Skip to comments.Mitochondrial genome analysis revises view of the initial peopling of North America
Posted on 07/09/2010 7:49:08 PM PDT by neverdem
Contact: Peggy Calicchia
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Mitochondrial genome analysis revises view of the initial peopling of North America June 29, 2010 The initial peopling of North America from Asia occurred approximately 15,000-18,000 years ago, however estimations of the genetic diversity of the first settlers have remained inaccurate. In a report published online today in Genome Research (www.genome.org), researchers have found that the diversity of the first Americans has been significantly underestimated, underscoring the importance of comprehensive sampling for accurate analysis of human migrations.
Substantial evidence suggests that humans first crossed into North America from Asia over a land bridge called Beringia, connecting eastern Siberia and Alaska. Genetic studies have shed light on the initial lineages that entered North America, distinguishing the earliest Native American groups from those that arrived later. However, a clear picture of the number of initial migratory events and routes has been elusive due to incomplete analysis.
In this work, an international group of researchers coordinated by Antonio Torroni of the University of Pavia in Italy performed a detailed mitochondrial genome analysis of a poorly characterized lineage known as C1d. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is passed down through the maternal lineage, and mtDNA sequence markers are extremely useful tools for mapping ancestry. Similar to other haplogroups that were among the first to arrive in North America, C1d is distributed throughout the continent, suggesting that it may have been also present in the initial founding populations. However, C1d has not been well represented in previous genetic analyses, and the estimated age of approximately 7,000 years, much younger than the other founding haplogroups, was likely inaccurate.
To resolve these inconsistent lines of evidence, the group sequenced and analyzed 63 C1d mtDNA genomes from throughout the Americas. This high-resolution study not only confirmed that C1d was one of the founding lineages in North America 15,000 to 18,000 years ago, but revealed another critical insight. "These first female American founders carried not one but two different C1d genomes," said Ugo Perego of the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation and primary author of the study, "thus further increasing the number of recognized maternal lineages from Beringia."
These findings raise the number of founding maternal lineages in North America to fifteen. Furthermore, this work emphasizes the critical need for comprehensive analysis of relevant populations to gather a complete picture of migratory events.
Alessandro Achilli of the University of Perugia, a coauthor of the report, suggests that the number of distinct mitochondrial genomes that passed from Asian into North America is probably much higher. "These yet undiscovered maternal lineages will be identified within the next three to four years," Achilli noted, "when the methodological approach that we used in our study will be systematically applied."
Scientists from the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation (Salt Lake City, UT), the University of Pavia (Pavia, Italy), the University of Perugia (Perugia, Italy), the University of Santiago de Compostela, (Santiago de Compostela, Spain), Innsbruck Medical University (Innsbruck, Austria), and the University of Beunos Aries (Buenos Aires, Argentina).
This work was supported by the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Fundación de Investigación Médica Mutua Madrileña, the FWF Austrian Science Fund, Progetti Ricerca Interesse Nazionale (Italian Ministry of the University), and Fondazione Alma Mater Ticinensis.
Ugo Perego is available for more information by contacting Jacob Moon at the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation Public Relations Office (+1-801-490-1017; email@example.com). Antonio Torroni, PhD is available for more information by contacting Grazia Bruttocao at the University of Pavia Press Office (+39-0382-984531, firstname.lastname@example.org). Alessandro Achilli, PhD is available for more information by contacting Laura Marozzi at the University of Perugia Press Office (+39-075-585-2202, email@example.com).
Interested reporters may obtain copies of the manuscript from Peggy Calicchia, Editorial Secretary, Genome Research (firstname.lastname@example.org; +1-516-422-4012).
About the article:
The manuscript will be published online ahead of print on June 29, 2010. Its full citation is as follows: Perego UA, Angerhofer N, Pala M, Olivieri A, Lancioni H, Hooshiar Kashani B, Carossa V, Ekins JE, Gómez-Carballa A, Huber G, Zimmermann B, Corach D, Babudri N, Panara F, Myres NM, Parson W, Semino O, Salas A, Woodward SR, Achilli A, Torroni A. The initial peopling of the Americas: A growing number of founding mitochondrial genomes from Beringia. Genome Res doi:10.1101/gr.109231.110.
About Genome Research:
Launched in 1995, Genome Research (www.genome.org) is an international, continuously published, peer-reviewed journal that focuses on research that provides novel insights into the genome biology of all organisms, including advances in genomic medicine. Among the topics considered by the journal are genome structure and function, comparative genomics, molecular evolution, genome-scale quantitative and population genetics, proteomics, epigenomics, and systems biology. The journal also features exciting gene discoveries and reports of cutting-edge computational biology and high-throughput methodologies.
About Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press:
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory is a private, nonprofit institution in New York that conducts research in cancer and other life sciences and has a variety of educational programs. Its Press, originating in 1933, is the largest of the Laboratory's five education divisions and is a publisher of books, journals, and electronic media for scientists, students, and the general public.
Genome Research issues press releases to highlight significant research studies that are published in the journal.
This stuff drives me nuts. Do these nitwits srill think we all came from one monkey in africa?
The North Eastern Nations did NOT come across no dang bridge from Asia.
I’m trying to recall the anthropologist who was convinced that Homo Erectus had peopled North America before the Ice Ages 2.58 million years ago and that the glaciers had obliterated the evidence.
But when did the “Crackers” get here?
Dang. Every chick’s his fifth cousin, and I bet Laz would hit it....
The Scandinavians got here long before the rest of Europe had a clue.
However, crackas I can help ya with:
Company time line
1792 - Pearson & Sons Bakery opens in Massachusetts. They make a biscuit called pilot bread consumed on long sea voyages.
**1801 - Josiah Bent Bakery first coined the term ‘crackers’ for a crunchy biscuit they produce.
1889 - William Moore acquires Pearson & Sons Bakery, Josiah Bent Bakery, and six other bakeries to start the New York Biscuit Company.
1890 - Adolphus Green starts the American Biscuit & Manufacturing Company after acquiring forty different bakeries.
1898 - William Moore and Adolphus Green merge to form the National Biscuit Company. Adolphus Green is president.
1901 - The name Nabisco is first used as part of a name for a sugar wafer.
1971 - Nabisco becomes the corporate name.
1973 - Frank Tasco is listed as the chairman of Nabisco.
1981 - Nabisco merges with Standard Brands.
1985 - Nabisco Brands merges with R.J. Reynolds
1993 - Kraft General Foods acquires NABISCO ready-to-eat cold cereals from RJR Nabisco.
1999 - Nabisco acquires Favorite Brands International
2000 - Philip Morris Companies, Inc. acquires Nabisco and merges it with Kraft Foods, Inc.
Nabisco dates its founding to 1898, a decade during which the bakery business underwent a major consolidation. Early in the decade, bakeries throughout the country were consolidated regionally, into companies such as Chicago’s American Biscuit and Manufacturing Company (which was formed from 40 Midwestern bakeries in 1830), the New York Biscuit Company (consisting of seven eastern bakeries), and the United States Baking Company. In 1898, the National Biscuit Company was formed from the combination of those three; the merger resulted in a company with 114 bakeries across the United States and headquartered in New York City. The National Biscuit Company first filed for a U.S. federal trademark for the name “Nabisco” on June 30, 1901. The “biscuit” in the name of the company is a British English and early American English term for cracker products.
So when the Reconkeesters tell US to go back to England/Germany a proper response would be to tell them to go back to China.
They’d never understand.
“The North Eastern Nations did NOT come across no dang bridge from Asia.”
Yes, they did. They just had to wait a while before some one could sell it to them!
Obvious question: So, how did the earliest natives in America get here?
The political relevancy of releasing this story now is to promote amnesty.
Do these nitwits srill think we all came from one monkey in africa?
It takes two, Baby...
or one monkey and one human for aids
They snuck across the border from Mexico.
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Has it never occurred to these scientists that they might actually have this entire thing backwards? That it is just as possible that homo erectus, or whatever designated homo floats their boat, moved from here to wherever long before their so-called dating system begins? This continent has been vastly underexplored for historical data. And that this continent contains a wealth of knowledge that paleontologist only dream of and speculate over.
Why do they seem to think that this entire expanse of land was virtually empty before our “betters” from other continents decided to give it a try? It’s a ridiculous assumption.
Could it possibly be because there are NO monkeys native to North America? So it doesn’t only screw with their timeline, it whacks their theory of evolution dead in the head.
So, your saying that the garden of Eden was in America? Who know.
Could it possibly be because there are NO monkeys native to North America?
What have monkeys in Africa got to deo with North America ???
The land bridge was used by the descendantsa of the “monkeys” millions of years later...
or the next week or so...
The Asians who were the ancestors of the American Indians came over the land bridge that was snowless and wide at the time...
Even now its only 50 miles of solid ice between Alaska and Russia...
I am saying that NO ONE KNOWS. And I am saying that I am not a descendant of monkeys. Period.
So, your position is that you don’t believe in evolution. Good for you.
WHAT!!! ? Then they are also claiming men couldn’t walk on water? As in ice. Which, my education sort of reminds me, the earth was once covered by?
Sorry. Too many theories and not enough real knowledge to back any of it up. Rampant speculation which they have had to retract time after time.
"The oldest human remains found in the Americas were recently "discovered" in the storeroom of Mexico's National Museum of Anthropology. Found in central Mexico in 1959, the five skulls were radiocarbon dated by a team of researchers from the United Kingdom and Mexico and found to be 13,000 years old. They pre-date the Clovis culture by a couple thousand years, adding to the growing evidence against the Clovis-first model for the first peopling of the Americas."
"Of additional significance is the shape of the skulls, which are described as long and narrow, very unlike those of modern Native Americans.
I believe in evolution alright, just not their theory of it. Man was man from the gitgo. Might have appeared different at different times, but we were never apes.
I also do not think that man evolved at the same rate over time. Nor do I think we have stopped evolving...and in some cases are DEvolving.
Like I said...
BS. There have been about 60 analyses of the migrations of people. The Jewish and Christian main Bibles are proven correct in every way. The names of the places and the names of the ethnic groups are the only things that changed over time. Some languages changed or just disappeared over all that time. The people are the same.
Thanks aposiopetic.In a report published online today in Genome Research (www.genome.org), researchers have found that the diversity of the first Americans has been significantly underestimated, underscoring the importance of comprehensive sampling for accurate analysis of human migrations.and for a BTTT to this one, thanks neverdem!
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*Skeletal remains of 169 people, split almost evenly between males and females, ranging from 6 to 70 years old. About 75 of the skeletons were relatively intact.
* 90 intact human brains that include the oldest DNA samples in the World.
* Artifacts of wood, bone, and seed that were made into jewelry and tools, providing insight into the ancient peoples' lives.
* Tests showed the oldest skeletons were buried 8,100 years ago. The youngest was placed in the ground 6,900 years ago.
"* To put this into context," Doran said, "these people had already been dead for 3,000 or 4,000 years before the first stones were laid for the Egyptian pyramids!"
WOW! I have studied and heard many theories of our supposed beginnings, but yours is unique.
I subscribe to Genesis myself, you know, the first book in the Bible. I am a strong believer in biblical creation. Six days and here we are.
Whatg about what they used to call “throw backs...
My mother had grey/green eyes and so did most of her siblings...my father had blue eyes and so did most of his siblings and his parents...
my brother has blue eyes as do his children, one sister green eyes and brown eyed chidren though their father has blue eyes...
my other sister and I have brown eyes which my mother sid was a “throw back” and that she had an aunt with brown eyes..
I have a brown eyed child ..
and a blue eyed child with blue eyed children..
If some chromosome was missing in me, it managed to find its way hiome...
I believe what you are trying to say is that the chromosome was dormant and not missing...
If you knew the arguments I had from stupid people who told me my son could notpossibly be my own off spring because of his blue eyes...
Thomas Jefferson and Oetzi were both haplogroup 'K'. (just saying....)
According to a report filed by state archeologists, excavations at the 132-acre site along the Lewes-Rehoboth Canal indicated an almost continuous prehistoric occupation from 505 B.C. through 330 A.D.
The early occupation of the site was apparently a small seasonal camp. The later occupation may have been a more permanent village, the report concluded.
Thats more than 2,100 years before Dutch explorers landed near present-day Lewes, the first Europeans to touch Cape Region soil. Historical records show that the first inhabitants of the Mid-Atlantic region date back as far as 12,000 years ago.
The site was not included in the National Register.
Jackson said officials should take note of what occurred at Thompson Island, located where Rehoboth Bay and the Lewes-Rehoboth Canal converge.
The entire island is preserved as part of Delaware Seashore State Park. Artifacts found on the island date back to 3000 B.C.
Jackson said county officials, developers and planners are paying more attention to what is under the soil.
Its been brought to the forefront and they are staring to take it seriously, she said.
The chiefs of the Nanticoke and Lenape recently testified in opposition to a rezoning and conditional use for an apartment complex off Plantation Road. They say construction of the project would infringe on an existing Native American burial site.
The long-standing lack of interest in indigenous sites is not surprising to Jackson. Its gone on for so long, its become part of the culture, she said. At the end of the day, its all about money.
I also got my 5’8” fathers “shortness” while my 6 foot brother and my son got Moms tall genes...
My mother and her sisters were at least was 5’ 6” which was tallish for women born 100 years ago and their brothers were mostly 6 foot...
most of the sons are around 6 foot...
For my 5’2” and my sisters 5 foot, the tall gene was not predominate...
But some of my long legged grandchildren will play basketball...
And how long would you deduce that a “day” in the life of G-d might be? I mean seeing as how the Creator created an entire universe, not just one measly planet in an obscure solar system,
Seriously, would you presume to TIME G-d the way man times his own existence? By the sun?
If so, your conception of G-d is far different than mine. Considering that there are gazillions of stars in an endless universe that continues to expand unto infinity, how can you time G-d?
There’s such a thing as a recessive trait, and that can travel unnoticed / unexpressed for generations, then suddenly pop up. What I’m saying in that diagram is, normally people have 46 chromosome pairs, which means that (at least) 18 of the gr-gr-gr-gr-grandparents haven’t passed down ANY chromosomes at all to you.
I read somewhere that Jefferson and Oetzi slept together, and even had offspring. ;’D
Same deal here. Blue eyes me, my one offspring, my father. No one else in each side of each family has blue eyes. Brown or hazel are dominant.
Good,old fashioned Punnet squares might offer a clue.
But DNA is a miraculous thing. It carries everyone you ever were since time began. Genetic memory.
normally people have 46 chromosome pairs, which means that (at least) 18 of the gr-gr-gr-gr-grandparents havent passed down ANY chromosomes at all to you.
And yet the “traits” somehow get through...
I am supposed to be going bald and grey at over 55 based on my genealogy but that isn't happening. I am in the 25% square. I have brown hair growing without grey and must get haircuts when it looks bad and shave every day. My cousin went bald at 45. I guess I rolled an 11 on the dice roll:)
:’) A former coworker was talking about her family once, said that she, her ex-husband, and one of their daughters were O blood type, and the other daughter was type A.
That one is not possible, unless of course she had a different father. I was uncharacteristically polite and didn’t mention it. :’)
Same here on the height, I’m over 6 ft, have one sibling who is near 6 ft, and another sibling who is under 5’ 6”. For the most part the ancestors appear to have been short, or had taller ancestors than themselves, but one of my grandmothers was tall, and that’s mostly what has come down. :’)
I played with those things like other people do crossword puzzles. Some of them were so complex I drove my prof nuts. Not a perfect predictor, but darned close.
46 of the chromosomes will pass down traits, yes.
Depends on the gene — blood types A and B are codominant; type O means the genes that code for either A or B blood proteins are not present, so there is no blood type per se. 40 percent of the world (but see next paragraph) is A, 40 percent O, 15 percent B, and 5 percent AB (this last one due to having one parent who passed down A, the other parent passed down B).
There’s also the M and N blood group, which is terribly rare, and for the most part (for now) geographically restricted to the area around the Bay of Bengal I think, maybe an artifact of blam’s Sundaland refugees. ;’)
For that matter, I’ve heard of something called Bombay Syndrome; the conventional blood test returns a result of A bloodtype, but the genes are just a hair different, and an A transfusion will kill the Bombay blood patient.
I have some relatives that have very dark hair and dark brown eyes (husband and wife). They had a son.. bright blue eyes, blond hair and very fair. He is the spitting image of his grandfather! It’s amazing how that works.
“WOW! I have studied and heard many theories of our supposed beginnings, but yours is unique.”
And infinitely more logical than some ape was my daddy.