 | View Replies]

To: snowrip

Send your post to Rush and Levin; maybe they’ll read it on the air. The people in this country need to hear that the producers “pulling up stakes” is not a Rand fantasy, but a reality that is about to actually start happening.


35 posted on 02/27/2009 8:44:09 AM PST by NewJerseyJoe (Rat mantra: "Facts are meaningless! You can use facts to prove anything that's even remotely true!")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 23 | View Replies]

To: AZLiberty

bump


36 posted on 02/27/2009 8:45:46 AM PST by patj
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: jabonz08
Atlas Shrugged should be required reading for all Freepers.

I somehow managed to never read Atlas Shrugged, though I think I know what it is all about. I've read a lot of Rand articles over the years, but never the books. So I decided to fix that. My copy should arrive today from Amazon. Got Fountainhead, too.

37 posted on 02/27/2009 9:01:08 AM PST by Ramius (Personally, I give us... one chance in three. More tea?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: AZLiberty

I’ll have to look for a “John Galt 2012” bumpersticker. That is with the hope that there will still be elections in 2012...


38 posted on 02/27/2009 9:09:20 AM PST by philled ("I prefer messy democracy to the stability of tyrants." -- Howar Ziad, Iraqi Ambassador to Canada)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: AZLiberty; jellybean

Ping.


39 posted on 02/27/2009 9:26:32 AM PST by Stentor
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: blam
Sounds like the demonized and hated White male.

Time has come to add feared to that.

40 posted on 02/27/2009 9:38:55 AM PST by Stentor
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 24 | View Replies]

To: snowrip
I am someone who did what you are thinking about. I've been “shruggin’” since 2003, when one of my larger clients (a former employer) tried to “nationalize” about 6 years worth of my intellectual capital. Decide to temporarily do without the income rather than to give away what was in my rice bowl for free.

BEST DECISION I EVER MAKE! I traded the time I spent earning enough to buy things I found I really didn't need and pay taxes for “services” I neither used or wanted, for time to do things that were in my and my family's best interests.

I took the time to improve my health. I spent more time with my loved ones. I explored new areas of knowledge and to develop new skills. I did more volunteer work in areas important to both me and the community I live in.

The way I see it, time is the most important resource we have, and it is extremely limited. We use time, as well as our abilities, knowledge, skills and attitudes, to create economic value. We trade this with others for the value we want that they produce. When someone takes my value without my consent, and gives me little or nothing in return, it is theft.

I don't like thieves. They will get as little from me as humanly possible. Raise my taxes, take away my freedoms - I'll shrug even more. Dirty little secret that the parasites don't want you to know is they can't do jack with productive folks generating value to loot.

I don't confuse “shruggin” with “slacking”. I keep up with the advances and changes in my profession, and I am more than willing - eager! - to return to adding value for others, making money, growing a business when being productive is once again rewarded.

41 posted on 02/27/2009 9:45:47 AM PST by Strzelec (I AM SANTELLICUS!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 23 | View Replies]

To: 21stCenturion

...


42 posted on 02/27/2009 9:46:56 AM PST by 21stCenturion ("It's the Judges, Stupid !")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: ozark hilljilly
re: Can there be a redneck shrugger?)))

Up against the wall, redneck shrugger!

43 posted on 02/27/2009 9:53:49 AM PST by Mamzelle (Boycott Peggy Swoonin')
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: Strzelec

BTW, a fun little game you can play at home is to keep track of how many dollars your “shuggin” prevents the looters from getting their hands on. Make sure you consider the effects of your financial decisions (for example, taxfree versus taxable bonds) and the reasonable “opportunity costs” of not pursuing opportunities you would have pursued had not the looters/moochers got in your way.

Conservatively speaking, my “Shrug-Score” is approximately 1.0 to 1.5 million since 2003.


44 posted on 02/27/2009 9:58:04 AM PST by Strzelec (I AM SANTELLICUS!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 41 | View Replies]

To: Ramius

I didn’t care for Fountainhead and AS is too long by half, but still a good read.


45 posted on 02/27/2009 9:58:26 AM PST by BipolarBob (Even the earth is bipolar.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 37 | View Replies]

To: Publius
Ping for the FR Book Club. Atlas Shrugged is our current project.

"You can't have a free market without competition. Therefore, men must be forced to compete. Therefore, freedom is only possible through regulation." I'm paraphrasing an argument somebody made in the last chapter. Rand had a really wicked ear for collectivist garbage. We have the advantage today of not having to make that stuff up - we can hear it in the media every day.

46 posted on 02/27/2009 10:13:27 AM PST by Billthedrill
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: All

Our First Freeper Book Club: Atlas Shrugged
FReeper Book Club: Atlas Shrugged, The Theme
FReeper Book Club: Atlas Shrugged, The Chain
FReeper Book Club: Atlas Shrugged, The Top and the Bottom
FReeper Book Club: Atlas Shrugged, The Immovable Movers
FReeper Book Club: Atlas Shrugged, The Climax of the d’Anconias
FReeper Book Club: Atlas Shrugged, The Non-Commercial
47 posted on 02/27/2009 10:16:10 AM PST by Publius (The Quadri-Metallic Standard: Gold and silver for commerce; lead and brass for protection.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 46 | View Replies]

To: Strzelec
Such an excellent post!

Shrugging in a nutshell.

48 posted on 02/27/2009 10:22:36 AM PST by whodathunkit (Shrugging as I leave for the Gulch)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 41 | View Replies]

To: AZLiberty; Republican Extremist; Boucheau; betsyross60; kalee; shezza; fanfan; wfu_deacons; ...
STARVE THE BEAST!

Atlas shrugged ping!

Let me know if you'd like to be added to the list.

49 posted on 02/27/2009 11:20:27 AM PST by jellybean (Who is John Galt? ~ Bookmark http://altfreerepublic.freeforums.org for when FR is down)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: jellybean

Please put me on your pinglist!


50 posted on 02/27/2009 11:22:38 AM PST by Knitting A Conundrum (Beware, world! I haz camera!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 49 | View Replies]


Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-5051-100101-129 next last

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson