Skip to comments.A History of South Dakota and Its People - MAGNUS JOHNSON - "A Tribute to Our Forefathers"
Posted on 06/15/2002 3:38:44 PM PDT by floriduh voter
Magnus Johnson has resided on his farm on Section 33, Palisades Township, for almost three decades and is widely recognized as one of the most prosperous agriculturists and respected citizens of Minnehaha County, South Dakota. His birth occurred in the province of Skaner, Sweden, on the 26th of October, 1847, and his father died when he was but five years of age.
He left home when a youth of sixteen and during the following nine years was a deep-sea sailor, touching at many of the ports of the world.
A Typical Boarding Pass to Frisco during the Gold Rush Days.
He sailed on American vessels for some years and in 1876, abandoned the sea at San Francisco, subsequently spending about eleven months at work on a river steamer on the Sacramento River.
Mr. Johnson then secured employment as a farm hand in California and was thus engaged for about seven years, on the expiration of which period he returned to Sweden on a visit. He spent the winter in his native land and in the spring of 1883, again came to the United States, bringing with him his intended wife, Miss Josephine B. Pearson, who had a brother living in Valley Springs, South Dakota.
Great Grandfather Magnus Johnson of Garretson and wife, the former Josephine B. Pearson of Sweden.
Thus it was that Mr. Johnson came to this state and here he was married immediately after his arrival. He paid nine hundred dollars for a quarter section of land in McCook County, three miles west of Salem, and two years later traded the property for his present home farm, paying five hundred dollars in addition. He has lived on this place in Palisade Township continuously since 1885 and has made many excellent improvements thereon.
The Johnson Homestead
In 1908, his two sons, Eddie and Charlie, purchased the northwest quarter of Section 6, Red Rock Township, paying eight thousand dollars for the property, which is now easily worth more than twice that amount. They are associated with him in his farming interests. In the conduct of his agricultural interests he has won a most gratifying and well merited measure of prosperity that has established his reputation as a substantial and leading citizen of the community.
Red Rock at Palisades State Park
To Mr. and Mrs. Johnson have been born nine children; seven of whom survive, as follows: Eddie Washington; Charlie Cleveland; Emily Sophia; who is the wife of Adolph Karlil, a farmer of Red Rock Township; Hilma Augusta, who gave her hand in marriage to Willis Sutherland, of Garretson; Julia M., now Mrs. Edward Eitriem; Alice V., at home; and Melvin Walfred.
Mr. Johnson gives his political allegiance to the Republican Party and his fellow townsmen, recognizing his worth and ability, have called him to positions of public trust. He served as supervisor for a period of seventeen years, acted as a member of the school board for about five years and has been constable during the past two years. Higher public honors have been tendered him, but these he has declined.
His religious faith is indicated by his membership in the United Lutheran Church, to which his wife and children also belong. His son Eddie has been organist in the church for the past twelve years and is also a member of the Garretson Band, manifesting considerable talent in music.
The life of Magnus Johnson has been one of activity and usefulness, crowned with success, and because of the fact that he has never taken advantage of the necessities of his fellow men in business transactions but has always been straightforward and honorable, he is accorded the confidence and friendly regard in those with whom he has been associated. *** THE S.J. CLARKE PUBLISHING COMPANY, 1915
South Dakota's State Bird, the Ring Necked Pheasant,
I do think that Great Grandfather Magnus had a fine mustache, but I am especially proud that he was an active Republican and prosperous agriculturalist over 100 years ago. Finally, by all accounts, it appears that Great Grandfather Magnus was a man of integrity. I am honoring him at Free Republic for Father's Day.
If you have a forefather who made a lasting impression on your family or who made his own unique contribution to our great country, this is your opportunity to symbolically register him at Free Republic.
God bless our great nation. Floriduh Voter.
Allow me to introduce you to a man Ive met just recently through newly discovered cousins. He died long before I was born, so I didn't have the privilege of knowing him in person. However, I would like to nominate him for special Fathers Day honors today because of his ordinary, yet remarkable, life.
My great grandfather, John Richard Longacre, was born in Tennessee in 1839 part of a family of Swedish extraction that immigrated to North America in 1643, arriving on the Swedish ship, the Kalmer Nyckel and first residing in the New Sweden area (Chester County) of Pennsylvania. John Richards mother died before he was 7 years old. His father re-married in 1847, and he moved with his family to Missouri.
No one knows what his early childhood was like, but we do know that his family was lovingly close, despite the hard times of the day. Numerous letters and pictures that they exchanged throughout their long lives survive and are testaments to their affection for each other, even after they had been separated by a continent, a war, and a lifetime.
It is evident that his family taught him how to read and write because he left at least two diaries and numerous letters for his descendents. His family also imbued him with self-discipline, self-reliance, basic business sense, as well as generosity and compassion for others and a strong moral character. All that is clearly evident from the surviving written record.
I do not know what impetus was behind my great grandfathers trek to the Oregon Territory, or exactly how old he was when he made the arduous trip; but a study of the times, as well as family records, suggests many incentives. His Missouri home was the jumping off point for the wagon trains headed west. Gold had been discovered in California when he was a just boy of nine, and the traffic heading west past his fathers farm swelled to more than 350,000 people by the time he was a teen.
One can only imagine how he may have wheedled and cajoled his father and stepmother to allow him to join the crowd of emigrants that gathered every spring in St. Joe, Westport, and Independence. In later years, members of the family who visited Longacre homesteads in Missouri told of observing deep, grass covered wagon ruts cutting across the countryside between the farms. They were told that those scars were all that remained of the Oregon Trail. The temptation for a young man to set forth on a great, western adventure must have been irresistible.
Continued at Part II
Rumblings of the Civil War Border Wars
In stark contrast to the festive anticipation displayed by eager emigrants forming wagon trains in St. Joe, Independence, and Westport, civil strife that would soon erupt into the Border Wars was brewing along the western border of Missouri.
At Westport (Kansas City), an observer wrote:
Kansas City today embraces the early town of Westport, which was built just east of the Missouri Line, not far from Independence. Independence was the most popular "jumping off" point on the Oregon Trail. Here emigrants stocked up on supplies and prepared their wagons. There was a festive air in Independence in the spring. The newcomers collected information and misinformation, made friends and enemies, changed proposed destinations, and behaved in general as though they were on a picnic.
Whiskey, by the way, circulates more freely in Westport than is altogether safe in a place where every man carries a loaded pistol in his pocket.
At Westport (Kansas City), an observer wrote:
Missourians and Kansans joined the trek to Oregon by the multitudes in the months predating the official start of the Civil just to escape the bloodshed and impoverishment of the Border Wars, and it is likely that John Richard was one of those.
Several Congressional compromises attempted to determine whether Missouri and the surrounding territories should be slave or free. As a result, the people living in the counties on the western border of Missouri suffered from repeated raids on their farms and villages for more than seven years three years longer than the Civil War raged.
There is no evidence through wills or oral family history that the Longacres ever were slaveholders themselves. Indeed, they seemed to be farmers, schoolteachers, and ministers. However, they considered themselves Southerners by heritage and so they were greatly affected by these political disagreements amongst their neighbors.
There is a great deal of information on the Web about the ruthless Kansas/Missouri Border Wars for anyone who is interested. Check out Missouri Partisans and Bushwackers and Jayhawkers If your sympathies lie with Missouri, look up Quantrills Rangers, and if your sympathies are firmly with Kansas and the abolitionists, you will want to look for Col. Charles Jenisons Jayhawkers, Gen. Jim Lane, or Gen. Thomas Ewing.
Writing about the 7th Kansas Regiment (Jennisons Jayhawkers), author Stephen Z. Starr says,
they killed civilians and prisoners, they pillaged the loyal and disloyal alike, and they burned homes and barns wherever they went.
Indeed, long after the Civil War was over, members of John Richards family visiting in Missouri were shown the burned out remnants of Uncle Johns farmstead where the 62 year patriarch had been routed out of bed and forced to hold a lantern to provide light while marauders shot his son dead in 1864. He was then murdered himself, his farm and home burned, and his wife and daughters left homeless. They claimed that they could still see blood and bullet marks on the chimney where the men had stood, waiting to be shot. Long after the fact, John Richards younger brother, Elbert S. Longacre, wrote of the strife at Pleasant Hill:
Yes, twenty years since we parted I had not thought how long the time was till you mentioned it
Still I have seen many sights and heard solemn sounds since that time.
I saw the lights of forty houses that were burned in one night around out old home. Forty families turned out in the snow by Kansas Jahawkers or thieves. I saw houses pillaged and robbed as though the red men of the woods were again among us. I heard the moaning of women and children whose husband, father, or son, as the case might be, had been attacked in the field at church, or perhaps dragged from the sick bed and shot.
I helped to bury the old grey headed father and son (old Uncle John Longacre and Wiley) both in the same grave, they having been called to the door and shot by trash that should have been neighbors.
But enough of that. I grew sick of it and resolved to go where if blood was shed it was a two handed game; where man might at least have some chance to avenge his wrongs
If I had room I would tell mor of the tiresome all night march, the charge, the retreat of dead and dying soldiers, of twice feeling the pang of the merciless ledd. If I could see you I could tell more and more and I hope you will come. Write soon and often.
George Caleb Bingham, Missouri artist, illustrates the devastation in Pleasant Hill, MO, resulting from Gen. Thomas Ewings General Order Number 11. Members of the Longacre family lived in Pleasant Hill and were affected by this event. Order Number 11
Noted author and historian Albert Castel wrote:
Order Number 11 was the most drastic and repressive military measures directed against civilians by the Union Army during the Civil War. In fact
it stands as the harshest treatment ever imposed on United States citizens under the plea of military necessity in our Nations History.
Continued at Part III
FV visits with Gomer in eastern South Dakota, circa 1999.
Leaves Missouri Trek west
Whether it was the urge to set out to make his fortune in the West, or the desire to escape the Border Wars in Missouri, John Frederick Longacre left home some time in his teens, or early twenties, long before any of his family members had been killed, by the Jayhawkers (undoubtedly some of his neighbors had already suffered that cruel fate, however). My calculations determine that he came west between 1857 and 1860, but I could be off by a few years either way.
Records show that 40,000 settlers headed west departed Missouri by 1859. By 1860, another 15,000 escaped the Civil War after hearing of silver strikes in Nevada. Great Grandfather Longacre would have been 20 years old in 1859, an appropriate age to head west to seek his fortune, although he may have gone when he was even younger. After 1861, it was more difficult to make the trip because protective US troops had been called back to fight the Civil War, leaving the outposts lightly guarded from Indian attack.
We do not know exactly how he got to Oregon whether he came with a neighbor, or if he simply signed on as a hired hand on one of the numerous wagon trains. In later years, he simply told his family that he "rode a horse from Missouri to Oregon." It is possible that his uncle Richard (who was as close to his own age as an older cousin) accompanied him, at least part of the way. Later letters indicate that they shared this adventure, although Richard returned to live out his years in Missouri.
In 1870, Uncle Richard writes:
Well do I remember and never will I forget the many ups and downs we have seen together, the crossing of the snowy mountain, the mule falling off of the bridge into Venison Creek all these things are fresh in my memory this morning.
You have to wonder whether Uncle Richard ever regretted that he returned to Missouri for the duration of the Civil War because he writes in the same letter:
I will tell you, John, that it is the Hardest times I ever saw. Money is scarse and hard to get. Everything we have to buy is very hie and everything we have to sell is so very low. I have sold my hole crop of corn, paid my debts with the money, and now we are all in great need and no money
I want you to write to me and tell me all a bout the times in Oregon. I can not make enough on my farm to supply my actual wants. Wright, Wright, Wright.
We have no way of knowing how the young men managed to accumulate the cash and considerable provisions needed for such a trip, or whether Richard accompanied John the whole distance and subsequently returned. Provisions and Prices for the Trip
In any case, John Richard Longacre was already in Oregon by 1862, safe from the havoc of the War Between the States that ravaged his brothers and cousins. He left a diary with a daily account of his activities for 1863 and at least one other known diary that has not yet been transcribed. He seemed well connected in Oregon by the beginning of 1863 at the age of 23. He was popular as a hired hand among many families whose daughters he escorted to church on Sundays and to dances after the workday was done.
In the early days he worked for various neighbors. His diary is meticulous in recording his daily activities the weather, his work for the day, his social activities, his earnings, and his expenditures. His bookkeeping puts me to shame. He even included a page of jokes and riddles that he thought it important to record. For example:
Why is a person putting his father into a sack like a man going to an eastern city?
Because he is going to Bagdad.
My first is a preposition
My second is a composition
And my whole is an acquisition.
and so forth.
Typical daily activities included cutting rails, stripping poles, erecting farm buildings, clearing timber, clearing snow, hunting, mining, digging ditches for sluice boxes, etc. Leisure activities included escorting the ladies to church and to dances. He spent 7 months of 1863 working in the gold mines in the "Boise Basin", Idaho presumably to establish his fortune. The experience netted him little wealth, but much knowledge. His careful documentation of earnings and expenditures is amazing to behold.
Prospectors poured into Idaho to try their luck at the strike in the Boise Basin. By 1863, Idaho City had a population of 6,200 and had surpassed Portland as the largest city in the Northwest, thereby making Idaho one of the few territories to be settled from west to east.
A.D.O. Browere (1814-1887), The Lone Prospector, 1853, oil on canvas.
Prospectors poured into Idaho to try their luck at the strike in the Boise Basin. By 1863, Idaho City had a population of 6,200 and had surpassed Portland as the largest city in the Northwest, thereby making Idaho one of the few territories to be settled from west to east.
John Richard's diary reveals that he was a generous man. More than once he donated part of his meager earnings to help bury a stranger who had been killed in the mines, or in a dispute over a claim. The ties with both his new home (Oregon) and old home (Missouri) were not broken either. There are many references to letters and pictures being exchanged with those left behind. Letters reveal that he sent money home to help fund the education of his younger brother who became a schoolteacher and farmer and who eventually joined him in Oregon.
The most poignant line in his diary concerns a young lady in Oregon, daughter of his neighbor and occasional employer. He was working in the mines to get a stake to buy a claim of his own when he received word that Mathilda had been married the previous Saturday. He says little about it beyond the 5 word mention, but the next entry notes that he knocked off work early that day and spent $2.00 on whiskey (an exceptional expenditure because his purchases of strong drink were rare and never amounted to more than 75 cents). Later he writes of seeing her at her parents home after he returns to Oregon and refers to her as the idol of my heart.
Oregon Years Attending the Ball
One of the most surprising aspects of John Richard Longacres early days in Oregon was the number of dances he attended. Dancing was a popular activity during the Civil War, and he was a frequent guest and popular partner. Dancing in Oregon took much the same form as dancing in the Eastern and Midwestern states, with a complex form to the balls and elaborate etiquette connected with the occasion.
Members of the Victorian Dance Ensemble perform for Civil War reenactments, teaching authentic dances and wearing costumes typical of the mid 19th century. Many of the members belong to Union, Confederate or Civilian Civil War reenactment units, although some are merely interested in dancing.
It causes one to wonder at the difficulty of organizing a ball on the frontier: first you needed a place big enough to hold a number of dancers, then you needed a source of music, and finally you needed enough guests to make a lively evening. Presumably there were enough people in the community that played the fiddle, squeeze box, guitar, or spinet to provide the music; and I imagine that barns were often used for the ballroom. Apparently these deterrents were not very problematic in Oregon's early days because John Richard mentions going to a ball nearly every week in his 1863 diary before he leaves for the mines of Idaho and again after he returns. Often he includes information on the number of sets he danced and that he stayed at the danced until 2 AM, or danced all night, and then went to work at 5AM. Frequently these dances were held at his neighbors homes, and he stayed the night because he was working there the next day.
Although Oregon was a "free state", many settlers were from the South. So we can expect that dance music would include a mixture of both Northern and Southern favorites. The in the 1860s, the ball was seen as a way to forget the cares of the day for one evening.
A ball typically started with a Grand March like Stonewall Jackson's Way and included reels, quicksteps, gallops, polkas, quadrilles, and other traditional forms: The Hunters of Kentucky, Darling Nellie Gray, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon or Red River Valley were songs that they might have played for dancing. Click on the hands to hear the music.
Almost all dances of the period were social dances, requiring all dancers to interact with each other in various formations. Dances and mixing with people was seen as a social duty. Rules of Etiquette for the Civil War Era Ballroom
All ages attended the dances, and gentlemen and ladies were expected to dance with everyone present. In any case it was a serious breach of etiquette to dance more than one dance with the same partner in an evening. It must have been difficult to start a romance that way because tongues would start wagging if a gentleman was seen to be spending too much time with the same lady. These rules appear to be written by the ladies because they are mostly designed to control the men! We can assume that John Richard was well versed in the rules of etiquette because he was always invited back.
Conclusion at Part IV
Despite broken heart he suffered while he was away in the gold fields in 1863, John Richard Longacre had captured the affections of a beautiful lady and had acquired enough property to take bring a bride into his life by 1867. He married Miss Mary Ann Fletcher of Oregon when he was 27. Their wedding picture is below.
Mary Ann is elegant in a stylish gown of the day, and John Richard Longacre is quite a dashing gentleman in his wedding suit. I might have fallen for him myself, had I been around in 1867! The newlyweds supported themselves by farming and land sales. John Richard joined a Masonic Lodge during this period, and their only daughter was born in 1873. Nearly a decade later the size of their family increased when they adopted a neighbors daughter after her parents both died in a flu epidemic sometime between 1881 and 1882.
Alas, shortly after the babys adoption, the lovely Mary Ann Fletcher Longacre also contracted the flu and the doctors were unable to save her. John Richard was bereft with no wife, two daughters to rear, and a farm to run. But he did not despair. He wrote a stream of letters to family in Missouri again and this time arranged a visit. The transcontinental railroad had been completed in 1869, so his trip home was much easier than the one that first brought him to Oregon.
We dont know if his trip east was designed to find him a new bride and a stepmother for his daughters, but that was the result. We dont know how long he stayed in the east, but we do know that a young cousin, the daughter of a relative, caught his eye on this visit; and he began courting her.
Just before he was to return home to Oregon, he asked her to marry him. He was 46. The object of his affections, Susan Emeline, a school teacher, was 33 and happily settled in her single life. She turned him down. He headed for the train station, dejected. Suddenly, my great grandmother, Susan, appeared out of nowhere on the platform as he was ready to board the train and breathlessly told him that shed changed her mind. Yes, she would marry him and start a new life in Oregon. And so she did in 1885.
Susan and John Richard quickly had two children of their own, pictured below.
California years farming in the Central Valley
When daughter Nellie Irene was born in 1891, she was suffered from asthma. Doctors recommended that the family move to a warmer, dryer climate, thinking that dry air would help her condition. So, without a look backward, John Richard sold his Oregon farmstead and land holdings that he had developed for more than thirty years and purchased farm land near Fresno, California in the San Joaquin Valley, which was technically a desert at the time.
Fresno California is the home of Free Republic, and it is quite a different place today than it was in 1892. I like to think that it is because of early pioneers, like my great grandfather, that it holds the designation as the last bastion of conservatives in California.
Fresno County agriculture today. Cultivated fields of the 1890s would not have been as vast as these, but they would have been equally hot and dry. Today Fresno County farmers manage their water problems through extensive artificial irrigation systems that were unavailable to John Richard Longacre.Growing conditions in the Central Valley were quite different from those in rainy Oregon, with temperatures of 110 degrees in the summer common, and no rain at all from April till October. They nearly lost everything the first year. To make matters worse, baby Nellie died in an accident the first year they were there.
Through diligence, John Richard learned to farm in the hot valley and turn a profit, despite his early misfortunes. Susan Emeline raised the children and learned to manage their income artfully. In her later years when her grandchildren would ask why she walked everywhere and never took the street car, she laughed and said, I just might need that nickel some day.
John Richards eldest daughter, Ella, eventually moved back to Oregon to attend school and became a teacher; and his adopted daughter, Mary, also moved north after she grew up. Both daughters visited Fresno often and were close to their parents all their lives.
John Richard Longacre and his only son, my grandfather, Albert Sidney Longacre. Photo is taken before a Fresno, CA studio background intended to represent the Cliff House in San Francisco, a famous tourist spot of the era. There is more than one family photo taken in this studio at different times using this background.
John Richard took a keen interest in naming all of his grandchildren much to the consternation of his daughter in law (my grandmother), who had other ideas for her childrens names! He eventually retired to the city of Fresno where he lived until his death at 90, a year after Susan died. He was buried in a Masonic ceremony. Linda Bell continued to live in John Richard and Susans retirement home in Fresno until the late 1960s. She taught Sunday School all her life. Berts life-long abiding interest was buying and selling real estate, patterned after John Richards early days in Oregon. John Richard Longacre and a great number of his relatives are buried in Fresno, California home of Free Republic.
John Richards and Susans retirement home in the city of Fresno, California. By the time I was a child, the shrubbery had grown so high around this house that you could no longer see it from the street. My Great Aunt Bell, who still lived there, would serve us lemonade and cookies under an arbor of trees and vines that shaded the entire back yard. It was heaven on a summer day in Fresnos 100 degree heat.
I also wish to honor my Great Grandfather on this Fathers Day, June 16, 2002, for providing a good example of all the qualities of outstanding fatherhood that are still valid today:
Although I sincerely doubt that John Richard Longacre would have ever wanted to be called a Republican, given the era in which he lived, I am sure that he would have gladly called himself a Conservative.
Whereas John Richard Longacre lived the life of a pioneer settler on the home turf of FreeRepublic more than a hundred years ago,
Whereas John Richard Longacre was never afraid to try new things,
Whereas John Richard Longacre was an example of an eternal optimist throughout his life,
Whereas John Richard Longacre greatly enjoyed the art of social dancing in his youth, he would be an excellent addition to any future Balls, Cruises, and Social Occasions planned and organized by the members of Free Republic.
Whereas John Richard Longacre never faltered in the face of personal or financial setbacks, whether it be the loss of a loved one (mother, sweetheart, 2 wives, daughter, cousins, uncles, friends) or the loss of money or property, I like to think that he would have been an enthusiastic part of the Free Republic Forum from its founding.
Be It Therefore Resolved that:
John Richard Longacre be made an Honorary Member in good standing of the Fresno Chapter of Free Republic, with all benefits and privileges therein and using the official screen name of Trailblazer.
[By my hand signed on this day] Afraidfortherepublic
It's interesting to see a book published with photos from about 1905 with captions that read things like "homestead at _________ which now looks about as it did when first constructed a century ago."
By the way, it appears that both of our GGF's vigorously engaged in farming and dabbled in real estate.
I am great fan of Thomas Paine. I've tried to adopt many of his ideas on life, society and government in my posts on FR. However, I am disturbed at what he's become when others use his name here. :(
Just the other day, President Bush coined the phrase "full time citizen" at a commencement address. I concur that in this new century, we must be full time citizens. Regards. FV
Antoine Paulin was born on the 24th day of April 1734, the son of Antoine Paulin and Marie-Dominique Valois, of the parish of Saint-Paul de Varces, bishopric of Grenoble, in the actual department of Isère, France.
Antoine Paulin (he always signs his name: "At Paulin") was first a private in the regiments of La Reine. In 1755, a squadron of eighteen ships was organized at Brest and Rochefort, France, under Commodore Du Bois de La Motte. Six battalions taken from the regiments of La Reine, Bourgogne, Languedoc, Béarn, and Guyenne, nearly 3,000 soldiers, set sail on May 3. The Marquis de Montcalm was appointed general in chief.
. The old French War was called the most dramatic of The American Wars, because of the skill with which Montcalm used his advantages and the courage with which he was so ably seconded by regulars and militia alike.
For three years, Montcalm's campaign against the English in New France was successful.This brilliant victory of Montcalm's campaign in America, where he sought to defend and hold the French territory for his country, has been told in song and story by the French and the Canadians. It was a tale told many times over by the veteran of our family, Antoine Paulin, to his children and grandchildren and they never tired hearing of his many experiences in this war and in the next in which he was involved, the American Revolution. The very names of the Great Generals, Montcalm, Washington and Lafayette, brought tears to the eyes of more than one grandchild.
In September, 1759. Montcalm fought his last battle on the plains of Abraham, in Quebec. It was his last valiant effort to save the colony for France. As he rode down the front of his line of battle, stopping to say a few stirring and encouraging words to each regiment as he passed, he made a lasting impression on his troops. He was in the full uniform of a Lieutenant General of the King of France, wearing his cuirass and mounted upon his black charger. and he seemed to present to his men a living picture of France itself. The fierce battle of the Plains of Abraham took place on Sept. 13, 1759. Montcalm was wounded three times and died Sept. 14, and three brigadiers and one colonel also shared the fate of their great commander, whom some called "the last great Frenchman of the Western World." General Wolfe, the great English commander, was also killed. And it seems strange that the two great Generals who opposed each other, (yet admired and liked each other, having often exchanged courtesies and imported delicacies, each from his own country), should both expire at the same height in their careers. It is only fitting that they share a common monument which was erected in 1827 and bears this epitaph: "WolfeMontcalm:
"Valor gave them the same death, History the same renown, Posterity the same monument."
