Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

USO Canteen FReeper Style....Nose Art and Pin Ups go to War....May 8,2002
FRiends of the USO Canteen FReeper Style and Snow Bunny

Posted on 05/08/2002 3:01:00 AM PDT by Snow Bunny

The practice of personalizing military aircraft with custom artwork began a few years before WWI, and continues to this day. The peak of this practice occurred during WWII, when hundreds of thousands of aircraft were adorned with such artwork, generally painted near the nose of the aircraft... hence the term, "Nose Art."

Often, flight and ground crews wore a smaller version of the artwork painted on the backs of their jackets. Of course, the quality of the artwork varied, from crude to excellent, depending on the skill of the artist.

The sultry, wonderful world of Nose Art is as varied as the individuals who dressed up and decorated the aircraft and the feelings of the men who flew them into combat. Though this variety is staggering, common themes run through them all from World War II to the end of the Korean War when the genre all but left the scene.

Humor, pathos, slogans, girls, cartoons, nicknames, hometowns, girls, patriotism, dishing it to the enemy, warriors, girls, youthful bravado, girls...these transcended nationality as both Allies and Axis pilots went to war in their individually marked chariots. Men at war separated from home, family, loved ones and a familiar way of life sought ways to personalize and escape the very harsh business surrounding them. For the most part they thought about women, represented on the sides of aircraft in the most tender of ways to the most degrading. These men spent many hours longing for the tenderness a woman could bring to their lives...and for the sexual pleasure they could provide. Whether top level commanders ordered it off the aircraft or not, the men let their feelings flow onto their machines.

As their aircraft reflected, fighter pilots of both wars were busy strafing, bombing, hunting for aerial kills and protecting friendly aircraft, airfields, supply lines and troops. But the ground crews were just as busy trying to make sure the aircraft they had generously loaned to the pilot was on the line each day and ready to bring him home. There is never enough credit to be given to these men who worked ten hours for every hour the pilot flew.

The fame and glory attached to the pilot over shadowed his faithful ground ponders, but this usually did not prevent the enlisted men and officers from becoming devoted friends. Each needed the other to make the mission successful, and a pilot's crew would experience as much pride for a victory, knowing they were behind the guns as well. As a result, nose art was often the choice of the ground crew rather than the pilot. Some units made room for both by having the pilot's art on the left side and the ground crew's on the right.

Unique among fighters, the P-38 Lightning had three noses to adorn, allowing a separate canvas for the pilot, crew chief, armorer and radio man.

Pin Ups.......


The Professor is trying to give you a more scientific explanation of how this kind of cheesecake affected the average American soldier.

World War II pinups appeared in many forms, from fighter and bomber nose art and bomber jacket art to calendars, postcards, matchbooks, and playing cards. The term pinup was coined during World War II, when soldiers would "pin up" these idealized pictures on their barracks and foxhole walls, and sailors did the same to lockers and bulkheads. There were photos of Betty Grable and Rita Hayworth and Lana Turner, and hundreds of other calendar girls and Hollywood starlets whose only claim to fleeting fame was their image seared into a GI's brain from a ragged page of YANK or Esquire magazine.

"Servicemen soon began to create their own pinup art, decorating the noses of their planes and their bomber jackets with more primitive paintings of shapely babes."


Betty Grable as she appeared in a map-reading manual. This image was used to get pilots used to reading map grids.


An early centerfold featuring Dorothy Lamour, "... the No. 1 pinup girl of the U.S. Army."

Nose art was a popular morale builder, it ranged from tame cartoon characters to some really "RACEY" women.

It must be remembered that these men were young, at war, and homesick at times. The names of mothers, girlfriends and colorful limericks were often the inspiration for this unique art form. These pictures and captions are published here for historical value, exactly as they appeared on the planes.



TOPICS: Miscellaneous
KEYWORDS: usocanteen
Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first previous 1-5051-100101-150151-200 ... 651-663 next last
To: Snow Bunny
I'm so glad to see the nose art pictures!

If I'm not mistaken, I thought that nose art had been banned for quite some time. I'm not sure whan that policy was created, but I wouldn't be surprised if it were at the time that we had a gutless wonder draft dodging SOB staining the carpets in the Oval Office.

Thanks for keeping up your great spirit, Snow Bunny!

SEMPER FI!

51 posted on 05/08/2002 6:15:03 AM PDT by Howie66
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Snow Bunny
Hi, Miss Bunny. My dad was with the Flying Tigers in WWII. My brother and I used to enjoy looking at his photos taken with the airplanes when we were little. We thought the planes were cool and the naked ladies painted on the noses were "interesting" to us.
52 posted on 05/08/2002 6:20:49 AM PDT by sultan88
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: USO Canteen

TripleAce Bud Anderson's Website
53 posted on 05/08/2002 6:26:52 AM PDT by lodwick
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 51 | View Replies]

To: Snow Bunny;all
"Let's roll"

Aircraft nose art with the words "Let's roll!" -- America's two-word marching order in the fight against terrorism will be displayed on various aircraft throughout the Air Force as a way of recognizing the heroes and victims of the Sept. 11 attacks on the United States.

The words were made famous by Todd Beamer, a passenger on Flight 93. Beamer, a 32-year-old businessman, Sunday school teacher, husband, father and hero, led other passengers in fighting terrorists for control of Flight 93 before it crashed into a field in western Pennsylvania. He was overheard on a cellular phone reciting the Lord's Prayer and saying "Let's roll!" as passengers charged the terrorists.

'Let's roll!' has served as a rallying cry for this nation as we go forward in our war on terrorism," said Air Force Chief of Staff Gen.John P. Jumper. "We are proud to display this new nose art on our aircraft."

The passengers of Flight 93 won one of the first victories in the fight against terrorism. There has been much speculation about the terrorists' intentions for Flight 93, but it is widely believed that either the White House or the U.S. Capitol building was the intended target.

The nose art design depicts an eagle soaring in front of the U.S. flag, with the words "Spirit of 9-11" on the top and "Let's roll!" on the bottom. The design was created by Senior Airman Duane White, a journeyman from Air Combat Command's multimedia center at Langley Air Force Base, Va.

The Thunderbirds and other Air Force demonstration teams will apply this nose art on all aircraft, while major commands and wings will be authorized to apply the nose art to one aircraft of their choice.

For thousands of years, warriors, such as the Vikings, Zulus, Native Americans, samurai and many others, have followed a tradition of decorating their instruments of war. These instruments could include the warriors or their weapons. The Air Force has used nose art throughout much of its history, and for a variety of reasons.

The "Let's roll!" nose art is being used to continue the remembrance of the events of Sept. 11, spur on the nation's current patriotic spirit and pay tribute to the heroes and victims in the war against terrorism.

The art started to appear on Air Force aircraft around Jan. 15.

54 posted on 05/08/2002 6:28:06 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Snow Bunny; Billie; kneezles; SpookBrat; whoever; 4TheFlag; SAMWolf; COB1...
Good Morning! Well, today is housecleaning day. So, I can't play until my chores are all done. :( I'm gonna go get busy so that I have more time to play.

Have a GREAT day!!!!!


55 posted on 05/08/2002 6:28:17 AM PDT by SassyMom
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 51 | View Replies]

To: Tennessee_Bob
I see we have the same tastes, I love Veronica Lake also.
56 posted on 05/08/2002 6:33:23 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 37 | View Replies]

To: Snow Bunny
Sergeant Eugene Townsend's B-17 Nose Art
for the 32nd Bomb Squadron During WWII

GENE TOWNSEND joined the 32nd Bomb Squadron at Geiger Field in Spokane, Washington, shortly after the 301st Bomb Group was formed in February 1942. He had just completed training in engineering at the Boeing B-17 plant in Seattle prior to his assignment.

GENE HAD DONE art work before entering the service; so once we were all at our base in Chelveston, England, in September of '42, it fell to him to decorate the 32nd's planes. The first plane painted was "The Bad Penny." When asked why such a name, the whole crew replied "A bad penny always returns." (Sadly, this was not to be, however.) This was the beginning of nose art for the 32nd, and by the war's end, Sgt. Townsend had painted over 40 planes, with such names as "Hun Pecker," "Sleepy Time Gal," "Lead Foot," and "The Goon." The squadron moved to North Africa with the 12th Air Corps, and eventually to Italy with the 15th. During these campaigns there were many times that he did his work under adverse conditions and with very limited materials.

AIRCRAFT NOSE ART provided a way for both the air crews and ground personnel to personalize their "baby"; to make it different from other planes in the squadron, or anywhere else. It was all up to the talent and imagination of the men who flew and maintained the planes. Few 32nd Bomb Squadron crew members or ground personnel would know a plane as "42-1398" or "44-6180," but they all knew and talked about "Amazin' Mazie" and "Slick Chick." And nose-art inspiration came from almost everywhere: wives, girl friends, cartoons, movie stars, and even some from crew chiefs. It was a time when almost anything was allowed to be painted on a plane, and this kind of expression was seen as a way to boost morale and the squadron's efficiency.

FROM ANDY ROONEY, of today's "60 Minutes," there's a wonderful quote in an August 1943 issue of Stars and Stripes about this very special art form: "Grim-faced Luftwaffe pilots, proud of the guts that take them within the suicide circle of a fortress formation, determined to do or die for the Fatherland, must wonder what the hell kind of air force they are up against. They come diving in, teeth clenched, hell bent for Hitler and along with a hail of lead are greeted by the stupid grin of some absurd comic-book character, or the nude form of a pretty girl painted on the nose of the bomber they are attacking...." The art was "something else," and Andy Rooney was Andy Rooney even then.

TODAY GENE TOWNSEND and his wife, Pat, make their home on the St. Croix River, across from Canada, in Calais, Maine, and spend their winters in Saint Augustine, Florida. Although retired, Gene still enjoys painting and also looking back these fifty years and more and reminiscing with his buddies about their experiences and travels in WWII.

Courtesy of www.i81virginia.com/32nd/32ndart.html

57 posted on 05/08/2002 6:45:46 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: Snow Bunny;All

58 posted on 05/08/2002 6:47:58 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 57 | View Replies]

To: USO Canteen
Lassie Come Home

Inspiration

59 posted on 05/08/2002 6:48:59 AM PDT by lodwick
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 57 | View Replies]

To: Snow Bunny
Good morning, Snow! Phew! Do I have to be over 21 for today's thread? LOL Have a great day!
60 posted on 05/08/2002 6:50:47 AM PDT by Pippin
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: USO Canteen
Wonderful WWII B-24 NoseArt Site

Have a great day Canteeners!

61 posted on 05/08/2002 6:52:20 AM PDT by lodwick
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 59 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf
Good morning,Sam! Hey, if male pilots use sexy female pinups and nose art what do the women use? pictures if Tom Crews(SP?)? LOL
62 posted on 05/08/2002 6:56:40 AM PDT by Pippin
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 58 | View Replies]

To: Snow Bunny;lodwick

63 posted on 05/08/2002 6:58:15 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 61 | View Replies]

To: Snow Bunny
So I just wanted to share this with you.It is a fantastic place to store animations and even regular pictures and graphics.
St.Louie1 and Mama_Bear told me about it.

Good morning, Bunny. : )

This is the addy...... Domania Internet Services
http://d21c.com/index.shtml

I'm glad you posted the addy. They're the best!

And if a problem should come up (which is rare) the owner of the site deals with you himself.

64 posted on 05/08/2002 6:59:59 AM PDT by ST.LOUIE1
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: Delta 21
Just after the B-52s started daily ops over Afghanistan there was a pic of one with a NYPD logo on it and a pilot with a determined look on his face. I hope it shows up here!

Here ya go!

65 posted on 05/08/2002 7:01:01 AM PDT by Jen
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 47 | View Replies]

To: ClaraSuzanne

Tom Cruise isn't sexy enough, they use the Canteen Chippendales as models for their nose art.

66 posted on 05/08/2002 7:06:39 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 62 | View Replies]

To: Snow Bunny
Good morning, and thank you for adding me to your ping list. I may lurk more than I post, but rest assured I'll enjoy checking this thread every day.
67 posted on 05/08/2002 7:06:46 AM PDT by McLynnan
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 4 | View Replies]

To: SassyMom
SassyMom, I see you're a fellow Texan. Better you got here late than not at all. Are we remotely close to each other? I'm in central Texas just a few miles from that famous Crawford ranch.
68 posted on 05/08/2002 7:09:41 AM PDT by McLynnan
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 55 | View Replies]

To: ClaraSuzanne

Any Female Pilots out there?

69 posted on 05/08/2002 7:10:09 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 62 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf
Good Morning, Sam.

Tom Cruise isn't sexy enough, they use the Canteen Chippendales as models for their nose art.

LOL,, that's not the Chippendales we were hoping for!

Can't you do better than that?

70 posted on 05/08/2002 7:11:41 AM PDT by Iowa Granny
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 66 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf; ClaraSuzanne
Good morning you two. CS, what do you think? Should we divide these guys up?
71 posted on 05/08/2002 7:12:09 AM PDT by McLynnan
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 69 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf
post #69:

Be Still My Heart!

B I N G O! Thanx Sam

72 posted on 05/08/2002 7:13:30 AM PDT by Iowa Granny
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 69 | View Replies]

To: McLynnan
We are 35 miles SW of Foat Wurth. I'm really glad that you are at the Canteen. We really have a lot of fun here, but our main objective is to let all of our troop know how much we appreciate them. And to thank ALL of our veterans for what they have done to keep this GREAT country free.

WELCOME!!!!

73 posted on 05/08/2002 7:21:03 AM PDT by SassyMom
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 68 | View Replies]

To: Iowa Granny

Take your pick.

74 posted on 05/08/2002 7:25:18 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 72 | View Replies]

To: Long Cut
Oh noooooooooo! How are you going to keep those young Navy students of yours interested in studying now???

Jen

75 posted on 05/08/2002 7:26:25 AM PDT by Jen
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 31 | View Replies]

To: McLynnan; iowa granny; samwolf
#69 -- I want the one on the left (soon as I give him a haircut)...

Whew! That pix will get a gal's heart racing. Thanks for the female eye candy, Sam. hehehehehe


76 posted on 05/08/2002 7:29:06 AM PDT by Jen
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 71 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf
Uhhh. Sam, I think that photo might strike a chord with the, uhhh, how should I say it . . . ferry nice guys out there.

By the way, I think the prayers are helping. Things are looking better but we're not out of the woods yet. THANKS and don't stop.

77 posted on 05/08/2002 7:31:11 AM PDT by Lee'sGhost
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 69 | View Replies]

To: AFVetGal
Equal time for the Ladies.
78 posted on 05/08/2002 7:32:02 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 76 | View Replies]

To: SassyMom
We aren't too far from each other by Texas standards. Thank you for the welcome and explanation of this thread. It's a wonderful thing to honor and encourage our military people this way.
79 posted on 05/08/2002 7:33:36 AM PDT by McLynnan
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 73 | View Replies]

To: AFVetGal
I kind of liked the blonde myself!
80 posted on 05/08/2002 7:34:26 AM PDT by McLynnan
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 76 | View Replies]

To: Lee'sGhost
Good to hear that things are looking up. We'll keep the prayers going.

I just grabbed the picture from a search result, didn't bother to check the site to see who it catered too.

81 posted on 05/08/2002 7:35:20 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 77 | View Replies]

To: McLynnan

82 posted on 05/08/2002 7:36:21 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 80 | View Replies]

To: Snow Bunny;all

83 posted on 05/08/2002 7:39:51 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 82 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf
Equal time for the Ladies.

That kind of equal rights works for me. Bring it on! It's for the female service members who lurk here, ya know. Woo Hoo!

84 posted on 05/08/2002 7:50:31 AM PDT by Jen
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 78 | View Replies]

To: AFVetGal

85 posted on 05/08/2002 7:52:52 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 84 | View Replies]

To: usmcobra
Great.. Marines, ya gotta love them..

My son sent me these pictures the other night and since I am HTML impaired I am glad you posted it..

86 posted on 05/08/2002 7:54:36 AM PDT by Texas Mom
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 38 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf
Ummmmmm...I'm not getting much housework done....WHEW! Yep, you are right, it is all for the female troops. Uhhh, yeah, that's it! :)
87 posted on 05/08/2002 7:54:57 AM PDT by SassyMom
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 85 | View Replies]

To: Snow Bunny
buuump!
88 posted on 05/08/2002 7:55:09 AM PDT by Alamo-Girl
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: Snow Bunny;All

Anyone remember these "Angels"?

89 posted on 05/08/2002 7:57:20 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 87 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf
I have been shopping EVERYWHERE to find the right swimsuit. Will this do????

Sassy

90 posted on 05/08/2002 8:03:38 AM PDT by SassyMom
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 89 | View Replies]

To: SassyMom
Very patriotic! Just right!
91 posted on 05/08/2002 8:05:46 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 90 | View Replies]

To: Snow Bunny;All
Artistic bombs signify fight on terror
Cpl. Kyle Davidson

Nose art and kill markings portrayed on military aircraft are something that has been around since the first missions were flown during World War I. They serve as a way for the pilots and crews of each plane to express unit pride while building an almost superstitious rapport between man and machine.

Today, the tradition continues as the Marines of Marine Attack Squadron-311 painted bombs on the AV-8B Harriers that flew missions in Afghanistan while attached to the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit (Special Operations Capable).

According to Capt. Matt Parker, VMA-311 pilot who flew missions over Kandahar, the bombs were painted by the Marines working in airframes during the deployment to signify each mission a plane flew. The bombs were painted upon the plane's return to the ship. "Every time we dropped a bomb, they (the ground crew) painted a bomb, and when we hit our targets, they painted explosions," said Parker.

While operating off of the USS Peleliu, anchored in the North Arabian Sea, the pilots flew numerous missions in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Parker flew 13 missions and dropped two bombs, both were explosions. He said he was a little surprised to see painted bombs on the planes he flew. "They just showed up on the jets one day. But, everybody loved it so they continued to do it," Parker stated.

Out of the six planes that deployed with the 15th MEU (SOC), all have at least one painted bomb, but jet number 55 holds the record with six painted under the cockpit on the left side. Because the pilots weren't assigned to one specific jet, this signifies that jet 55 flew the most missions. "It's motivating," said Staff Sgt. Jason Vanderberg, a VMA-311 ordnance Marine who went on the deployment. "It's just like a tick-mark to show how many missions we (VMA-311) flew." In total there were roughley 26 bombs painted.

It wasn't planned to paint the bombs, said Lance Cpl. Joseph Connor, VMA-311 ordnance Marine, "everyone pretty much just knew it was going to happen." He added it was done during the Gulf War, Vietnam and will most likely be done in the future. But, more than just acting as a track record, the paintings symbolize unit camaraderie and a break from the monotony of the mission.

According to an article published on www.library.arizona.edu, nose art "serves as a ritual to guard against bad luck and to strike terror in the heart of the enemy." But, for the Marines of VMA-311 who deployed with the 15th MEU (SOC), the art serves a bigger purpose. It acts as the words written on the pages of a history book to tell the story of how they participated in the war against terror.

92 posted on 05/08/2002 8:06:48 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 91 | View Replies]

To: Snow Bunny
sis,

you've done it AGAIN! NICE pictures!

thought you might find this interesting: according to my dad, who was in B-17s, the usual cost of nose art in England before the invasion was ONE BOTTLE of US booze- while you could get gin, warm beer, etc in GB, US whisky was SCARCE at least at first. later he said Europe was SWIMMING in US whiskey!

GIs were/are INVENTIVE to say the least---- there were AT LEAST 8 stills operating in my dad's wing alone!

BTW, i've noted that pin-ups (and Victoria's Secret catalogues!)are MORE popular with most men than hustler! interesting, huh?

on a similar subject, i saw TWO USAAF WW2-style painted flight jackets worn by two USAF officers on the Metro the other day-my dad would be pleased!

for a FREE dixie,sw

93 posted on 05/08/2002 8:07:04 AM PDT by stand watie
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: stand watie

94 posted on 05/08/2002 8:11:57 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 93 | View Replies]

To: sultan88

Thanks to your dad for his service.

95 posted on 05/08/2002 8:19:33 AM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 52 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf
ALSO nice!

BTW Sam, why do there seem to be NO Veronica Lake's around NOW!

somehow the playmate-of-the-month (the pin-ups of my time in the army) just don't MEASURE UP to her! (pun intended!)

for dixie LIBERTY,sw

96 posted on 05/08/2002 8:20:19 AM PDT by stand watie
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 94 | View Replies]

To: stand watie
;-) I would hope that the Sear's catalogue would be more popular than Hustler.
97 posted on 05/08/2002 8:21:39 AM PDT by lodwick
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 93 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf
"I just grabbed the picture from a search result, "

Of course, I could be wrong, but they just too happy about the fact that they're half naked and touching each other up. I'b be creeping out.

98 posted on 05/08/2002 8:35:46 AM PDT by Lee'sGhost
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 81 | View Replies]

To: Snow Bunny
Good morning Bunny. Thanks for all your hard work. I thought I better drop in. When considering the subject matter and directions this thread could go, there is a chance this could be the final day of the Canteen....hehehe.
99 posted on 05/08/2002 8:36:16 AM PDT by The Thin Man
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: Snow Bunny; 68-69TonkinGulfYatchClub; JohnHuang2; SassyMom; AFVetGal; MistyCa; LadyX; All
Good morning, all!

RB-29 Crew Operations

During WW II and the Korean War, the artistry of military men and women flowered to new hights in the decorations painted on military aircraft. However that practice flourished in wartime, it seemed to fade quickly with a war's end. During the Korean War, nose art flourished in the 91st SRS. Here are some examples.


100 posted on 05/08/2002 8:38:23 AM PDT by Victoria Delsoul
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 4 | View Replies]


Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first previous 1-5051-100101-150151-200 ... 651-663 next last

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
News/Activism
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson