Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

Potassium Iodide, Fukishima, Uncle Sam, and you.
Via email | 4/12/12 | A trusted colleague

Posted on 04/12/2012 9:30:01 AM PDT by null and void

I received a copy of this email today from a trusted source:

Saul,

There is a little discussed chance that ALL the spent fuel rods at the Fukushima reactor accident site (4 reactors) might catch fire from a 70% within a year, probable NEW earthquake at the site in Japan.

An earthquake will topple (or crack) the exposed to air, spent fuel (water) pools, resulting in complete loss of remaining critical cooling water in the pools, causing radioactive fires of the fuel rods in the spent fuel pools, emitting 85 times the radionucleides emitted from the total of the Chernobyl accident.

Remember that radiation from Chernobyl covered large parts of Europe. Take that area and multiply by 85x or far far more....

Here (North America) if this occurs at Fukushima (it is purposely not disclosed in Western press) which it likely will occur, due to frequency of earthquakes hitting Japan ALL the time, then the airborne radiation released uncontrollably from nuclear fuel fires will mess up Asia, and travel likely 1st to the pacific coast of North America. It will not stop there either as this level of airborne fallout will encircle much of the earth over time.

I recently heard in the news that there was a HUGE order of potassium iodide pills tendered by the US government. Initially I thought this strange but I thought due to the potential attack of the Iran nuclear facilities, for troop protection in the region against nutty crazy Iranians.

Today I learned of the actual present status of Fukushima accident site, in considerable depth, and it is far far far worse than anyone ever thought possible (sitting on a precipice of world radiation catastrophe of likely possible fuel fires at the site) All the fuel in the reactors across the site have melted entirely through at least several of the containment vessels, depositing the molten uranium metal into the earth below the concrete seondary containment vessels (buildings), and is the likely cause of continued seepage of high radiation into the ocean that occurs unabated as yet. But miniscule compared to what might happen if the spent fuel pool fuel rods burn (likely to burn).

Potassium iodide is used in event of large scale radiation releases (which include radioactive Iodine 131 isotope - which if ingested or inhaled, kills all function of the thyroid - a critical gland for human body function)

Potassium iodide pills BLOCK uptake of radioactive iodine 131 (emitted in airborne radioactive chemicals in a nuclear accident) and save the thyroid from destruction in exposure to fallout..

The apparent magnitude of the US Federal government tender for massive amounts of Potassium Iodide pills indicates these actual "risks" are inevitable, and also indicates that within the US federal government it is well known that the probability of a huge radioactive fire at Fukushima, releasing persistent long half life radiation into large areas across the globe will in all likelihood occur within 2 years or less. (it can happen at any time if an earthquake breaks the spent fuel pools remaining water seals)

For reference, the amount of likely airborne radiation likely to be released if the Fukushima spent fuel pools burn is 1/2 of that released from all manmade explosions and accidents since nuclear technology was developed by man over all history (since 1940s till today) from all sources, but likely to be emitted in the course of weeks, if fires break out at the spent fuel pools at the site.

Please do not talk about the technical specifics to Mom. Just try to get these pills ...

Please do try to procure a supply of these pills for Carla and Michael (you and mom too, but they have many years ahead of them) I think they are available by prescription but you might have to try to order by mail order on the internet.

The remaining actual risks at Fukushima are unprecedented due to the huge extensive structural damage at the site particularly in the spent fuel pools barely hanging on, teetering in fact. Once they crack from an earthquake it is likely game over (possibly for safe habitation for much of the world due to airborne fallout of the likely worlds largest atmospheric release of radioactivity ever)

I am actually going to try to write a longer blog post about this, in coming weeks as more folks need to understand what is presently not properly reported, and is a huge risk to world health if this occurs

(quite probable, as the structural stabilization of the severely damaged spent fuel pools at Fukishima contain about ?6000 tons of highly radioactive fuel exposed directly to the atmosphere (no cover but for water remaining presently)

If the water in the pools is lost due to an inevitable Japanese earthquake, before the spent fuel pools are reinforced (scheduled? within 2> (more likely) 3 years, the magnitude of worldwide nuclear fallout contamination will be incomprehensible.

Sadly because of my physics background in my degree from Carnegie Mellon, I understand the details and gravity of the situation too well.

I think he is overstating the risk, but no harm in having potassium iodide on hand, if you can find it.


TOPICS: Culture/Society; Foreign Affairs; Japan
KEYWORDS: vanity
All of the sudden, the government flipped from preventing citizens from buying KI pills, to buying a massive quantities themselves.

Check the dates...

1 posted on 04/12/2012 9:30:04 AM PDT by null and void
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: null and void

What’s the shelf life of KI?


2 posted on 04/12/2012 9:32:03 AM PDT by Fido969
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: null and void

this reminds me of helping my daughter with her science project.

We had to discuss what constitutes “reliable sources”


3 posted on 04/12/2012 9:35:19 AM PDT by nixonsnose (Let's see all you lawyers argue your way out of hell.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Fido969

I believe the shelf life of KI is indefinite.


4 posted on 04/12/2012 9:35:40 AM PDT by Obadiah
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: null and void

Yeah, OK; cool. We’re not dead yet. Chillax like we do in Tokyo.


5 posted on 04/12/2012 9:36:45 AM PDT by lefty-lie-spy (Stay metal. For the Horde \m/("_")\m/ - via iPhone from Tokyo.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Fido969

It’s just a salt, I guess. Keep it cool and dry and would last for ever.

I was rejected by the French pharmacists and government doctors to take KI when Chernobyle blew up for political reasons, as that would have made an antisoviet sentiments in the country while Mitterand, the socialist, was President.

Welcome to Obamacare...

So, guess what, I got Graves Disease as a result. They had to zap my thyroid going out of control. Now I am Zen and probably dying slowly, so to speak, or, ironicaly, slower, in a sort of weird kind of way.


6 posted on 04/12/2012 9:47:50 AM PDT by JudgemAll (Democrats Fed. job-security Whorocracy & hate:hypocrites must be gay like us or be tested/crucified)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: null and void

This earthquake that will end the world is going to happen December 21st, the Mayans predicted it.

The above stated status of the conditions at Fukushima contain factual errors. In reactors 1, 2 and 3, there is thought to be some breaching of the reactor pressure vessels, but none of the reactors have breached primary containment. Reactor 4 was unfueled.

The spent fuel pools are intact, reactor 4’s spent fuel pool has been re-inforced.

Reactor 1’s building has been covered. Reactor 2’s building is relatively intact.

Nobody, but -NOBODY-, can predict any upcoming earthquake.

The government getting ready for a disaster? Well, I’m glad they’re doing their job, for once.

CAN something happen? Always. Will something happen? Doubtful.


7 posted on 04/12/2012 9:49:22 AM PDT by biggerten (Love you, Mom.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: null and void
Well, in the worst case scenario, pig out on dandelions. And I mean pig out! They're super high in potassium and a lot of other cleansing vitamins and minerals. Grab all you can, and eat them for as long as you can.
(The entire plant is edible. It can be dried and re-hydrated.)
8 posted on 04/12/2012 9:49:52 AM PDT by concerned about politics ("Get thee behind me, Liberal")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: nixonsnose

An email is always a reliable source.


9 posted on 04/12/2012 9:51:41 AM PDT by Larry Lucido
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Obadiah
K2 will be around a while, also.


10 posted on 04/12/2012 9:53:49 AM PDT by Larry Lucido
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 4 | View Replies]

To: Fido969

Both NRC.gov and CDC.gov have tons of info re:KI on their sites. They both state indefinite shelf life as long as package not damaged, kept dry, etc.


11 posted on 04/12/2012 9:57:53 AM PDT by donozark (We're ALL Greeks now...and possibly, quite soon, Portugese.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: concerned about politics

It’s the Iodine that you need. Not the Potassium.


12 posted on 04/12/2012 9:58:44 AM PDT by Rio
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 8 | View Replies]

To: concerned about politics
Well, we can all be sure, within 24 hours of this thingy cooking off, there will not be a dandelion one left anywhere in America! I know of 160 acres where they can start eating!

Nor will there be any bananas nor Morton Iodized salt left in grocery stores. Poor buggers. They will thirst for water and crap like a goose!

13 posted on 04/12/2012 10:01:54 AM PDT by donozark (We're ALL Greeks now...and possibly, quite soon, Portugese.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 8 | View Replies]

To: concerned about politics; dixiechick2000
There's a story in the Bible about Babalonian King Nebuchanezer(sp) going crazy and grazing in the fields for the rest of his life like the beasts of the field. I'm sure he pigged out on dandelions while Daniel spent time in the lion's den as well!!!

Maybe you should take up Bible studies instead of gobbling greens from the front lawn, ya think???

14 posted on 04/12/2012 10:06:04 AM PDT by SierraWasp (Negativity must die because it's self-fulfilling!!!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 8 | View Replies]

To: concerned about politics

Not much iodine in a dandelion.


15 posted on 04/12/2012 10:06:46 AM PDT by null and void (Day 1178 of America's ObamaVacation from reality [Heroes aren't made, Frank, they're cornered...])
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 8 | View Replies]

To: Larry Lucido
An email is always a reliable source.

In this case, I know the author. I worked with him for years, we are in regular contact. He is levelheaded and not prone to panic.

I also independently verified the sudden mass buying by the US government, and discovered that literally a day before the order broke the news they were blocking sales to mere citizens.

YMMV

16 posted on 04/12/2012 10:11:15 AM PDT by null and void (Day 1178 of America's ObamaVacation from reality [Heroes aren't made, Frank, they're cornered...])
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: JudgemAll

Not being nosy, but were you treated with RAI? Some studies of Chernobyl seem to indicate quite a hike in number of people diagnosed with Graves.


17 posted on 04/12/2012 10:11:38 AM PDT by donozark (We're ALL Greeks now...and possibly, quite soon, Portugese.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: donozark

LOL!!

Thanks for the laugh.


18 posted on 04/12/2012 10:11:49 AM PDT by Clara Lou (ABO! ABO! ABO!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 13 | View Replies]

To: Larry Lucido

Post of the day!

Well played, sir!


19 posted on 04/12/2012 10:13:12 AM PDT by null and void (Day 1178 of America's ObamaVacation from reality [Heroes aren't made, Frank, they're cornered...])
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: null and void

I began taking an Iodoral supplement a short while ago after some nudgin from my wife. I have to say I feel like a new man and wish I had listened to her sooner. Early morning joint stiffness is basically gone. I have more energy and I sleep better. I think everyone should give it a try and see if it helps them.


20 posted on 04/12/2012 10:13:58 AM PDT by old and tired (Go Newt!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: null and void
That is almost all 100%, pure, unadulterated FUD. Don't believe a word of it. As far as KI goes, it is a thyroid blocker. It is only good if there is a release of radioiodine from a fission source that was active very recently. Anything in the SFPs will have decayed to the point of having essentially no 131I.

Treat KI as you would any dietary supplement. There are risks to ingesting it that outweigh any risk from non-exposure to 131I. Allergic reaction to KI is rare, but not unknown. The numbers I have seen from various epidemiology studies range anywhere from 0.5 to 2 reactions per million exposed. If you are prone to allergic reactions to dietary supplements, things like salt substitutes, I would check with your doctor before stocking it for future use.

21 posted on 04/12/2012 10:16:20 AM PDT by chimera
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: SierraWasp
There's a story in the Bible about Babalonian King Nebuchanezer(sp)going crazy and grazing in the fields for the rest of his life like the beasts of the field. <.P>

Daniel chapter 4 says that Nebuchadnezzar was crazy like a fox or bull or something for seven times, or seven years, then his sanity returned to him.
He may well have enjoyed a field of dandelions during that time.

22 posted on 04/12/2012 10:21:20 AM PDT by FreedomOfExpression
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 14 | View Replies]

To: null and void; AmericanInTokyo

PING to OP article.


23 posted on 04/12/2012 10:42:07 AM PDT by Quix (Times are a changin' INSURE you have believed in your heart & confessed Jesus as Lord Come NtheFlesh)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: null and void

Does kelp work?


24 posted on 04/12/2012 10:51:33 AM PDT by 2ndDivisionVet (Ich habe keinen Konig aber Gott)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: null and void

Cheapest seller of KI and yes I have some. Honorable seller with 100% rating. Buy the Lugol’s solution it will do the trick.
Lugol’s solution, 4 fl. oz., 2.2% iodine $14.95
Free Shipping
http://www.ebay.com/itm/Lugols-solution-4-fl-oz-2-2-iodine-/320674963885?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item4aa9b7a1ad#ht_689wt_1135

http://www.ebay.com/sch/the_full_orchestra/m.html
here is his KI if you want it
1/2 fl. oz. SSKI w/dropper bottle (potassium iodide)


25 posted on 04/12/2012 10:51:58 AM PDT by dennisw (A nation of sheep breeds a government of Democrat wolves!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet

“Does kelp work?”

Not strong enough. You want an over abundance of iodine in your body ASAP if Fukishima radioactive particles reaches you via winds. I would worry more if I lived on the West Coast


26 posted on 04/12/2012 10:54:38 AM PDT by dennisw (A nation of sheep breeds a government of Democrat wolves!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 24 | View Replies]

To: dennisw

Geeze dennis, ya oughta make a “Killin!” (grin)


27 posted on 04/12/2012 11:03:38 AM PDT by SierraWasp (Negativity must die because it's self-fulfilling!!!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 25 | View Replies]

To: chimera
That is almost all 100%, pure, unadulterated FUD. Don't believe a word of it. As far as KI goes, it is a thyroid blocker. It is only good if there is a release of radioiodine from a fission source that was active very recently. Anything in the SFPs will have decayed to the point of having essentially no 131I.

If the spent fuel rods started spewing next month what radioactive elements would it be sending here via the wind?

28 posted on 04/12/2012 11:04:19 AM PDT by dennisw (A nation of sheep breeds a government of Democrat wolves!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 21 | View Replies]

To: concerned about politics

it’s not the potassium, it’s the iodine. Iodine will go to your thyroid and prevent the radioactive Iodine from the reactor from depositing there.


29 posted on 04/12/2012 11:06:19 AM PDT by class8601_nuke (don't just be critical, be prompt critical.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 8 | View Replies]

To: null and void

Just wondering, if you can’t get the pills is there a method to use a diluted tincture of iodine in it’s place?


30 posted on 04/12/2012 11:14:12 AM PDT by READINABLUESTATE ("We must hang together, gentlemen...else, we shall most assuredly hang separately." - Franklin)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: READINABLUESTATE

I think that would depend on what solvent is used in the tincture. I’d be hesitant to try it with tinctures in methyl (wood) alcohol.


31 posted on 04/12/2012 11:19:15 AM PDT by null and void (Day 1178 of America's ObamaVacation from reality [Heroes aren't made, Frank, they're cornered...])
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 30 | View Replies]

To: 2ndDivisionVet
Does kelp work?

Dunno. I've read reports of detectable levels of Fukushima radiation in California kelp.

OTOH we can detect levels far, far below hazardous levels.

32 posted on 04/12/2012 11:22:26 AM PDT by null and void (Day 1178 of America's ObamaVacation from reality [Heroes aren't made, Frank, they're cornered...])
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 24 | View Replies]

Chernobyl was unique their rods had infused carbon in them.
So they reacted with heat and air and burned violently into the air. Such a widespread dissemination scenario is not entirely replicable anymore due to different rod construction. KI tablets are good, but have age restrictions. Over 40 years or so , no need and other age qualifications for dosage restrictions,children etc. Not so simple as some of the literature pertaining to them indicates.


33 posted on 04/12/2012 11:22:26 AM PDT by RBStealth
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: SierraWasp

Ain’t Nobody Here But Us Chickens


34 posted on 04/12/2012 11:39:33 AM PDT by dennisw (A nation of sheep breeds a government of Democrat wolves!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 27 | View Replies]

To: dennisw
Very, very little. Longer-lived fission product forms include things like 137Cs and 90Sr. Both are mobile in the environment because they are soluble. But that means they are much, much more likely to wash out locally that blow across 12,000 miles of open ocean.
35 posted on 04/12/2012 12:07:36 PM PDT by chimera
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 28 | View Replies]

To: null and void
That's nothing. When I was at the CAMS facility at Livermore we were detecting plutonium deposited in carpenter's nails from the Trinity test. The nails were taken out of abandoned structures in NM and southern CO. Other plutonium was being detected from the tests at Eniwetok and Bikini in coral samples taken from that area. That goes back to the 1950s. Last I checked, we were all still here and alive, even though there was detectable plutonium in the environment from those weapons tests (note, weapons, not Fukushima, you can tell weapons grade plut from reactor plut). Point is, we can do very sensitive measurements of things liken this, at levels far, far, far, far, far below any that even might remotely cause any harm.
36 posted on 04/12/2012 12:14:19 PM PDT by chimera
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 32 | View Replies]




Click the Drop!

It may seem like a drop in the ocean
But even small monthly donations
Will keep Free Republic running smoothly


Sponsors will contribute $10
every time a new monthly donor signs up

37 posted on 04/12/2012 12:40:37 PM PDT by TheOldLady (FReepmail me to get ON or OFF the ZOT LIGHTNING ping list)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: donozark

Sure did. I got also double the max RAI dose for destruction of thyroid. Last I checked on ultrasounds the remnant of the thing was tiny.


38 posted on 04/12/2012 1:08:56 PM PDT by JudgemAll (Democrats Fed. job-security Whorocracy & hate:hypocrites must be gay like us or be tested/crucified)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 17 | View Replies]

To: dennisw

I was told to also buy calcium tablets made from corral because it would block accumulation of strontium in the bones and prevent bone cancer. Anyone know about this?


39 posted on 04/12/2012 1:13:27 PM PDT by JudgemAll (Democrats Fed. job-security Whorocracy & hate:hypocrites must be gay like us or be tested/crucified)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 26 | View Replies]

To: chimera

Super appreciate your information! I still have Lugol’s around for other things but looks like Fukishima will not be one of them


40 posted on 04/12/2012 1:46:41 PM PDT by dennisw (A nation of sheep breeds a government of Democrat wolves!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 35 | View Replies]

To: null and void

Are you kidding? I was told by at least a dozen arm chair nuclear scientists here on the FR during the initial explosion that it was going to be no more dangerious than eating a banana? Fortunately I never believed them.


41 posted on 04/12/2012 1:50:00 PM PDT by Scythian
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Scythian

Yep. I was one of them. I’m still pretty certain that the US will have no discernible problems.

Still, the government discouraging private purchase of KI one day and doing a mass buy the very next gives me some pause...


42 posted on 04/12/2012 2:00:37 PM PDT by null and void (Day 1178 of America's ObamaVacation from reality [Heroes aren't made, Frank, they're cornered...])
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 41 | View Replies]

To: JudgemAll

(I prefer taking calcium and magnesium ascorbates which I have at home anyways. They are an easy to take form of vitamin C)

.
.
.
.
.
CHECK THIS OUT——>>>>
.
http://asurvivalplan.com/2011/12/23/nuclear-decontamination-tips-from-230gr/
Counter Measures for Other Radioactive Isotopes

1. Calcium and Magnesium: both help your body to pass off Strontium 90. is best. Dr. Linus Pauling says heavy calcium supplementation will reduce strontium 90 absorption by 50 percent. Calcium blocks or decreases the absorption of strontium-90, calcium-45 and other radioactive isotopes by the skeletal system and also helps to eliminate radioactive isotopes that are lodged in the bones.

2. Adults should consume 1,400 mg of calcium (preferably calcium citrate) per day. Too much calcium can be harmful (it binds the intestines) so it needs to be take as a calcium—magnesium combination. The optimal amount should contain about ½ as much magnesium as calcium or 700 mg. Magnesium: Like calcium, magnesium prevents the uptake of radioisotopes and helps to eliminate already stored strontium-90.

Editor’s Note: My wife and I both take Cal-Mag Fizz as a dietary supplement. Calcium and Magnesium are best absorbed when taken together. Upon reading the label, I saw that the concentrations are very close, as a percentage, to what the article recommends. As such, I’ve discovered that we have a nuke prep in our usual and normal stocks without knowing it! Thank you, 230gr, for your timely contributions.


43 posted on 04/12/2012 2:00:37 PM PDT by dennisw (A nation of sheep breeds a government of Democrat wolves!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 39 | View Replies]

To: dennisw

Interesting... I was taking this calcium-potatium-magnesium mix to stop muscle cramps at night and calm me to sleep after a work out. I too had forgotten about that other option. ;)


44 posted on 04/12/2012 3:15:58 PM PDT by JudgemAll (Democrats Fed. job-security Whorocracy & hate:hypocrites must be gay like us or be tested/crucified)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 43 | View Replies]

To: dennisw
Keep in mind that a thyroid blocker is only good if you are downwind from an active fission source that has a significant release of fission products. That can be one of two things:

1. Nuclear explosion. But then you probably have other worries.

2. Reactor accident with containment breach. Not likely. Fukushima had releases because they lost offsite power and onsite emergency power. With emergency power available there is no need to vent the Mark I containment. But because they had no emergency diesels they had to do occasional venting to avoid challenging the pressure limits. It is unlikely that SFP accidents will involve radioiodine in the source term. The vast majority of fuel in an SPF is significantly decayed, so 131I is a small fraction of the total radioisotope inventory.

45 posted on 04/12/2012 4:11:55 PM PDT by chimera
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 40 | View Replies]

To: FreedomOfExpression; SierraWasp

“As King Nebuchadnezzar grew in power and might, he also grew very prideful. As a warning to us, God used the king by punishing him. Pride is one of those things that God hates (Proverbs 8:13) and God made King Nebuchadnezzar an example. God drove the king from men and made him dwell with the beasts of the field. He roamed the wild land and was forced to eat grass for seven years. Finally, the king was brought ‘to his senses’ when he acknowledged God as the King of heaven, “because everything he does is right and all His ways are just. And those who walk in pride He is able to humble” (Daniel 4:37). The king died in 562 B.C. at the age of 68.”

http://www.allabouttruth.org/king-nebuchadnezzar-faq.htm


46 posted on 04/12/2012 11:55:05 PM PDT by dixiechick2000 (This hobbit is looking for her pitchfork...God help the GOP if I find it.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 22 | View Replies]

To: dixiechick2000
I was specifically commenting on the length of his lost reasoning powers, not the cause. He didn't remain in that state the rest of his life.
Nebuchadnezzar learned the hard way to be humble before God.
47 posted on 04/13/2012 6:49:43 AM PDT by FreedomOfExpression
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 46 | View Replies]

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson