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U.S. Civil War Took Bigger Toll Than Previously Estimated
Science Daily ^ | 11/21/2012 | Science Daily

Posted on 04/03/2012 11:07:36 PM PDT by U-238

The Civil War -- already considered the deadliest conflict in American history -- in fact took a toll far more severe than previously estimated. That's what a new analysis of census data by Binghamton University historian J. David Hacker reveals.

Hacker says the war's dead numbered about 750,000, an estimate that's 20 percent higher than the commonly cited figure of 620,000. His findings will be published in December in the journal Civil War History.

"The traditional estimate has become iconic," Hacker says. "It's been quoted for the last hundred years or more. If you go with that total for a minute -- 620,000 -- the number of men dying in the Civil War is more than in all other American wars from the American Revolution through the Korean War combined. And consider that the American population in 1860 was about 31 million people, about one-tenth the size it is today. If the war were fought today, the number of deaths would total 6.2 million."

The 620,000 estimate, though widely cited, is also widely understood to be flawed. Neither the Union nor the Confederacy kept standardized personnel records. And the traditional estimate of Confederate war dead -- 258,000 -- was based on incomplete battle reports and a crude guess of deaths from disease and other non-combat causes. Although it is impossible to catalogue the fate of each of the 3 million or more men who fought in the war from 1861-65, some researchers have tried to re-count deaths in selected companies, regiments and areas. But Hacker says these attempts at a direct count will always miss people and therefore always underestimate deaths.

"There are also huge problems estimating mortality with census data," Hacker explains.

(Excerpt) Read more at sciencedaily.com ...


TOPICS: Business/Economy; Culture/Society; Extended News; Foreign Affairs; Government; News/Current Events; Philosophy
KEYWORDS: americancivilwar; civilwar; confederacy; godsgravesglyphs; greatestpresident; history; militaryhistory; union; uscivilwar; warbetweenstates; warbetweenthestates
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To: stevecmd
The guy was a traitor.

You are so right and your point is proven by how all the traitors of the South were tried and hung after the war. Oh, wait there were no treason trials after the civil war, never mind.

51 posted on 04/04/2012 4:49:11 AM PDT by central_va ( I won't be reconstructed and I do not give a damn.)
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To: Tallguy
I think that people need to realize that the brilliance of Lee as a general was brought forth precisely because the strategic situation for him was so desperate. He HAD to accept a higher level of risk in his dispositions.

Lee's capabilities were certainly known prior to his dealing with that desperate strategic situation; Lincoln did offer command of the Union army to him in 1861.

52 posted on 04/04/2012 4:50:16 AM PDT by Charles Martel (Endeavor to persevere...)
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To: PalmettoMason

Corinth contains the largest number of mass graves that are unmarked on the North American continent in my opinion. There are 1200 buried somewhere unmarked from the Battle of Corinth and another 5-7K buried from the time before and after the Battle of Shiloh. At the present time, there are only around a dozen of marked graves from that time period in Corinth recognized today. Soldier’s letters and dairies from that period mention the mass graves. A few hundred of soldiers that died from wounds at Shiloh are buried at Meridian,Ms, and Holly Springs, Ms,.


53 posted on 04/04/2012 4:50:44 AM PDT by vetvetdoug
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To: nonliberal
Lee had Pickett’s Charge but Grant had The Crater and Cold Harbor.

Grant also had Donelson, Henry, and Vicksburg, which is arguably the most brilliant campaign of the war.

Even in the Overland Campaign, Grant showed great imagination and operational flexibility. The initial conception and movement were perfectly sound. The movement to the North Anna was creative: a baited trap that Lee didn't take. The flanking movements across the Pamunkey and James were brilliant; Grant breached multiple river lines without major battles. But he was determined to deny Lee any opportunity to take the initiative; he wanted to defeat Lee in the field before the war became a siege; and he began with the perception, IMHO correct, that the Army of the Potomac had had Lee on the ropes on multiple occasions, but that its commanders had failed to press the advantage. Hence his willingness to pound away when he got Lee to grips.

It's also important to remember that during the Overland Campaign, other federal armies were supposed to be advancing on all fronts. Grant made sure that the Army of the Potomac did its job. Had David Hunter in the Valley and Ben Butler on Bermuda Hundred done theirs, the campaign would have been very different.

54 posted on 04/04/2012 4:54:49 AM PDT by sphinx
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To: PalmettoMason

What was his name, if you don’t mind? I’ve done a lot of research on finding people. I agree with others, though, that he may be buried around Corinth.


55 posted on 04/04/2012 4:55:44 AM PDT by abishai
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To: abishai

My great-grandfather was in The Cornfield with the 1st Div, 12th Corps under Brig Gen Alpheus Williams. I had the opportunity to walk that field over to the Dunker Church a few years ago. What an awesome experience. Sobering, too, as a slightly different path for some wandering mini-ball would mean I’m not here writing this post.


56 posted on 04/04/2012 4:57:51 AM PDT by Reo (the 4th Estate is a 5th Column)
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To: PalmettoMason

Oops sorry that was supposed to be private.


57 posted on 04/04/2012 4:59:56 AM PDT by abishai
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To: abishai

My great-grandfather was in The Cornfield with the 1st Div, 12th Corps under Brig Gen Alpheus Williams. I had the opportunity to walk that field over to the Dunker Church a few years ago. What an awesome experience. Sobering, too, as a slightly different path for some wandering mini-ball would mean I’m not here writing this post.


58 posted on 04/04/2012 5:01:49 AM PDT by Reo (the 4th Estate is a 5th Column)
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To: ReformedBeckite
Eventually those back stabbing political Generals over Grant were fired or knock down the ladder a few rings.

Ironically, those former generals-in-charge who remained in the army did a good job in subordinate positions under Grant and Sherman. Joe Hooker, for example.

59 posted on 04/04/2012 5:03:33 AM PDT by jimtorr
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To: boop

That is what makes a general great.

Lee was a better tactician, but he didn’t have the grand strategic outlook that Grant did. Grant and Sherman knew that an army marches on its stomach, and acted accordingly.

Sheridan knew it to, and won the west.


60 posted on 04/04/2012 5:25:02 AM PDT by redgolum ("God is dead" -- Nietzsche. "Nietzsche is dead" -- God.)
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To: sphinx
It's also important to remember that during the Overland Campaign, other federal armies were supposed to be advancing on all fronts. Grant made sure that the Army of the Potomac did its job. Had David Hunter in the Valley and Ben Butler on Bermuda Hundred done theirs, the campaign would have been very different.

I had an exchange with another Freeper who contended that Gen. George H. Thomas was the best Union General. He contended that Grant was jealous of Thomas because he was demanding offensive action in middle Tennessee before Thomas was "ready". The simpler explanation is that Thomas was focused on his own knitting to the exclusion of Grant's overall strategic concept. So while Thomas may have been proven 'correct' by his victory at Nashville, we'll never know how many casualites this cost Grant in the East because of insufficient 'pressure' in the vital Western Theater.

I'm a fan of both Grant & Thomas but Grant held "The Big Chair" so I'm not willing to make direct comparisons at that point in the war.

61 posted on 04/04/2012 5:35:15 AM PDT by Tallguy (It's all 'Fun and Games' until somebody loses an eye!)
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To: sphinx

Many officers on both sides suffered from serious wounds and continued to serve. Some were hopelessly addicted to opiates as well as alcohol to control the pain. This obvious implications are that senior generals may have been impaired when key tactical decisions were required. There was a suggestion that the union general in charge of the assault at the Battle of the Crater was basically stoned and misdirected the attack. This was probably not the only instance of a command failure due to drug use.


62 posted on 04/04/2012 5:42:21 AM PDT by Tallguy (It's all 'Fun and Games' until somebody loses an eye!)
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To: boop

Not to mention that the South lacked foundries to produce needed weapons and that the north waged war on the general populace as well as soldiers.


63 posted on 04/04/2012 5:44:28 AM PDT by Boomer One
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To: abishai

One of my great aunts has, she insists, traced the family back a little over one thousand years and is certain we are related to every royal family in Europe. The wife is a direct descendant of William of Orange making the two of us 20th cousins or there about.


64 posted on 04/04/2012 6:18:18 AM PDT by W. W. SMITH (Obama is Romney lite)
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To: nonliberal

They were, we were all Americans and over the years I have informed several non citizens, who where disparaging American fighters, that we killed more of each other than all of our enemies succeeded in killing in all of our history put together. At that point they shut their mouths and go away.


