Skip to comments.Mitochondrial genome analysis revises view of the initial peopling of North America
Posted on 07/09/2010 7:49:08 PM PDT by neverdem
Contact: Peggy Calicchia
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Mitochondrial genome analysis revises view of the initial peopling of North America June 29, 2010 The initial peopling of North America from Asia occurred approximately 15,000-18,000 years ago, however estimations of the genetic diversity of the first settlers have remained inaccurate. In a report published online today in Genome Research (www.genome.org), researchers have found that the diversity of the first Americans has been significantly underestimated, underscoring the importance of comprehensive sampling for accurate analysis of human migrations.
Substantial evidence suggests that humans first crossed into North America from Asia over a land bridge called Beringia, connecting eastern Siberia and Alaska. Genetic studies have shed light on the initial lineages that entered North America, distinguishing the earliest Native American groups from those that arrived later. However, a clear picture of the number of initial migratory events and routes has been elusive due to incomplete analysis.
In this work, an international group of researchers coordinated by Antonio Torroni of the University of Pavia in Italy performed a detailed mitochondrial genome analysis of a poorly characterized lineage known as C1d. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is passed down through the maternal lineage, and mtDNA sequence markers are extremely useful tools for mapping ancestry. Similar to other haplogroups that were among the first to arrive in North America, C1d is distributed throughout the continent, suggesting that it may have been also present in the initial founding populations. However, C1d has not been well represented in previous genetic analyses, and the estimated age of approximately 7,000 years, much younger than the other founding haplogroups, was likely inaccurate.
To resolve these inconsistent lines of evidence, the group sequenced and analyzed 63 C1d mtDNA genomes from throughout the Americas. This high-resolution study not only confirmed that C1d was one of the founding lineages in North America 15,000 to 18,000 years ago, but revealed another critical insight. "These first female American founders carried not one but two different C1d genomes," said Ugo Perego of the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation and primary author of the study, "thus further increasing the number of recognized maternal lineages from Beringia."
These findings raise the number of founding maternal lineages in North America to fifteen. Furthermore, this work emphasizes the critical need for comprehensive analysis of relevant populations to gather a complete picture of migratory events.
Alessandro Achilli of the University of Perugia, a coauthor of the report, suggests that the number of distinct mitochondrial genomes that passed from Asian into North America is probably much higher. "These yet undiscovered maternal lineages will be identified within the next three to four years," Achilli noted, "when the methodological approach that we used in our study will be systematically applied."
Scientists from the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation (Salt Lake City, UT), the University of Pavia (Pavia, Italy), the University of Perugia (Perugia, Italy), the University of Santiago de Compostela, (Santiago de Compostela, Spain), Innsbruck Medical University (Innsbruck, Austria), and the University of Beunos Aries (Buenos Aires, Argentina).
This work was supported by the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Fundación de Investigación Médica Mutua Madrileña, the FWF Austrian Science Fund, Progetti Ricerca Interesse Nazionale (Italian Ministry of the University), and Fondazione Alma Mater Ticinensis.
Ugo Perego is available for more information by contacting Jacob Moon at the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation Public Relations Office (+1-801-490-1017; email@example.com). Antonio Torroni, PhD is available for more information by contacting Grazia Bruttocao at the University of Pavia Press Office (+39-0382-984531, firstname.lastname@example.org). Alessandro Achilli, PhD is available for more information by contacting Laura Marozzi at the University of Perugia Press Office (+39-075-585-2202, email@example.com).
Interested reporters may obtain copies of the manuscript from Peggy Calicchia, Editorial Secretary, Genome Research (firstname.lastname@example.org; +1-516-422-4012).
About the article:
The manuscript will be published online ahead of print on June 29, 2010. Its full citation is as follows: Perego UA, Angerhofer N, Pala M, Olivieri A, Lancioni H, Hooshiar Kashani B, Carossa V, Ekins JE, Gómez-Carballa A, Huber G, Zimmermann B, Corach D, Babudri N, Panara F, Myres NM, Parson W, Semino O, Salas A, Woodward SR, Achilli A, Torroni A. The initial peopling of the Americas: A growing number of founding mitochondrial genomes from Beringia. Genome Res doi:10.1101/gr.109231.110.
About Genome Research:
Launched in 1995, Genome Research (www.genome.org) is an international, continuously published, peer-reviewed journal that focuses on research that provides novel insights into the genome biology of all organisms, including advances in genomic medicine. Among the topics considered by the journal are genome structure and function, comparative genomics, molecular evolution, genome-scale quantitative and population genetics, proteomics, epigenomics, and systems biology. The journal also features exciting gene discoveries and reports of cutting-edge computational biology and high-throughput methodologies.
About Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press:
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory is a private, nonprofit institution in New York that conducts research in cancer and other life sciences and has a variety of educational programs. Its Press, originating in 1933, is the largest of the Laboratory's five education divisions and is a publisher of books, journals, and electronic media for scientists, students, and the general public.
Genome Research issues press releases to highlight significant research studies that are published in the journal.
This stuff drives me nuts. Do these nitwits srill think we all came from one monkey in africa?
The North Eastern Nations did NOT come across no dang bridge from Asia.
I’m trying to recall the anthropologist who was convinced that Homo Erectus had peopled North America before the Ice Ages 2.58 million years ago and that the glaciers had obliterated the evidence.
But when did the “Crackers” get here?
Dang. Every chick’s his fifth cousin, and I bet Laz would hit it....
The Scandinavians got here long before the rest of Europe had a clue.
However, crackas I can help ya with:
Company time line
1792 - Pearson & Sons Bakery opens in Massachusetts. They make a biscuit called pilot bread consumed on long sea voyages.
**1801 - Josiah Bent Bakery first coined the term ‘crackers’ for a crunchy biscuit they produce.
1889 - William Moore acquires Pearson & Sons Bakery, Josiah Bent Bakery, and six other bakeries to start the New York Biscuit Company.
1890 - Adolphus Green starts the American Biscuit & Manufacturing Company after acquiring forty different bakeries.
1898 - William Moore and Adolphus Green merge to form the National Biscuit Company. Adolphus Green is president.
1901 - The name Nabisco is first used as part of a name for a sugar wafer.
1971 - Nabisco becomes the corporate name.
1973 - Frank Tasco is listed as the chairman of Nabisco.
1981 - Nabisco merges with Standard Brands.
1985 - Nabisco Brands merges with R.J. Reynolds
1993 - Kraft General Foods acquires NABISCO ready-to-eat cold cereals from RJR Nabisco.
1999 - Nabisco acquires Favorite Brands International
2000 - Philip Morris Companies, Inc. acquires Nabisco and merges it with Kraft Foods, Inc.
Nabisco dates its founding to 1898, a decade during which the bakery business underwent a major consolidation. Early in the decade, bakeries throughout the country were consolidated regionally, into companies such as Chicago’s American Biscuit and Manufacturing Company (which was formed from 40 Midwestern bakeries in 1830), the New York Biscuit Company (consisting of seven eastern bakeries), and the United States Baking Company. In 1898, the National Biscuit Company was formed from the combination of those three; the merger resulted in a company with 114 bakeries across the United States and headquartered in New York City. The National Biscuit Company first filed for a U.S. federal trademark for the name “Nabisco” on June 30, 1901. The “biscuit” in the name of the company is a British English and early American English term for cracker products.
So when the Reconkeesters tell US to go back to England/Germany a proper response would be to tell them to go back to China.
They’d never understand.
“The North Eastern Nations did NOT come across no dang bridge from Asia.”
Yes, they did. They just had to wait a while before some one could sell it to them!
Obvious question: So, how did the earliest natives in America get here?
The political relevancy of releasing this story now is to promote amnesty.
Do these nitwits srill think we all came from one monkey in africa?
It takes two, Baby...
or one monkey and one human for aids
They snuck across the border from Mexico.
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Has it never occurred to these scientists that they might actually have this entire thing backwards? That it is just as possible that homo erectus, or whatever designated homo floats their boat, moved from here to wherever long before their so-called dating system begins? This continent has been vastly underexplored for historical data. And that this continent contains a wealth of knowledge that paleontologist only dream of and speculate over.
Why do they seem to think that this entire expanse of land was virtually empty before our “betters” from other continents decided to give it a try? It’s a ridiculous assumption.
Could it possibly be because there are NO monkeys native to North America? So it doesn’t only screw with their timeline, it whacks their theory of evolution dead in the head.
So, your saying that the garden of Eden was in America? Who know.