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Mouse Study Shows 'Junk DNA' Is Actually Required (article)
Institute for Creation Research ^ | 1-15-2014 | Jeffrey Tomkins PhD

Posted on 01/17/2014 8:20:17 AM PST by fishtank

Mouse Study Shows 'Junk DNA' Is Actually Required by Jeffrey Tomkins, Ph.D. *

It was once believed that the regions in between the protein-coding genes of the genome were wastelands of alleged nonfunctional “junk DNA.” However, we now know that these previously misunderstood regions are teeming with functional activity—and a new study shows they are actually required for life.1

The genome of humans and other animals is composed of more than just DNA sequences that produce proteins—there are also many other types of sequences that do not code for proteins. The non-protein-coding genes are diverse, with some being very short and others being quite long. In fact, the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are actually very similar to protein-coding genes in their regulation and genomic structure.2,3 These lncRNAs are found all over the genome, in between protein-coding genes as well as inside them. Some even overlap protein-coding sequences.

The many different types of lncRNAs researched have been shown to be involved in gene regulation, chromosome structure, protein production, and other cellular processes. In addition, a variety of new studies is also showing that lncRNAs are key players in development and disease. However, the specific nature of many lncRNAs has been difficult to fully ascertain even though their importance has been clearly correlated with many cellular processes and traits.2,3

In the extensive analysis of protein-coding genes over the past decade, researchers have bio-engineered strains of mice—called “knockout mice”—with artificially created mutations in specific genes. Because mammals like mice have two sets of chromosomes, one from the father and one from the mother, it is possible to mutate a single copy of a gene and perpetuate the mutation by carefully breeding the mice and studying the effects. To more fully examine the role of lncRNAs in growth and development, researchers are using this same technique to “knock out” specific lncRNAs genes one by one.

In this new study, researchers selected only lncRNAs found completely outside the genomic regions associated with protein-coding genes; these are called long intergenic noncoding RNAs, or lincRNAs (a subset of lncRNAs).1 They also carefully screened the lincRNAs to make sure that none of them associated with ribosomes (protein-producing machinery in the cell) to produce small proteins, which some lincRNAs do.4 Thus, the final set of 18 different lincRNAs were strictly non-coding RNAs that performed some sort of regulatory function. These were then used to create knockout mice for each lincRNA gene.

Three of the 18 lincRNA gene knockouts showed lethality and were associated with the development of important tissues in many different organs, including lungs, heart, testes, brain, thymus, stomach, colon, and brain. One lincRNA gene was shown to be a key regulator of the earliest stages of embryo development before any organs are even visible. Other lincRNA mutants were not lethal but still caused severe growth and developmental problems, including difficulties in the early stages of brain formation.

While many evolutionist naysayers have tried to play down the recent discoveries of pervasive genome functionality, their task is clearly becoming much more difficult as research progresses. Interestingly, the critics of pervasive genome functionality are those who are typically sitting on the sidelines in the evolution vs. creation argument and are not the real players doing the research. Widespread functionality in the genome is not the result of random mutational processes but instead comes from intelligent design and complex engineering. Even little mice bear witness to this fact.

References

Sauvageau, M. et al. 2013. Multiple knockout mouse models reveal lincRNAs are required for life and brain development. eLife. 2: e01749.

Rinn, J. L. and H. Y. Chang. 2012. Genome regulation by long noncoding RNAs. Annual Review of Biochemistry. 81: 145-66.

Clark, M. B. et al. 2013. The dark matter rises: the expanding world of regulatory RNAs. Essays in Biochemistry. 54: 1-16.

Tomkins, J. 'smORFs': Functional Little Genome Gems Confront Evolution. Creation Science Update. Posted on October 14, 2013, accessed January 9, 2014.

* Dr. Tomkins is Research Associate at the Institute for Creation Research and received his Ph.D. in genetics from Clemson University.

Article posted on January 15, 2014.


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: creation; mouse; notjunkdna
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image from original Savaugeau etal (2013) paper.

http://elife.elifesciences.org/content/2/e01749

1 posted on 01/17/2014 8:20:17 AM PST by fishtank
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To: fishtank

http://elife.elifesciences.org/content/2/e01749


2 posted on 01/17/2014 8:20:30 AM PST by fishtank (The denial of original sin is the root of liberalism.)
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To: fishtank

My post is the ICR news article. The link above is for the original paper.


3 posted on 01/17/2014 8:20:59 AM PST by fishtank (The denial of original sin is the root of liberalism.)
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To: fishtank

Then those guys that ‘discovered junk DNA’ should give back their Nobel Prizes......................


4 posted on 01/17/2014 8:22:29 AM PST by Red Badger (Proud member of the Zeta Omicron Tau Fraternity since 2004...................)
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To: fishtank
Junk DNA


5 posted on 01/17/2014 8:23:17 AM PST by mountn man (The Pleasure You Get From Life Is Equal To The Attitude You Put Into It)
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To: fishtank
The arrogance of calling it "junk DNA" is akin to the arrogance of saying that the "science is settled" regarding AGW/climate change.
6 posted on 01/17/2014 8:24:42 AM PST by E. Pluribus Unum (Who knew that one day professional wrestling would be less fake than professional journalism?)
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To: Red Badger

Takes junk science to conceive of “junk DNA”. Hacks galore, and they try to turn genuine science into alchemy . . .


7 posted on 01/17/2014 8:25:41 AM PST by Olog-hai
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To: fishtank

But...the science was settled.


8 posted on 01/17/2014 8:27:54 AM PST by SampleMan (Feral Humans are the refuse of socialism.)
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To: fishtank

Only for Democrat Voter Registration Drives


9 posted on 01/17/2014 8:31:46 AM PST by Buckeye McFrog
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To: E. Pluribus Unum
"The arrogance of calling it "junk DNA" is akin to the arrogance of saying that the "science is settled" regarding AGW/climate change."

You bet. For the last 10 years scientists have been discovering incredibly complex functionality for what was previously considered "junk" DNA. The concept was never more than pure arrogance.

10 posted on 01/17/2014 8:36:54 AM PST by circlecity
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To: circlecity

There’s also that “meta information” concept that I don’t fully fathom yet.

Something about dormant DNA until certain environmental conditions activate it.


11 posted on 01/17/2014 8:38:18 AM PST by MrB (The difference between a Humanist and a Satanist - the latter admits whom he's working for)
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To: fishtank

I can’t believe how much bs has been churned out over this bogus “junk DNA” canard.


12 posted on 01/17/2014 8:42:22 AM PST by DManA
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To: FReepers
Did You Know?

The Current FReepathon Pays For The Current Quarters Expenses?

Please Donate And Keep FR Running


13 posted on 01/17/2014 8:43:10 AM PST by DJ MacWoW (The Fed Gov is not one ring to rule them all)
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To: Olog-hai

At least the old alchemists were pragmatists. If something didn’t work, they tried something else...................


14 posted on 01/17/2014 8:46:23 AM PST by Red Badger (Proud member of the Zeta Omicron Tau Fraternity since 2004...................)
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To: fishtank

The thoroughly discredited idea of evolution keeps revealing itself to be more and more ridiculous. Yet, scientists and the media try mightily to cling to it!

There is no evidence for the “theory” and never has been. It’s just an idea Darwin came up with. But he was mentally ill and a very troubled person.


15 posted on 01/17/2014 8:50:45 AM PST by GodAndCountryFirst
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To: Red Badger

Are you so uninformed that you think life scientists continue to hold the “junk DNA” hypothesis as viable?


16 posted on 01/17/2014 8:51:10 AM PST by DManA
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To: fishtank

The concept of “Junk DNA” is a typical response of a certain class of arrogant “scientists”, namely, if we don’t understand something, then either 1.) It simply doesn’t exist (e.g., the response to meteorites - stones can’t fall from the sky); 2.) It’s not important or it means nothing (e.g., Junk DNA).

Fortunately, the world still produces genuinely skeptical and curious people, and to the skeptical and curious do we owe the continuous discoveries of the material truths and discoveries of our world that have benefited so much of mankind.


17 posted on 01/17/2014 8:53:01 AM PST by catnipman (Cat Nipman: Vote Republican in 2012 and only be called racist one more time!)
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To: DManA

No, but I think they are still holding their million dollar Nobel Prize!...............8^)


18 posted on 01/17/2014 8:53:40 AM PST by Red Badger (Proud member of the Zeta Omicron Tau Fraternity since 2004...................)
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To: Red Badger

The term “junk DNA” is the invention of Big Media. I guarantee you no one ever won a Nobel Prize for their work in “junk dna”.


19 posted on 01/17/2014 8:54:58 AM PST by DManA
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To: fishtank

It is good to see scientists adjust thier theories to acomodate the findings of new research.

Only a few “scientific facts” are immutable and indiputable:

1 - Global Warming is taking place

2 - It is manmade

3 - It is killing the planet - maybe even the entire galaxy

4 - The only way to stop it is to make working Americans pay higher taxes

/s


20 posted on 01/17/2014 8:55:10 AM PST by Iron Munro (Orwell: There are some ideas so absurd that only an intellectual could believe them.)
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To: DManA

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/briton-shares-nobel-prize-for-junk-discovery-scientists-awarded-accolade-for-dna-research-tom-wilkie-reports-1510161.html


21 posted on 01/17/2014 8:56:34 AM PST by Red Badger (Proud member of the Zeta Omicron Tau Fraternity since 2004...................)
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To: fishtank
............Mooch DNA............


22 posted on 01/17/2014 8:57:31 AM PST by hosepipe (This propaganda has been edited to include some fully orbed hyperbole..)
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To: Red Badger

Thank you for sharing an article written by a layman with about as much understanding of the subject as you have.


23 posted on 01/17/2014 8:58:55 AM PST by DManA
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To: fishtank

“it was once believed that the regions in between the protein-coding genes of the genome were wastelands of alleged nonfunctional “junk DNA.” However, we now know that these previously misunderstood regions are teeming with functional activity—and a new study shows they are actually required for life.”

______________________________________________

This doesn’t surprise me at all. Nothing in Creation is “junk.”

(mosquitoes, black flies and earwigs aside, LOL! ;) )

Seriously, though—it takes quite a bit of hubris for a human being to state that something he or she doesn’t understand is merely “junk” and not worthy of attention.


24 posted on 01/17/2014 9:24:08 AM PST by proud American in Canada (R.I.P., James Helmuth, my nephew who passed away at ten years old, from cancer, on March 23.)
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To: proud American in Canada

Lots of folks flinging the word hubris around.

Lots of folks don’t understand the scientific method.


25 posted on 01/17/2014 9:26:38 AM PST by DManA
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To: DManA

Painfully, painfully true. Amen


26 posted on 01/17/2014 9:27:11 AM PST by Hegewisch Dupa
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To: Red Badger

No ne got a Nobel Prize for junk DNA.

The article you link to isn’t really correct in it’s description.

That Nobel Prize was for determining that genes have introns and exons and are spliced after being transcribed in to RNA before they are translated in to protein.

The introns are spliced out and these introns are what the article was referring to as junk DNA.

Junk DNA, though, is a lot more than the introns, which would be a small percentage of junk DNA.

The idea behind junk DNA was that all this extra DNA that did not code for proteins was probably some sort of buffer against mutations.

You can read what that Nobel Prize was for at the link below. It was for the discovery of Gene structure and processing.


27 posted on 01/17/2014 9:33:02 AM PST by ifinnegan
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To: DManA

“Are you so uninformed that you think life scientists continue to hold the “junk DNA” hypothesis as viable?”

There was quite a high-handed article criticizing ENCODE which stated:


We urge biologists not be afraid of junk DNA. The only people that should be afraid are those claiming that natural processes are insufficient to explain life and that evolutionary theory should be supplemented or supplanted by an intelligent designer (Dembski 1998; Wells 2004). ENCODE’s take-home message that everything has a function implies purpose, and purpose is the only thing that evolution cannot provide. Needless to say, in light of our investigation of the ENCODE publication, it is safe to state that the news concerning the death of “junk DNA” has been greatly exaggerated.

From

http://gbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/3/578.full

It was quite an angry defense of junk DNA titled:

On the Immortality of Television Sets: “Function” in the Human Genome According to the Evolution-Free Gospel of ENCODE


There is a surprisingly strident number of scientists who have been quite negative toward the ENCODE project, which is interesting to see and rather surprising.


28 posted on 01/17/2014 9:54:19 AM PST by ifinnegan
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To: fishtank

we think we’re so smart when we just keep proving we’re stupid.

assuming some dna is junk b/c we don’t know what it does. it must be junk.

assuming certain organs and structures are junk/leftover vestigials b/c we don’t knmpow what they do. we assume it’s junk. like the appendix, coccyx.

maybe a true expert is one who learns stuff but doesn’t let what he knows cloud and bias his/her ability to keep an open mind and not make unsupported assumptions based almost entirely on their ‘learned’ reputations. saing ‘we don’t know yet’ what something does is a valid answer and doesn’t make you an idiot for not having a more definitive answer.


29 posted on 01/17/2014 10:04:23 AM PST by Secret Agent Man (Gone Galt; Not averse to Going Bronson.)
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To: DManA

I’m not sure if your comment was meant as an insult; I do understand the scientific method, I believe.

I just think a true scientific researcher wouldn’t use the term “junk” to describe something he or she doesn’t understand.

I normally don’t wade into threads like this. I appreciate science and all the gifts, including better health, living conditions, the exploration of the world around us and beyond, etc., scientific research has given us. I also believe in God. I don’t understand how or why it all came about, but I cannot believe that this world is some sort of accident.

And now I’ll back away from this thread, with all due respect, DManA. :)

Julie


30 posted on 01/17/2014 10:21:26 AM PST by proud American in Canada (R.I.P., James Helmuth, my nephew who passed away at ten years old, from cancer, on March 23.)
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To: fishtank

Our Creator does not waste life it all has a use even though we can not comprehend it.


31 posted on 01/17/2014 10:23:03 AM PST by fella ("As it was before Noah so shall it be again,")
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To: DManA

When it comes to bombastic evolutionists,

the repentance of arrogance past

is few and far between.


32 posted on 01/17/2014 10:26:11 AM PST by fishtank (The denial of original sin is the root of liberalism.)
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To: proud American in Canada

To be clear, “Junk DNA” is a term used primarily by lay writers in the popular press.


33 posted on 01/17/2014 10:31:14 AM PST by DManA
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To: DManA
The term “junk DNA” is the invention of Big Media. I guarantee you no one ever won a Nobel Prize for their work in “junk dna”.

Other than these posts celebrating ignorance from the ICR, and a few knuckleheads in the media, I don't see the term "junk DNA."

34 posted on 01/17/2014 10:31:22 AM PST by Moonman62 (The US has become a government with a country, rather than a country with a government.)
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To: Moonman62
Not in the last 10 years or so.

I don't see the term "junk DNA."

35 posted on 01/17/2014 10:32:24 AM PST by DManA
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To: DManA

“To be clear, “Junk DNA” is a term used primarily by lay writers in the popular press.”

____________________________________________

As I looked back over the thread, I began to understand that—thank you. I’m a little slow today. :)

I guess no one would come home after a long day of research and say, “Guess what honey? I made some real progress working with my junk today.”

Oh gosh, I think I just stepped in it again. LOL. ;)


36 posted on 01/17/2014 10:40:22 AM PST by proud American in Canada (R.I.P., James Helmuth, my nephew who passed away at ten years old, from cancer, on March 23.)
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To: proud American in Canada

He seems to get his panties in a wad anytime someone disses the theory of evolution - which btw does not follow the scientific method b/c it is history based and no one can re-create thousands of years [or longer] of elapsed time.

They often claim natural adaptation and mutations are all that is needed for macro-evolution but it has never ever been observed and still zero missing links.

Here’s a link I found from a fellow freeper yesterday that once again discredits evolution. In light of the fact 99.9% of all animals now being extinct the correct terminology is devolution.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-j9-cyRbFcs


37 posted on 01/17/2014 10:44:20 AM PST by BrandtMichaels
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To: BrandtMichaels

BS


38 posted on 01/17/2014 10:45:43 AM PST by bert ((K.E. N.P. N.C. +12 ..... History is a process, not an event)
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To: bert

Evolution is not observable [aside from micro evolution = natural adaptation], repeatable nor falsifiable. It’s no longer hard science when all their ‘major accomplishments’ are a mixture of wild ass guesses, assumptions, fabrications, lies and outright fraud.


39 posted on 01/17/2014 10:54:06 AM PST by BrandtMichaels
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To: GodAndCountryFirst
It’s just an idea Darwin came up with.

The thing is, he did not come up with it. Ancient Greek philosophers taught a variant of evolution. Once you reject the idea of a Creator, you are only left with some form of evolutionary theory to account for biological information systems and the anthropic principle.
40 posted on 01/17/2014 11:29:22 AM PST by attiladhun2 (The Free World has a new leader--his name is Benjamin Netanyahu)
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To: Iron Munro

Global warming is manmade, in the mind’s of tree-huggers, politicians, and scientists who are created the scare in order to milk tax dollars.


41 posted on 01/17/2014 11:32:04 AM PST by attiladhun2 (The Free World has a new leader--his name is Benjamin Netanyahu)
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To: proud American in Canada

Hey! At work keep your junk in the trunk.


42 posted on 01/17/2014 11:45:56 AM PST by DManA
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To: attiladhun2

Re: evolution vs climate change

There is not much difference from government funded evolution research to help us convert from a judeo-christian based culture to a secular culture both aided mightily by the press and other authority figures. Just taking them a lot longer to wrest control.

“The power to tax is the power to destroy.” - 4th Chief Justice of the US John Marshall


43 posted on 01/17/2014 12:09:41 PM PST by BrandtMichaels
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To: fishtank

No matter your thoughts on how matter was assembled (Creator, Nature, cosmic coincidence, etc), there’s not exactly a lot of wasted space or matter anywhere in the world, scientifically-speaking.


44 posted on 01/17/2014 12:14:03 PM PST by Teacher317 (We have now sunk to a depth at which restatement of the obvious is the first duty of intelligent men)
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To: fishtank

The “junk DNA” concept is 50 years old at this point. In the intervening time, we’ve learned more about how it works and discovered that some things we thought had no purpose actually do. That’s how science is supposed to work, and I’m sure that no one’s more excited about the new discoveries than the scientists who originally called it “junk”—except maybe people like ICR, who find advantage in pretending that there’s some monolithic scientific establishment dedicated to protecting the “junk DNA” concept.


45 posted on 01/17/2014 12:17:21 PM PST by Ha Ha Thats Very Logical
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To: fishtank
Some scientists had a theory and, after more research, learned more.

Sounds like what science is supposed to do.

46 posted on 01/17/2014 3:04:59 PM PST by Toddsterpatriot (Science is hard. Harder if you're stupid.)
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To: BrandtMichaels
There is not much difference from government funded evolution research to help us convert from a judeo-christian based culture to a secular culture both aided mightily by the press and other authority figures.

Why doesn't a patient God work for you?

47 posted on 01/17/2014 3:07:02 PM PST by Toddsterpatriot (Science is hard. Harder if you're stupid.)
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To: Toddsterpatriot

Quite simply, long ages is ~ theistic evolution ~ a farce and goes against everything that’s foundational in the Bible. The Bible has shone time and time again to be the most accurate historical document bar none for mankind’s 5-6k years of existence. Beyond that is pure conjecture for anyone claiming to do hard science. Here’s a link on why Genesis matters.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v3Y7TfV3QQg

I believe the Bible is the inspired Word of God. It is Truth against which all other claims to truth must be measured.

Mainstream scientists, media, politicians, authority figures often lose public credibility if they believe the Bible over commonly accepted cultural ‘truths’ [i.e. global warm err climate change] yet if they go along to get along they often do just fine. Make waves though and watch them be ostracized.

Yet hard science or following the scientific method excludes historical science as being truly scientific [i.e. basic fundamentals include observation and repeatability not too mention a theory must be falsifiable]. Evolution fails all three miserably.

Yet who is it really to promotes which facts are more important than any other less commonly known contradictory facts?

Here are some facts you may not be aware of:

101 Evidences for a Young Age of the Earth...And the Universe
http://creation.com/age-of-the-earth


48 posted on 01/18/2014 5:50:16 PM PST by BrandtMichaels
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To: BrandtMichaels
The Bible has shone time and time again to be the most accurate historical document bar none for mankind’s 5-6k years of existence.

Right, because God has to be a college student, cramming for a final.

God can't possibly create the Universe and let 13 billion years pass.

49 posted on 01/18/2014 6:47:52 PM PST by Toddsterpatriot (Science is hard. Harder if you're stupid.)
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To: Toddsterpatriot

Ever study gravitational time dilation per one Albert Einstein?

Study that or the websites I provided

AND

then get back to me...


50 posted on 01/18/2014 7:44:59 PM PST by BrandtMichaels
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