65 posted on 04/04/2012 6:28:56 AM PDT by W. W. SMITH (Obama is Romney lite)
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To: RegulatorCountry

Northern Alabama was not providing enough men for the war. To correct this the Confederate states passed the conscription act (IRC) in April 1863. That did not increase the numbers to any extant so they sent an army unit into northern Alabama to encourage more enlistments by burning crops and barns. Those actions encouraged the men of the state to form a cavalry unit which marched north and fought for the union the remainder of the war.

A little known Civil War fact.


66 posted on 04/04/2012 6:40:26 AM PDT by W. W. SMITH (Obama is Romney lite)
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To: W. W. SMITH
A little known Civil War fact fantasy.

I am willing to entertain this assertion, care to document this one?

Here is an example of a real draft riot:

NYC draft riot. Those Ny'ers were all behind King Abe. LOL

67 posted on 04/04/2012 6:52:21 AM PDT by central_va ( I won't be reconstructed and I do not give a damn.)
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To: abishai

So...what was the answer?


68 posted on 04/04/2012 7:01:00 AM PDT by ctdonath2 ($1 meals: http://abuckaplate.blogspot.com/)
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To: central_va; All

I refuse to sit here idly by while you attack the contemptible acts of rioting, destroying property and beating blacks by the forefathers of the obama demographic! I’m surprised there were no abortions or sodomy going on!


69 posted on 04/04/2012 7:04:41 AM PDT by j.argese (FR is a Newt-ist Colony, not a Romney Room, Paul Pavillion or Santorum Sanctum)
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To: abishai
Add up the jayhawker/bushwacker deaths in bleeding kansas (Lawrence by Quantrill), (all the deaths attributed to John Brown and his minions - Marais de Cygne Massacre) and western missouri (Osceola by Governor Jim Lane) - All before the bombing of Fort Sumpter.

Add to that the unintended consequences of general order eleven which depopulated and stripped the western Missouri border counties of all humanity.

And this was just in western missouri and eastern kansas - before the war.

The Civil War Era (1854 - 1865) took more lives than 750,000.

"Order No. 11 and the Civil War on the Border",by Albert Castel

http://www.civilwarstlouis.com/History2/castelorder11.htm

70 posted on 04/04/2012 7:09:06 AM PDT by x_plus_one (Jihad is an institution inherent to the Islamic system itself; a permanent religious obligation)
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To: W. W. SMITH

Someone said that more Americans have royal blood percentage wise than the population of Europe. The reason is that when second and third born and younger sons had nothing to do - it was cheaper to send them here than keep them there.


71 posted on 04/04/2012 7:11:52 AM PDT by x_plus_one (Jihad is an institution inherent to the Islamic system itself; a permanent religious obligation)
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To: U-238

Missouri was kept in the union by the German immigrants in St. Louis. They formed enough units to hold enough territory long enough to make a difference.


72 posted on 04/04/2012 7:14:19 AM PDT by x_plus_one (Jihad is an institution inherent to the Islamic system itself; a permanent religious obligation)
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To: abishai

Oh, no problem. No need for privacy. His name was Samuel Hiram Rainey (sometimes spelled Raney on some of his muster roll slips) of Company F, 16th South Carolina Volunteers.


73 posted on 04/04/2012 7:15:00 AM PDT by PalmettoMason (South Carolinians need to start choosing a primary challenger to Nikki Haley NOW!!!!!!!)
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To: U-238

“Lee was the best military tactician in Western history.”

Maybe, but Grant was better at strategy.


74 posted on 04/04/2012 7:18:01 AM PDT by Mr Rogers ("they found themselves made strangers in their own country")
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To: Himyar
Lincoln was perceived as a son of the quakers who were rabid abolutionists to the point of violence :-)

No one ever considers the influence of the quakers on the political evolution of the USA. The Friends were considered traitors and were required to take loyalty oaths after the revolutionary war. They have stoked the fires of anti-christian liberalism from the time of Hicksite division when they had a schism and the majority adopted the stance that Christ was not divine or the center of their 'church'.

Quakers started the eastern liberal political tradition of dissension and have had a chip on their shoulder since day one.

75 posted on 04/04/2012 7:22:13 AM PDT by x_plus_one (Jihad is an institution inherent to the Islamic system itself; a permanent religious obligation)
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To: U-238

Not as great as Lee. Lee was the best military tactician in Western history.


Perhaps, but he is also remembered as forcing the frontal assault,(Pickett’s Charge) on the third day of Gettysburg.
Jackson wanted to flank..Lee said no.


76 posted on 04/04/2012 7:27:22 AM PDT by AFret. ("Charlie don't surf ! ")
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To: U-238

I had a 3x great uncle who died at Chancellorsville. He was the family mystery, the 17 year old, youngest son, who stole his mama’s horse, rode off to war, and never returned. They received a word of mouth report after the war that he had been killed, it broke his mother’s heart. I grew up on the stories about him, told by my grandfather. The stories always ended with they know he fell but never knew where he rests. For my grandfather’s 98th birthday I found the missing uncle’s grave. He “rests” in the Confederate Cemetery in Fredericksburg.
It was a sweet and emotional thing to see his name on the marker, lay some flowers and say a prayer, after all that time. (I felt from all the stories I had heard that I knew him.) My grandfather cried when I gave him the pictures. He kept saying “there he is, you found him.”.
There were over 30,000 casualties at that battle. The park ranger who helped me locate him was surprised she could find it, since so many were unidentified and are in unmarked graves.

We also have a family connection to General Lee.


77 posted on 04/04/2012 8:03:52 AM PDT by kalee (The offenses we give, we write in the dust; Those we take, we engrave in marble. J Huett 1658)
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To: U-238
U.S. Civil War Took Bigger Toll Than Previously Estimated

I, personally, lost a good portion of my brain to a musket ball.


78 posted on 04/04/2012 8:10:10 AM PDT by Lazamataz (Shut up and drill.)
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To: kalee

Most southerners were not slave owners. They fought to protect their families, land and neighbors from pillage and plunder. How many would stand by today and allow their homes, families and towns burned to the ground by an invading army?


79 posted on 04/04/2012 8:12:11 AM PDT by x_plus_one (Jihad is an institution inherent to the Islamic system itself; a permanent religious obligation)
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To: abishai

Yes, the French and Italian royal families for us.

We have a friend who is related to a British aristocratic family. When visiting the UK he and his wife toured the ancestral estate. They mentioned to the guide that they were related to the family. After the tour, they were invited to tea during which the aristocrat made a point of telling them that their relationship was on the”wrong side of the blanket”.


80 posted on 04/04/2012 8:12:26 AM PDT by kalee (The offenses we give, we write in the dust; Those we take, we engrave in marble. J Huett 1658)
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To: RegulatorCountry; U-238
I think it depends on what part of the country your people are from.

A much higher percentage of the population of the South was involved in the war, since a good deal of it was fought on their territory and the South was much less populated than the North. So if you're a Southerner, it's far more likely that your ancestors were involved in the war. (Although my husband's N.J. ancestors had a couple of men in the Union Army - of course they were Irish and spoiling for a fight).

If I got into extended family, cousins and so forth, could probably get over 100 easily. My mother's paternal ancestors arrived here from Scotland right around 1860 and were urban tradesmen, so were not involved. But her maternal ancestors were in it up to their eyeballs, mostly in a quiet way (city guards and so forth). My dad's family is full of Confederate ancestors, including 1 gg grandfather who was a Captain of Artillery (and incidentally looked just like Colonel Sanders), another who was a private in the Partisan Rangers, and a third who was an infantryman.

The private in the Partisan Rangers refused the oath, but nobody ever did anything about it. He eventually served in the Alabama Legislature without having taken the oath, and this was pointed to with some approbation in his 'official' biography.

81 posted on 04/04/2012 8:18:10 AM PDT by AnAmericanMother (Ministrix of ye Chasse, TTGS Ladies' Auxiliary (recess appointment))
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To: Himyar
My great great grandfather never recovered from wounds and disease but died several years after the war ended.

Exactly. One of my gg grandfathers never really recovered from Shiloh, lived with his daughter and her husband until his early death. Reading between the lines, I think he had PTSD or 'shell shock'. He was an older soldier (almost 40 iirc) and I don't think he had the resilience of the younger men -- it's like my dad said about WWII - "when you're 19, you think you're going to live forever."

82 posted on 04/04/2012 8:32:42 AM PDT by AnAmericanMother (Ministrix of ye Chasse, TTGS Ladies' Auxiliary (recess appointment))
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To: PalmettoMason
My gg grandfather's oldest sister's husband was killed at Shiloh. He was a lieutenant in the same company as my gg grandfather.

She put up a beautiful monument to him in the Coosa (AL) Presbyterian Church cemetery - it says on the side "His body lies on the battlefield, unmarked and unknown".

She never remarried.

83 posted on 04/04/2012 8:35:08 AM PDT by AnAmericanMother (Ministrix of ye Chasse, TTGS Ladies' Auxiliary (recess appointment))
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To: W. W. SMITH

I kinda doubt that, my dad’s family is from northern Alabama and every male between the ages of around 20 and 40 was in. I’ve read their letters home, and most of the extended family and neighbors were in as well. The women were running the farms in their absence.


84 posted on 04/04/2012 8:38:50 AM PDT by AnAmericanMother (Ministrix of ye Chasse, TTGS Ladies' Auxiliary (recess appointment))
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To: boop

North won a war of Attrition, not a war on the battlefield.

The Emancipation Proclamation won the war for the north, nothing else. Europe was prepared to join the war on the side of the south and break the blockades. Lincoln knowing this would be the end of the union, issued the Emancipation Proclamation which made the war politically no longer just a civil war (at least as far as Europe was concerned), but a war against slavery (even though it honestly freed no slave legally and MD and WV were slave states of the Union), which made it impossible for the european powers to get involved politically.


85 posted on 04/04/2012 8:39:08 AM PDT by HamiltonJay
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To: kearnyirish2

WWI was a disaster on all fronts.. an entire continent at war due to treaty agreements that got triggered over an individuals assassination, followed by years of stalemate meat grinding.

I cannot even begin to comprehend what madness had to be going on in leaders minds after it was clearly obvious what a disaster it was, yet it continued, and continued and continued.

To be fair none were prepared for the full onslaught of industrialized warfare.. Sheer and utter madness can be the only excuse. How does an entire continent go mad?


86 posted on 04/04/2012 8:47:09 AM PDT by HamiltonJay
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To: boop

BOR still sucks at TV.


87 posted on 04/04/2012 8:50:44 AM PDT by bmwcyle (I am ready to serve Jesus on Earth because the GOP failed again)
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To: U-238
"Not as great as Lee. Lee was the best military tactician in Western history.

Lol, many great commanders have done far more with far less. Lee is over rated.

88 posted on 04/04/2012 9:06:53 AM PDT by jpsb
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To: boop

That was Lee’s reason for going to Gettsburg, to gain food supplies from the farms along the way.


89 posted on 04/04/2012 9:09:42 AM PDT by upcountryhorseman (An old fashioned conservative)
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To: abishai

In addition to the human casualties, The South felt the
effects of The War Between The States for 100 years afterward.


90 posted on 04/04/2012 9:12:48 AM PDT by upcountryhorseman (An old fashioned conservative)
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To: U-238

The survivors on both sides often suffered mentally and physically the rest of their lives.

My Dad’s grandfather suffered from what we would call PTSD after years of seeing and being involved in deadly carnage of the war.

In fact he got a pension for his problems.


91 posted on 04/04/2012 10:00:37 AM PDT by Grampa Dave (ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION IS DESTROYING AMERICA-LOOK AT WHAT IT DID TO THE WHITE HOUSE!)
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To: U-238

The survivors on both sides often suffered mentally and physically the rest of their lives.

My Dad’s grandfather suffered from what we would call PTSD after years of seeing and being involved in deadly carnage of the war.

In fact he got a pension for his problems.


92 posted on 04/04/2012 10:00:46 AM PDT by Grampa Dave (ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION IS DESTROYING AMERICA-LOOK AT WHAT IT DID TO THE WHITE HOUSE!)
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To: AnAmericanMother

There wasn’t much enthusiasm for the Confederate cause in Northern Alabama. Many of the Confederate soldiers from that area were resuctant conscripts enrolled under the oppressive hand of the Confederate state administered by often corrupt and sometimes outright criminal local Confederate power structures. The desertion rate of such conscripts were high and in the end it was crippling to the Confederacy.


93 posted on 04/04/2012 10:10:08 AM PDT by Colonel Kangaroo
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To: central_va

The 1st Alabama Cavalry was raised from Alabama Unionists at Huntsville, Alabama and Memphis, Tennessee in October, 1862 after Federal troops occupied the area. It was attached to the XVI Corps in various divisions until November 1864, when it became part of the XV Corps. During this time, its duties mostly consisted of scouting, raiding, reconnaissance, flank guard, and providing screening to the infantry while on the march.

The regiment was selected by Major General William T. Sherman to be his escort as he began his march to the sea. It was assigned to the Third Division of the Cavalry Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi in January 1865. It fought at the battles of Monroe’s Crossroads and Bentonville and was present at the surrender of the Army of Tennessee at the Bennett Place. It was sent to the District of Northern Alabama, Department of the Cumberland in June 1865.

The regiment was mustered out of service at Huntsville, Alabama on October 20, 1865, with only 397 men present. Out of the 2,000 men who served in the unit during the course of the war, 345 were killed in action, died in prison, of disease or other non-battle causes, 88 were captured, and 279 deserted, with no accurate count of the number of wounded.


94 posted on 04/04/2012 10:15:49 AM PDT by W. W. SMITH (Obama is Romney lite)
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To: AnAmericanMother

The 1st Alabama Cavalry was raised from Alabama Unionists at Huntsville, Alabama and Memphis, Tennessee in October, 1862 after Federal troops occupied the area. It was attached to the XVI Corps in various divisions until November 1864, when it became part of the XV Corps. During this time, its duties mostly consisted of scouting, raiding, reconnaissance, flank guard, and providing screening to the infantry while on the march.

The regiment was selected by Major General William T. Sherman to be his escort as he began his march to the sea. It was assigned to the Third Division of the Cavalry Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi in January 1865. It fought at the battles of Monroe’s Crossroads and Bentonville and was present at the surrender of the Army of Tennessee at the Bennett Place. It was sent to the District of Northern Alabama, Department of the Cumberland in June 1865.

The regiment was mustered out of service at Huntsville, Alabama on October 20, 1865, with only 397 men present. Out of the 2,000 men who served in the unit during the course of the war, 345 were killed in action, died in prison, of disease or other non-battle causes, 88 were captured, and 279 deserted, with no accurate count of the number of wounded.


95 posted on 04/04/2012 10:17:05 AM PDT by W. W. SMITH (Obama is Romney lite)
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To: W. W. SMITH

Wow one regiment. Do you know how many regiments the south had from MD?


96 posted on 04/04/2012 10:25:05 AM PDT by central_va ( I won't be reconstructed and I do not give a damn.)
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To: Colonel Kangaroo
Like I said, I've read original letters and studied the records on the ground.

I'm not seeing it there. I'm sure there were Union sympathizers, just as there were in Georgia. But I don't see any sign that their numbers were significant, let alone "crippling to the Confederacy".

97 posted on 04/04/2012 11:12:23 AM PDT by AnAmericanMother (Ministrix of ye Chasse, TTGS Ladies' Auxiliary (recess appointment))
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To: central_va

There were 7 or 8 regiments from Alabama. All but one formed late in the war. The first Alabama cavalry was formed up in 1862, relatively early in the war, in response to an idiot in confederate uniform trying to increase enlistments by burning crops and barns. That did not work as expected. 2000 went north.


98 posted on 04/04/2012 11:34:35 AM PDT by W. W. SMITH (Obama is Romney lite)
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To: U-238
OK

Each “+” (cross) represents 10,000 deaths (or fraction thereof)

Revolutionary War 6,188 +

War of 1812 4,505 +

Mexican War 4,152 +

U. S. Civil War (both sides) 498,332 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + add stars: + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Spanish-American War 2,446 +

World War I 116,516 + + + + + + + + + + + +

World War II 405,399 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Korea 54,246 + + + + + +

Vietnam 58,167 + + + + + +

Desert Storm 293 +

Afghanistan/Iraq Liberation 3,500 +

Grand Total all U.S. Wars 1,150,744 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Abortions in the U.S. (Since Roe v. 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