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Study on fructose prompts criticism from corn refiners
Winston-Salem Journal ^ | July 14, 2013 | Richard Craver

Posted on 07/15/2013 12:21:38 PM PDT by neverdem

A Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center study on dietary fructose has provided more evidence of the potential for controversy when researchers target products affecting consumer spending and corporate profits.

This time, researchers are on the receiving end of sharp criticism from the Corn Refiners Association after reporting that fructose rapidly caused liver damage even without weight gain with primates.

The researchers acknowledged when they released the study results that the role of dietary fructose in the development of obesity and fatty liver diseases “remains controversial.”

Researchers determined that over a six-week study period, liver damage more than doubled in the monkeys fed a high-fructose diet as compared to those in a control group. The study was published online by the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition and was funded through three National Institutes of Health grants.

“Is a calorie a calorie? Are they all created equal? Based on this study, we would say not,” said Kylie Kavanagh, an assistant professor of pathology-comparative medicine at Wake Forest Baptist and lead author of the study.

There are non-Wake Forest Baptist studies, including at Duke University, that have shown increased dietary fructose can alter the body’s metabolism and energy balance.

However, other studies say eating fructose in whole fruit “is not associated with adverse effects up to the limits of human consumption.”

Dr. David Ludwig, a pediatrician and endocrinologist at Children’s Hospital in Boston, said at the conclusion of a 2013 study that any “recommendation to replace fructose with glucose lacks an evidence basis.”

“Few modern studies have compared the long-term effects of glucose, fructose and starch under physiologically relevant condition, and such research should assume high priority,” Ludwig said.

The Corn Refiners Association said Wake Forest Baptist researchers “have failed to prove anything about human consumption of high fructose corn syrup. The study fails to reproduce anything close to resembling real world conditions for consuming fructose.”

Ruth Kava, a researcher for the American Council on Science and Health, concluded her January study by saying “scientific evidence does not support the notion that high-fructose corn syrup is uniquely responsible for the American obesity epidemic.”

“Experimental evidence, as well as analyses of epidemiologic data, indicate that sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup have equivalent effects on food intake, and therefore on body weight.”

Chad Campbell, a spokesman for Wake Forest Baptist, said the center “stands behind our researchers and the science published in a peer-review journal regarding fructose in an animal model.”

Monkeys and weight gain

The latest Wake Forest Baptist study followed up on research conducted by Kavanagh’s group that allowed monkeys to eat as much as they wanted of low-fat food with added fructose for seven years, as compared to a control group fed a low-fructose, low-fat diet for the same time period.

The researchers found the monkeys that were allowed to eat as much as they wanted of the high-fructose diet gained 50 percent more weight than the control group. They developed diabetes at three times the rate of the control group and also developed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

The goal of the latest study was determining whether weight gain caused the liver damage. Researchers studied 10 middle-aged, normal weight monkeys who had never eaten fructose.

The monkeys were divided into two groups based on comparable body shapes and waist circumference. Over six weeks, one group was fed a calorie-controlled diet consisting of 24 percent fructose, while the control group was fed a calorie-controlled diet with 0.5 percent fructose.

Both diets had the same amount of fat, carbohydrate and protein, but the sources were different, Kavanagh said. The high-fructose group’s diet was made from flour, butter, pork fat, eggs and fructose -- the main ingredient in corn syrup – similar to what many people eat.

By comparison, the control group’s diet was made from healthy complex carbohydrates and soy protein.

Every week the research team weighed both groups and measured their waist circumference, then adjusted the amount of food provided to prevent weight gain.

At the end of the study, the researchers measured biomarkers of liver damage through blood samples and examined what type of bacteria was in the intestine through fecal samples and intestinal biopsies.

“What surprised us the most was how quickly the liver was affected and how extensive the damage was, especially without weight gain as a factor,” Kavanagh said. “Six weeks in monkeys is roughly equivalent to three months in humans.”

Researchers found that the type of intestinal bacteria hadn’t changed in the high fructose group, but they were migrating to the liver more rapidly and causing damage there.

The Corn Refiners Association called the study flawed in part because the primate subjects were fed pure fructose amounting to close to a quarter of the total calories consumed.

“This is over three times the average amount of fructose consumed from all sources in the human diet and twice the 95th percentile level in humans,’ the lobbying group said.

“Additionally, primates have different body functions than humans. This is why the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Committee only considered studies conducted with humans to be viable for developing policy.”

The lobbying group said the problems of obesity and obesity-related diseases, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, “are a serious health issue that continues to plague our nation.”

“However, attempts to demonize one food or ingredient without appropriate scientific research only lead to confusion among consumers and inhibit the development of real solutions.”

Limits of research

One study limitations for the Wake Forest researchers was that it only tested for fructose, and not dextrose. Fructose and dextrose are simple sugars found naturally in plants.

“We studied fructose because it is the most commonly added sugar in the American diet, but based on our study findings, we can’t say conclusively that fructose caused the liver damage,” Kavanagh said. “What we can say is that high added sugars caused bacteria to exit the intestines, go into the blood stream and damage the liver.

“The liver damage began even in the absence of weight gain. This could have clinical implications because most doctors and scientists have thought that it was the fat in and around tissues in the body that caused the health problems.”

The next step is studying monkeys using the same controls, but testing both fructose and dextrose over a longer time frame.

The Wake Forest Baptist study drew similar conclusions to a separate study released in September by Duke University researchers that found potential liver damage in obese patients with type 2 diabetes who consume higher amounts of fructose.

Energy depletion in the liver may be associated with liver injury in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and in those at risk for developing this metabolic condition.

“There is an alarming trend of increased rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the U.S.,” said lead author Dr. Manal Abdelmalek of Duke. “Given the concurrent rise in fructose consumption and metabolic diseases, we need to fully understand the impact of a high-fructose diet on liver function and liver disease.”

A study released in May by Emory University researchers found nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disease in adults and children.

A number of genetic and environmental factors are known to predispose individuals to the disease, while certain dietary sugars, particularly fructose, are suspected to contribute to its development and progression.

“The increasing quantity of fructose in the diet comes from sugar additives, most commonly sucrose and high fructose corn syrup, in beverages and processed foods,” according to the Emory researches.

“Substantial links have been demonstrated between increased fructose consumption and obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Growing evidence suggests that fructose contributes to the development and severity of the disease. In human studies, fructose is associated with increasing hepatic fat, inflammation, and possibly fibrosis.

“Whether fructose alone can cause the disease, or if it serves only as a contributor when consumed excessively in the setting of insulin resistance, positive energy balance, and sedentary lifestyle, is unknown. Sufficient evidence exists to support clinical recommendations that fructose intake be limited through decreasing foods and drinks high in added – fructose-containing – sugars.”

rcraver@wsjournal.com


TOPICS: Business/Economy; Culture/Society; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: fructose; hfcs; nafld; obesity; type2diabetes
Did they do a liver biopsy? Yes, but the abstract doesn't say what caused the damage. Was it the excess fructose or the bacteria?

Dextrose is also called glucose. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease is also called hepatic steatosis.

Dietary fructose induces endotoxemia and hepatic injury in calorically controlled primates

1 posted on 07/15/2013 12:21:38 PM PDT by neverdem
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To: neverdem

Limit your HFCS drinks to one a day. I wish RC Cola would go back to REAL sugar!


2 posted on 07/15/2013 12:28:08 PM PDT by Errant
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To: neverdem

All this HFCS stuff would go away if only we stopped subsidizing the corn farmers so damned much inthe farm bill...

We also subsidize the big agribusinesses that refine it as well.. so stop that too.


3 posted on 07/15/2013 12:31:48 PM PDT by GraceG
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To: neverdem

I wouldn’t advise drinking ANY of that stuff. It’s really poisonous, and it’s not reversible.

I used to have an occasional Coke, but no longer.


4 posted on 07/15/2013 12:33:24 PM PDT by Cicero (Marcus Tullius)
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To: neverdem
“Six weeks in monkeys is roughly equivalent to three months in humans.”

So, 1 year in humans is two monkey years?..............

5 posted on 07/15/2013 12:34:31 PM PDT by Red Badger (Want to be surprised? Google your own name......Want to have fun? Google your friend's names........)
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To: Errant; Cicero; GraceG

Go to Big Lots and buy the Mexican Coke products. They have real sugar since Mexico does not allow HFCS.......


6 posted on 07/15/2013 12:36:11 PM PDT by Red Badger (Want to be surprised? Google your own name......Want to have fun? Google your friend's names........)
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To: Red Badger

I’ve done that, but I’ve gotten some that “didn’t taste right”. Enough that I stopped the practice.


7 posted on 07/15/2013 12:38:14 PM PDT by Errant
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To: GraceG

What we need to do is discontinue supporting the high price for domestic sugar. the only reason the drink mfrs use HFCS is because it’s cheaper to do so. If we paid the world price for sugar they would go back it using it............


8 posted on 07/15/2013 12:38:18 PM PDT by Red Badger (Want to be surprised? Google your own name......Want to have fun? Google your friend's names........)
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To: Red Badger

bump


9 posted on 07/15/2013 12:40:39 PM PDT by GeronL
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To: Red Badger

Yep, that and stop buying HFCS drinks, or only the ones that contain real sugar. They would change the formulas almost overnight if that occurred.


10 posted on 07/15/2013 12:41:24 PM PDT by Errant
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To: Red Badger

...Mexican Coke products....

&&
No, thanks. I avoid HFCS strenuously. I avoid any foodstuffs made in Mexico, as well. No telling what is actually in them.


11 posted on 07/15/2013 12:42:27 PM PDT by Bigg Red (Restore us, O God of hosts; let your face shine, that we may be saved! -Ps80)
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To: Red Badger

it is a us only allowed poison.

btw the term HFCS is being phased out for Fructose only. Same poison just neew aand improved name.


12 posted on 07/15/2013 12:45:42 PM PDT by longtermmemmory (VOTE! http://www.senate.gov and http://www.house.gov)
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To: Errant
You're right, at the end of the day, moderation is the key to all things.

I'm far from a nutcase on HFCS, but I've noticed two things....

1) The Corn Lobby has been buying time on TV stations promoting HFCS as sugar....just the same as cane sugar, beet sugar, etc etc etc. I start yelling at the TV..."FRUCTOSE and SUCROSE are NOT THE SAME THING!!!!". So far, the TV hasn't responded to me. Mrs WBill did ask me, however, if I knew how funny I looked.

B) My wife decided that we'd cut back on HFCS. We're a little more cognizant of whether or not it's in what we're eating, and are changing what we buy, accordingly. I found HFCS in a ton of stuff that I'd never think of (Bread! Ketchup?!) and HFCS listed in the top 3 ingredients in a whole lot more (soda..duh, peanut butter).

As a result of these cutbacks, I've noticed that I feel fuller and don't eat as much. For instance, I used to have a couple of PB sandwiches for lunch, now one fills me up just fine. Interesting, sez I.

13 posted on 07/15/2013 12:46:07 PM PDT by wbill
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To: GraceG
All this HFCS stuff would go away if only we stopped subsidizing the corn farmers so damned much inthe farm bill...

That, and the other half of the coin, if we stopped artificially propping up the price of cane sugar well above what the market would normally charge.

14 posted on 07/15/2013 12:49:01 PM PDT by null and void (Republicans create the tools of oppression, and the democrats gleefully use them!)
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To: Errant

Don’t drink soda at all.


15 posted on 07/15/2013 12:50:13 PM PDT by EEGator
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To: wbill

If you want to fatten cattle you feed them corn.


16 posted on 07/15/2013 12:51:09 PM PDT by null and void (Republicans create the tools of oppression, and the democrats gleefully use them!)
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To: neverdem

It is well known that cancer cells feed on glucose, the simplest sugar. Now a new piece of research has shown that at least one form of cancer also feeds on the sugar fructose and that is bad news; because fructose is everywhere in the modern Western diet.

For this new study researchers took pancreatic cancer cells from human patients and grew them in the lab. They then added glucose to one group of the cells and fructose to another group. Using mass spectrometry to track the sugars the researchers found that pancreatic cells did distinguish between fructose and glucose even though they are chemically almost identical. The cancer cells used fructose to manufacture nucleic acids which they then used to make RNA and DNA. This allows the cancer cells to divide and grow.

The capacity of fructose to increase cancer growth is bad news as fructose consumption has increased dramatically in recent decades.

Read More:
http://www.wellbeing.com.au/newsdetail/Fructose-feeds-cancer_000201


17 posted on 07/15/2013 12:53:51 PM PDT by LucyT ("Once you've gone round the bend you've gone as far as you can go. ")
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To: wbill
I did some heavy research into HFCS vs. regular sugar sometime back. The theory is that processed HFCS contains fructose molecules that are wound differently than those occurring naturally (in fruits and etc.). Therefor, the liver doesn't know how to process it and then goes into overdrive trying.

Other issues are somehow (don't remember exactly how) related to the feeling of hunger, it throws a wrench into the biological mechanism that lets you when you're full.

18 posted on 07/15/2013 12:56:11 PM PDT by Errant
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To: EEGator
Easy for you to say... :)

But you're right!

19 posted on 07/15/2013 12:58:14 PM PDT by Errant
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To: wbill
I will not buy anything with corn sweetener in it. Period.
No Coke or any soft drinks. Don't drink the “sugar free” stuff either.

Gimme a tall sun tea with a squeeze of lemon on a hot day.

20 posted on 07/15/2013 1:01:49 PM PDT by Eric in the Ozarks (NRA Life Member)
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To: neverdem

There you have it. So don’t let your chimp drink ethanol.


21 posted on 07/15/2013 1:04:42 PM PDT by Buckeye McFrog
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To: Cicero

Best thing I ever did was quit drinking the stuff. I dropped 18 lbs. and feel great.


22 posted on 07/15/2013 1:05:30 PM PDT by Buckeye McFrog
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To: neverdem

I live near the Canadian border and any time that I go across into Canada, I buy Coca Cola, because it is made with cane sugar.
You can clearly taste the difference and the Canadian Coke is better, much better.


23 posted on 07/15/2013 1:07:27 PM PDT by BuffaloJack (Gun Control is the Key to totalitarianism and genocide.)
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To: Errant

I used to drink a ridiculous amount of Gatorade everyday. Cutting that out totally sucked. Now I only have water with lemon or plain green tea. You get used to it after a while.


24 posted on 07/15/2013 1:09:03 PM PDT by EEGator
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To: LucyT

Thanks for the link!


25 posted on 07/15/2013 1:09:46 PM PDT by neverdem (Register pressure cookers! /s)
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To: Errant

REAL sugar is half fructose.


26 posted on 07/15/2013 1:10:27 PM PDT by Royal Wulff
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To: Errant

Don’t buy the yellow drinks............


27 posted on 07/15/2013 1:15:37 PM PDT by Red Badger (Want to be surprised? Google your own name......Want to have fun? Google your friend's names........)
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To: Royal Wulff
It's different though. I'll see if I can find some of the links I saved when looking into it. The HFCS fructose molecule is wound differently and the liver can't handle it, was what the research I read concluded.

They are many different sugar molecules.

28 posted on 07/15/2013 1:18:04 PM PDT by Errant
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To: Red Badger
I've drunk a ton of the purple dranks... ;) Used to buy the large packets that you mix with water, when I was doing a lot of welding - probably a quart per hour at least.

Once when running a dozer all day, after crushing my water jug, I started getting light headed and nauseous from the heat and lack of water. If it hadn't been for a half-gallon of the yellow stuff at the nearest store, I probably wouldn't be here on FR today.

29 posted on 07/15/2013 1:23:58 PM PDT by Errant
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To: Red Badger
Mexican Coke bottlers are allowed to use up to 65% HFCS in their sweetener ingredients.

I doubt real sugar is any better for you. It's the fiber in whole fruit that limits blood sugar spikes, from what I have read.

30 posted on 07/15/2013 1:24:45 PM PDT by Trailerpark Badass (There should be a whole lot more going on than throwing bleach, said one woman.)
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To: Errant
The HFCS fructose molecule is wound differently...

LOL! It's easier to just state you don't know.

31 posted on 07/15/2013 1:25:15 PM PDT by Rokurota
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To: neverdem
HFCS exists because of government subsidies to not only corn farmers but also sugar beet growers mostly in Eastern North Dakota and because of tariffs on cheaper imported sugar. Soft drinks using HFCS don't taste as good as their sugar based versions. Compare retro Mt. Dew available in some markets with the corn syrup product and you will taste a huge difference.

Corn farmers here in the Midwest are growing rich with record high corn prices largely due to government subsidies to both the HFCS industry and the ethanol boondoggle. Consumers get hit twice..once at the grocery store with higher food prices due to inflated corn prices and through higher taxes to subsidize producers like ADM and Poet Bio=refining as well as farmers.

32 posted on 07/15/2013 1:25:44 PM PDT by The Great RJ (construction)
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To: neverdem

I quit drinking soft drinks and lost 15 pounds immediately.


33 posted on 07/15/2013 1:26:39 PM PDT by lwd
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To: lwd
I quit drinking soft drinks and lost 15 pounds immediately.

That's nothing. I once quit eating food and lost 100 lbs.

34 posted on 07/15/2013 1:28:50 PM PDT by Rokurota
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To: Errant

Just don’t drink soft drinks. I wish I’d never learned to like colas and Mountain Dew.
Nowadays, it is ice water and unsweet tea for me.


35 posted on 07/15/2013 1:31:31 PM PDT by Little Ray (How did I end up in this hand-basket, and why is it getting so hot?)
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To: Rokurota
LOL! It's easier to just state you don't know.

Okay, smart aleck...

There are two fructose structures, alpha and beta. The only distinguishing factor between the two is the location between the -OH and -CH2OH position located on carbon-2.

https://s5-us3.ixquick-proxy.com/do/show_picture.pl?l=english&cat=pics&c=pf&q=HFCS+fructose+molecule+is+wound+differently&h=372&w=552&th=107&tw=160&fn=542compareglufruc.gif&fs=13.5 k&el=boss_pics_2,boss_pics_1&tu=http:%2F%2Fts4.mm.bing.net%2Fth%3Fid%3DH.4688211289114659%26pid%3D15.1%26H%3D107%26W%3D160&rl=NONE&u=http:%2F%2Fwww.ehow.com%2Ffacts_5644847_fructose-structure-description.html&udata=7a4c4d4e293579798655142146c6aec0&rid=LDLNRNTMKLLR&oiu=http:%2F%2Fwww.elmhurst.edu%2F~chm%2Fvchembook%2Fimages%2F542compareglufruc.gif

If I tell you a rooster dips snuff, look under its wing for the can!

36 posted on 07/15/2013 1:34:18 PM PDT by Errant
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To: Errant

Don’t eat the yellow snow.............


37 posted on 07/15/2013 1:36:32 PM PDT by Red Badger (Want to be surprised? Google your own name......Want to have fun? Google your friend's names........)
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To: Red Badger

:)


38 posted on 07/15/2013 1:38:00 PM PDT by Errant
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To: Cicero

I drink soda maybe 6 times a year. All those sweeteners have drawbacks whether it is fructose or the “diet” sweeteners which are worse for you


39 posted on 07/15/2013 1:38:07 PM PDT by dennisw (The first principle is to find out who you are then you can achieve anything -- Buddhist monk)
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To: neverdem
Both diets had the same amount of fat, carbohydrate and protein, but the sources were different, Kavanagh said. The high-fructose group’s diet was made from flour, butter, pork fat, eggs and fructose -- the main ingredient in corn syrup – similar to what many people eat.

By comparison, the control group’s diet was made from healthy complex carbohydrates and soy protein.

IOW all aspects of the diets were different yet the conclusion is that a single component in the "test" diet is responsible for the outcome?

40 posted on 07/15/2013 1:47:04 PM PDT by facedown (Armed in the Heartland)
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To: neverdem

HFCS is Frankenfood. The junk is pure poison. We spend millions in sugar tariffs and subsides for the HFCS lobby. Better living doesn’t always come from chemistry.

Try to find food without it. Good luck it is everywhere.

Like ethanol, another stupid unnatural use of corn. The truth will keep coming out on this crap and none of it will be good.


41 posted on 07/15/2013 2:31:25 PM PDT by Sequoyah101
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To: neverdem

Cell phones, high power lines, over cooked meat, baked goods, wheat, coffee, chromium in the water, chromium on your bumper, plastic bottles, all cause cancer, fallen arches and inflation.

And I’m expected to worry about fructose?


42 posted on 07/15/2013 2:53:03 PM PDT by count-your-change (you don't have to be brilliant, not being stupid is enough)
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To: Errant

LOL! Still easier to just admit...


43 posted on 07/15/2013 2:53:32 PM PDT by Rokurota
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To: Red Badger

I got an orange one with sugar and it wasn’t half bad. I also dug out the 100mm macro and played with it some in hopes in it maybe paying for itself if a clip ever sells.

This is one of a few.

http://footage.shutterstock.com/video.html?id=4199971


44 posted on 07/15/2013 3:25:32 PM PDT by wally_bert (There are no winners in a game of losers. I'm Tommy Joyce, welcome to the Oriental Lounge.)
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To: Errant
I wish RC Cola would go back to REAL sugar!

Won't happen till we get rid of the tariffs and import quotas on the stuff. That's the reason we're all being fed this high-fructose crap. Too bad Moochelle doesn't know enough about nutrition to criticize that.

45 posted on 07/15/2013 3:35:02 PM PDT by BfloGuy (The imposition of a duty on the importation of a commodity burdens the consumers. --Ludwig Von Mises)
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To: Red Badger
What we need to do is discontinue supporting the high price for domestic sugar.

You're right, but the protection-nazis on FR won't like that.

46 posted on 07/15/2013 3:37:04 PM PDT by BfloGuy (The imposition of a duty on the importation of a commodity burdens the consumers. --Ludwig Von Mises)
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To: BfloGuy

Good point on Moochelle. On the use of “real” sugar, maybe lost sales will have some bearing eventually, as more and more people avoid HFCS.


47 posted on 07/15/2013 3:55:36 PM PDT by Errant
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To: Rokurota

Good advice when applicable. Why don’t you try following it?


48 posted on 07/15/2013 3:59:14 PM PDT by Errant
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To: facedown
IOW all aspects of the diets were different yet the conclusion is that a single component in the "test" diet is responsible for the outcome?

That's a good point. I would have done it with identical diets except the test group got fructose and the control group got an equal amount of glucose. Both are sugars with six carbon atoms.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, aka hepatic steatosis, was unknown before the advent of using high fructose corn syrup in soft drinks.

49 posted on 07/15/2013 4:45:06 PM PDT by neverdem (Register pressure cookers! /s)
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