Quebec in 1759, the conquered city, birthplace and home at this time of Théotiste Cottard, future wife of Antoine Paulin, was a scene of desolation. The Cathedral and churches and all but the distant parts of the city were in ruins.Théotiste Cottard was ten years old when her family were evacuated from Quebec, in 1760. Her mother had died five years previously and since it is evident, by later proof, that she could not read or write, perhaps she had to help with the work at home and could not attend school. At seventeen, Théotiste was married to Antoine Paulin, who was then thirty years old. This marriage took place on January 12, 1767, at the Parish of Saint-Antoine de Chambly, Quebec, Canada, and they afterward lived in Saint-Denis, near Saint-Antoine de Chambly. In the period of time prior to the American Invasion of Canada in 1775, they became parents of a son, Amable, and three daughters: Marie, Théotiste, and Geneviève.
It was ironic that now the Colonies, which a quarter of a century before had given their sons and their means to wrest Canada from France, should now turn to that country for aid in order to deprive England of her American possessions. General Schuyler was stationed, with his small army, on Ile-aux-Noix, Que. which completely commanded the outlet of Lake Champlain. From here, scouts were sent into Canada, from which they brought back encouraging reports. Colonel Ethen Allen said that the captains of militia were ready to join the Americans whenever they should appear with sufficient force. In Canada, the Captains of Militia were men of great consequence at all times and were granted great social privileges. Presumably, Antoine Paulin was a Captain of Militia. He was among the first to again take up arms against the English. His commission as Captain of the "Independent Company of Canadian Volunteers'' is dated November 20, 1775, Saint-Denis being given as his residence. In January 1776, his company was annexed to that of Colonel Moses Hazen's regiment of light infantry, while at Quebec. Both these regiments continued in active service for the duration of the war, and both obtained a vote of thanks from the American Congress upon its termination. A family war story;
Hazen's regiment returned to Chambly in time to join in the retreat. Captain Paulin had to arrange for his family to leave with the army. Wagons prepared for the women and children were added to the baggage train. Early Sunday morning June 16, 1776, the army started south on the thirteen mile march to St. John's. They had barely left Chambly when Burgoyne's advance guard entered it. In fact, as the last of the American troops left Chambly, at one end, Burgoyne's troops were entering the other. Madame Paulin often related the following incident of the retreat. In the hurry and terror of the flight, Amable, the only son, became separated from the family and was left behind. When he was found, he seemed quite happy, perched upon a table and being amused by British soldiers. During the invasion, there had been a parting of the ways among the inhabitants, and these soldiers were, no doubt, some of their neighbors, so Amable was soon returned to his anxious family.
The Adjutant General's office of the War Department in Washington has records which show that Antoine Paulin was, during the spring of 1777, in garrison at Albany. Anthony Paulin, volunteer, appears on the muster rolls of Major George Chardin Nicholson's detachment of French Cadets, Livingston's Battalion, Continental troops, Revolutionary war, for the period from April 1, to May 12, 1777, with a record of enlistment, April, 1777. The same record shows that Antoine Paulin served as Captain in an independent company annexed to a regiment of Continental troops, commanded by Colonel Moses Hazen, Revolutionary War. His name appears on the payroll for the period from June, 1778 to July, 1779.
Hazen's regiment took part in the fall campaign, which included the battles of Germantown and Brandywine, where Lafayette was wounded At Brandywine, Hazen's, Dayton's and Ogden's regiments alone, maintained a resolute position on the left. At the close of the campaign on December 20th, the army went into winter quarters at Valley Forge, Chester County, 23 miles from Philadelphia. In ''The Historical Register of Officers of the Continental Army of the War of the Revolution'', Captain Antoine Paulin's name is twice listed, once as an officer in the Continental Army, and the second time, among the Pennsylvania officers. This was the first time that Captain Paulin was in winter quarters with his chief, and he must have seen a lot of Lafayette, whose first winter it was, on this continent. Both were natives of Southern France, Lafayette's ancestral chateau being in Auvergne and Paulin's home in Dauphinée. The Marquis was just learning to speak the English language, while Paulin had been about twenty years resident here and no doubt the latter enjoyed once more conversing in his native tongue, French, and hearing news of France, itself. Tradition is very positive and unanimous in asserting that there was much intimacy and great friendliness between Lafayette and Paulin. The Captains four children, born in Canada, were old enough at the time, to remember many incidents of the war, and to recall them later, for the benefit of their families.
January 24. 1778. Gates wrote to Washington at Valley Forge to request that he furnish Colonel Hazen's regiment for the expedition. Orders were immediately issued to Hazens regiment to march toward Albany, there to join in another invasion of Canada, but under Lafayette, whose letters later show Hazen's regiment in Albany. They had marched the long distance from Valley Forge, Pa., to Albany. N.Y. during the coldest season, through deep snow. Hazen's regiment of the Continental Line, sometimes called, from the fighting qualities of its men. "Hazen's Infernals", were, many of them, probably like Captain Paulin, natives of the French Alpine region. Before leaving Albany, he administered the Oath of allegiance to the United Colonies to all the Officers of the Northern Department of the Continental Army, including Canadians, and of course, Captain Paulin. This made them American citizens.
The Battle of Monmouth is memorable as the only battle of the Revolution in which the thirteen colonies all are represented. The two Congress' Own regiments took part in it, Hazen's in the right wing of the continentals. The Sunday of June 28, 1778, when the battle was fought, was the hottest of the year, many soldiers dying from the effects of the heat.
Much gaiety accompanied the privations of the Revolution. No sooner was the army in winter quarters, than the ladies began to appear. There was tea drinking from cabin to cabin, dinners of compliment to the visiting foreigners and rallies in barracks, ''where everybody who could sing, sang." Babies were born in camp, children also died there, and were buried there. Our Revolutionary ancestors had trials of this kind, also. They lost twin children tradition says, also others, leavings no records except in memory. The first child spared to them after leaving their home in Canada, was Françoise, born in the year of peace, as she always added, that expression meaning so much to that army family. During the Summer of 1780, the women and children, families of the officers and privates, were sent to West Point.
In September, 1780, came Arnold's treachery. He was the only American of note to betray his country. His accomplice, Major Andre, the spy, met his fate at Tappan, where Captain Paulin's regiment was in camp. A detachment from his company was on duty at the execution.
Another attack of special interest to the descendants of Captain Paulin, as he had the honor of being in the attacking party of Lafayette's "picked troops" including "the brave army of his Virginia campaign." Hazen's regiment was on the right of the storming party at Yorktown.
October 19, 1781, Cornwallis surrendered and his army of 7000 men marched out between the combined armies, drawn up in two lines of more than a mile in length, the Americans on the right side of the road, with Washington and his aides mounted at the head.
Comte de Rochambeau, his suite and the troops in complete uniform were on the left. Their band of music, of which the timbrel formed a part, produced, while marching to the ground, an enchanting effect.
October 31st, General Hazen gave a dinner to a number of French army and American army officers, where the chief topic of conversation, and of mutual congratulation, was the late "glorious success."
This must have been a red-letter day for Captain Paulin, well repaying all the hardships endured.
The French Ambassador, Monsieur La Luzerne, invited Congress to be present at a solemn mass celebrated in St. Marys church, Philadelphia, November 4th, and the members attended in a body. Abbe Bandel, of the French embassy, was the orator of the day.
"And the banners of England, the surrendered and the conquered flags, were placed upon the altar steps, as a sign and a symbol that God's hand guided, and to Him was Praise and Glory Forever and Ever." (From another oration .)
Seven thousand French soldiers were present. Washington and Lafayette were unable to attend, but on December 13th, they were present at the Mass of Thanksgiving for the victory of Yorktown at the same church. No one knew better than they that the aid of France had been absolutely necessary for the success of the American cause in general and Yorktown in particular.
The soldiers of Congress Own and their families were left, at the close of the war, in great distress. The pay of the soldiers was much in arrears. All of those who had estates in Canada and Nova Scotia and had followed the American Army, suffered confiscation and loss.
In January, 1782, by an Act of Congress, supernumerary of officers were considered retired on half pay. In this list, appears the name of Captain Antoine Paulin. His discharge is dated July 1, 1782, though a Washington record, Bureau of Pensions, gives the date as 1783.
In an Act dated May 11, 1782, the State of New York granted a tract of land in the Northeast and central parts of Clinton county to the refugees from Canada and Nova Scotia. These lands were divided into 80 and 420 acre lots except 5 000 acres, which were divided into fifteen equal parts, and these were granted to the officers and privates among the refugees.
On the shores of beautiful lake Champlain, a permanent home was made by Captain Antoine Paulin, the first since leaving Chambly. Que., in June of 1776, ten eventful years. This land was, of course, practically wilderness, mostly covered with timber, and it must have been a long time before it was cleared enough to build on it. But eventually a home was built and it was from here. that all the Paulins were eventually married. Pierre, the younger son, the only child born in Corbeau, married in Canada, but returned here to live and raise a large family, as was customary in those days.
The War of 1812 brought terror of war to the doors of our veteran and his family. The border suffered much, as the struggle in the early part was chiefly on the northern frontier of New York, the troops from both sides passing near the Paulin's home, by land and water.
Only one month before the death of the veteran, a British force from Canada, of over 1400 men embarked on sloops and gun-boats, and made a marauding expedition upon Plattsburgh, a neighboring village. They destroyed a large amount of public and private property and loaded their vessels with practically everything they could lift, furniture, clothing, valuables and even kitchen utensils. On their return, they plundered and burned along the shore, until they arrived at Saxe's Landing. Here something alarmed them and they hurriedly re-embarked and returned to Canada. Corbeau, our veteran's home, was only a mile or two north. and so they were spared. One of the veteran's grandsons used to tell an incident of this raid, of the war of 1812. The family had collected around their invalid patriarch, and were watching the "old enemy's" progress up the beautiful lake, where so many peaceful years had passed. Perhaps scenes from the past came up in the veteran's mind as he sat helpless and passive; the long fight for independence, the courage of his soldiers, their patient endurance of incredible hardships, extremes of cold and heat as at Valley Forge and Monmouth. Probably, though, the brave old soldier's thoughts dwelt more on the present, for as he looked on the long line of vessels, knowing so well what boded for the unfortunate inhabitants, he wept, and pointing to the enemy, exclaimed: "If I were young again I'd be in this war, too." To be a helpless spectator in another invasion was a severe ordeal for the patriotic old soldier, Captain Antoine Paulin. He did not long survive it.
Antoine Peltier, another grandson, told this incident, relative to the war of 1812, also. He was young at the time, but it made a great impression on him. One day, during the campaign in the neighborhood, while sitting on the porch of his home, a boatload of American soldiers sailed by. On perceiving the well-known form of the officer, they paused and fired a salute. The veteran rose to his feet and returned the salute, and in so doing, stumbled, slipped, and fell across the body of his small grandson. Neither was injured seriously, the incident was indelibly impressed upon the mind of the boy who recalled this incident about seventy years later, when visiting his grandchildren.
We have no details of the closing scene in a life of so much interest .This period was probably too painful for the Captains children to dwell upon, owing to the devoted love they bore their father. In the midst of this tense and anxious period, Antoine Paulin ''breathed forth his soul to God'', September 7, 1813, in the 77th year of his age, the 47th year of his married life and the 27th years as an American Citizen. in Corbeau, now Cooperville. N.Y.
From ;Capt. Paulin by Dorthy Peltier
In honor of Father's Day, I would like to nominate my dad as an honorary FReeper. He was a lurker around here for some time, I introduced him to FR right around the time of the 2000 election, when I found FR myself. My dad died last July, unexpectedly. If he was still around, I know he'd be here posting too. He was a patriotic American, a great dad and a wonderful grandpa to my kids, and we miss him.
From my father...Detroit, A Nice Place to Grow Up. (St. Marks Methodist basketball, hockey-Wayne State, UofM-Masters Petr. Geol., WWII Navy, Ad Man, Senior Center volunteer, Elder, father of six, husband 45 years).
Happy Father's Day, Freeper fathers. Your children love you more than you know.
Happy to Help J
There are lots of ragtime midi files on the internet and it's fun to find a good link and click on all the ragtime tunes. Nothing could be finer.
The pictures are from the late 60's, my dad served in the army at the DMZ in Korea. When he came home he used his GI bill to buy a house and get his mom, dad and sisters out of the projects of Newark, NJ and into the suburbs.
He was a civil engineer and during the 80's worked for the Port Authority of NY and NJ at the World Trade Center. I'm sure he lost some friends on 9/11. We all moved to FL in the early 90's and he took a job for Collier County and helped design many roads and bridges locally. His last project, a bridge, is going to be dedicated to him by the county and his co-workers at a ceremony at the end of July, when the bridge construction is finished. He was taken from us in July 2001 at the age of 56.
FV's ancestors were from territory in the southeastern corner of S.D.
We stood there, at the Southernmost point in the US and looked south, three generations with three different sets of memories.
I looked at the old man, squinting as if trying to see across the miles, maybe seeing things I couldn't.
"Abuelo, it's only 90 miles away, if there was a bridge we could drive there in two hours!"-said I, seventeen years old at the time.
My father looked down and walked to the car, out of my sight, but the old man didn't move.
"You can't build that bridge Luisito, man can't build that kind of bridge."
"Of course it can be built abuelo, look at the one we crossed to get here!"-I said and smiled the smile of youth, a smile not jaded by lost innocence and betrayed promises.
"You do that Luisito, build your bridge, I know that you will do just that."-he turned and walked back to my father and our car.
My grandfather died a year later, the bridge all but a forgotten fantasy of my younger days. Except maybe not; maybe I am building our bridge, my grandfather's and mine, a bridge between a people's, spanning time and memories, for the old man who couldn't see but could remember, who placed his trust in my hands.
I love you old man, I'm building our bridge.
And as you know, old oak and mahoghany furniture is VERY LARGE AND HEAVY, not to mention player pianos like the one my grandmother had. As small children, we sat for hours changing the piano rollers and pressing the pedals. No wonder I like ragtime music.
Re: ragtime music, I really like "The Alligator Crawl" by Fats Waller, but I've discovered the magnificent BIX BEIDERBECKE FROM IOWA. Enjoy some early jazz... visit http://ms.cc.sunysb.edu/~alhaim/
Watch out though, you may get happy feet.
I now tell young "feminists" to make up with their fathers while they can. Hugs.
Father and son and wife/mom Barbara.(^: