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August 14, 1945 - Japan Surrenders, End of War!
NewYorkTImes ^ | August 14, 1945 | Arthur Krock

Posted on 08/13/2002 10:21:51 PM PDT by swarthyguy

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On This Day

This event took place on August 14, 1945, and was reported in the The New York Times the following day.

Read the full text of The Times article or other headlines from the day.


Front Page Image

Japan Surrenders, End of War!

Emperor Accepts Allied Rule
M'Arthur Supreme Commander
Yielding Unqualified, Says Truman
Japan Told to Order End of Hostilities, Notify Allied Supreme Commander and Send Emissaries to Him
MacArthur To Receive Surrender
Formal Proclamation of V-J Day Awaits Signing of Those Articles -- Cease-Fire Order Given to the Allied Forces
Special to The New York Times


All City 'Lets Go': Hundreds of Thousands Roar Joy After Victory Flash Is Received: Times Sq. Is Jammed: Police Estimate Crowd in Area at 2,000,000 -- Din Overwhelming

Terms Will Reduce Japan to Kingdom Perry Visited

Hirohito on Radio; Minister Ends Life

Two-Day Holiday Is Proclaimed; Stores, Banks Close Here Today

MacArthur Begins Orders to Hirohito OTHER HEADLINES

Our Manpower Curbs Voided: Hiring Made Local: Communities, Labor and Management Will Unite Efforts: 6,000,000 Affected: Draft Quotas Cut, Services to Drop 5,500,000 in 18 Months

Third Fleet Fells 5 Planes Since End

Secrets of Radar Given to World

Petain Convicted, Sentenced to Die: Jurors Recommend Clemency Because of His Age -- Long Indictment Upheld

Treaty With China Signed in Moscow: Complete Agreement Reached With Chungking on All Points at Issue, Russians Say

Cruiser Sunk, 1,196 Casualties; Took Atom Bomb Cargo to Guam

Washington, Aug. 14 -- Japan today unconditionally surrendered the hemispheric empire taken by force and held almost intact for more than two years against the rising power of the United States and its Allies in the Pacific war.

The bloody dream of the Japanese military caste vanished in the text of a note to the Four Powers accepting the terms of the Potsdam Declaration of July 26, 1945, which amplified the Cairo Declaration of 1943.

Like the previous items in the surrender correspondence, today's Japanese document was forwarded through the Swiss Foreign Office at Berne and the Swiss Legation in Washington. The note of total capitulation was delivered to the State Department by the Legation Charge d'Affaires at 6:10 P. M., after the third and most anxious day of waiting on Tokyo, the anxiety intensified by several premature or false reports of the finale of World War II.

Orders Given to the Japanese

The Department responded with a note to Tokyo through the same channel, ordering the immediate end of hostilities by the Japanese, requiring that the Supreme Allied Commander- who, the President announced, will be Gen. Douglas MacArthur- be notified of the date and hour of the order, and instructing that emissaries of Japan be sent to him at once- at the time and place selected by him- "with full information of the disposition of the Japanese forces and commanders."

President Truman summoned a special press conference in the Executive offices at 7 P.M. He handed to the reporters three texts.

The first- the only one he read aloud- was that he had received the Japanese note and deemed it full acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration, containing no qualification whatsoever; that arrangements for the formal signing of the peace would be made for the "earliest possible moment;" that the Japanese surrender would be made to General MacArthur in his capacity as Supreme Allied Commander in Chief; that Allied military commanders had been instructed to cease hostilities, but that the formal proclamation of V. J. Day must await the formal signing.

The text ended with the Japanese note in which the Four Powers (the United States, Great Britain, China, and Russia) were officially informed that the Emperor of Japan had issued an imperial rescript of surrender, was prepared to guarantee the necessary signatures to the terms as prescribed by the Allies, and had instructed all his commanders to cease active operations to surrender all arms and to disband all forces under their control and within their reach.

The President's second announcement was that he had instructed the Selective Service to reduce the monthly military draft from 80,000 to 50,000 men, permitting a constant flow of replacements for the occupation forces and other necessary military units, with the draft held to low-age groups and first discharges given on the basis of long, arduous and faithful war service. He said he hoped to release 5,000,000 to 5,500,000 men in the subsequent year or eighteen months, the ratio governed in some degree by transportation facilities and the world situation.

The President's final announcement was to decree holidays tomorrow and Thursday for all Federal workers, who, he said, were the "hardest working and perhaps the least appreciated" by the public of all who had helped to wage the war.

Mr. Truman spoke calmly to the reporters, but when he had finished reading his face broke into a smile. Also present were Secretary of State James F. Byrnes and Admiral William D. Leahy, the President's personal Chief of Staff, and two other members of the Cabinet- Henry A. Wallace, Secretary of Commerce, and James V. Forrestal, Secretary of the Navy- managed to respond to a hurry call in time to be there. The agreement to issue the statements simultaneously in all the Allied capitals, and the brief period between the call to the Cabinet and the announcement, were responsible. Later the chief war administrators and Cordell Hull, former Secretary of State, arrived to congratulate the President.

President Addresses Crowd

After the press conference, while usually bored Washington launched upon a noisy victory demonstration, the President with Mrs. Truman walked out to the fountain in the White House grounds that face on Pennsylvania Avenue and made the V sign to the shouting crowds.

But this did not satisfy the growing assemblage, or probably the President either, for, in response to clamor, he came back and made a speech from the north portico, in which he said that the present emergency was as great as that of Pearl Harbor Day and must and would be met in the same spirit. Later in the evening he appeared to the crowds and spoke again.

He then returned to the executive mansion to begin work, at once on problems of peace, including domestic ones affecting reconversion, unemployment, wage-and-hour scales and industrial cut-backs, which are more complex and difficult than any he has faced and call for plans and measures that were necessarily held in abeyance by the exacting fact of war.

But certain immediate steps to deal with these problems and restore peacetime conditions were taken or announced as follows:

1. The War Manpower Commission abolished all controls, effective immediately, creating a free labor market for the first time in three years. The commission also set up a plan to help displaced workers and veterans find jobs.

2. The Navy canceled nearly $6,000,000,000 of prime contracts.

The Japanese offer to surrender, confirmed by the note received through Switzerland today, came in the week after the United States Air Forces obliterated Hiroshima with the first atomic bomb in history and the Union of Soviet Republics declared war on Japan. At the time the document was received in Washington, Russian armies were pushing back the Japanese armies in Asia and on Sukhalin Island, and the Army and Navy of the United States with their air forces- aided by the British- were relentlessly bombarding the home islands.

When the President made his announcements tonight it was three years and 250 days after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, which put the United States at war with Japan. This was followed immediately by the declarations of war on this country by Germany and Italy, the other Axis partners, which engaged the United States in the global conflict that now, in its military phases, is wholly won.

If the note had not come today the President was ready though reluctant to give the order that would have spread throughout Japan the hideous death and destruction that are the toll of the atomic bomb.

Officially the Japanese note was a response to the communicator to Tokyo, written on behalf of the Allies Aug. 11 by Secretary Byrnes, which was itself a reply to a Japanese offer on Aug. 10 to surrender on the understanding of the Japanese Government that the Potsdam Declaration did not "prejudice the prerogatives" of the Emperor of Japan as its "sovereign ruler."

Plan on the Emperor

Mr. Byrnes wrote, in effect, that the Japanese might keep their Emperor if they chose to do so of their own free-will, but that he would be placed under the authority of the Allied Commander-in-Chief in Tokyo and would be responsible to that commander for his official and public activities.

Relief rather than jubilation that the grim and costly task of conquering the Axis is done was the emotion of the officials, from the President down, who have traversed the long and agonizing road to victory since Dec. 7, 1941, when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor while Tokyo's "peace" envoys- Admiral Kichisahura Nomura and Ambassador Saburo Kurusu- were still continuing their negotiations with Secretary of State Hull. The road is piled high with the bodies of American soldiers, sailors, airmen and civilians who gave their lives that the victory might be attained.

And, in a solemn hour of triumph, the men in Washington that were their military and civilian commanders could not be jubilant in the lasting memory of these human sacrifices. On the contrary, they seemed more than ever resolved to produce a system of world security which for a long time would obviate the necessity of such sacrifices to dictators and aggressive nations; and to impress on the Japanese- as on the Germans- their crimes, nor relax their punishments, until they learn to follow the ways of peace.

Though the victory over the Japanese as well as the Nazis had always seemed assured to the American authorities, it did not become a certainty until the Allies- through United States invention and production, Allied military and scientific skills and the fortitude of the British, Chinese, Russian and American populations- were able to change from defense to attack. This change, so far as the Pacific was concerned, came after the Battle of Midway gathered force after the actions of the Coral Sea and the Philippines and came to crescendo with the captures of Saipan, Iwo Island and Okinawa, the perfection of radar and the discovery and use of the atomic bomb. But before these successes the story was very different.

The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor found the Pacific Fleet divided, half of it crowded in the roadstead, the other half dispatched for Atlantic service for reasons of policy. These reasons grew out of President Roosevelt's decision that the Nazi menace required the fleet diversion to the Atlantic for immediate national defense, and out of his belief that, as he expressed it, he could "baby along Japan." This latter view was the foundation of the underlying policy by which the United States continued to furnish Japan with scrap iron, petrol, ant other materials transferable to war uses long after Japan by many officials was conceded to be bent on hemispheric and eventual world-wide aggression.

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TOPICS: Foreign Affairs; Front Page News; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: greatwar; historylist; japan; nippon; vjday

1 posted on 08/13/2002 10:21:51 PM PDT by swarthyguy
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To: ianync; one_particular_harbour; aristeides; PsyOp; belmont_mark
This latter view was the foundation of the underlying policy by which the United States continued to furnish Japan with scrap iron, petrol, ant other materials transferable to war uses long after Japan by many officials was conceded to be bent on hemispheric and eventual world-wide aggression.

2 posted on 08/13/2002 10:23:24 PM PDT by swarthyguy
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To: swarthyguy
AUGUST 14th 2002

She has a better economic advantage now, than if she had won WWII.

3 posted on 08/13/2002 10:31:23 PM PDT by mfulstone
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To: swarthyguy; *History_list
4 posted on 08/13/2002 10:35:28 PM PDT by Libertarianize the GOP
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To: mfulstone
Let's get the USS Missouri out of mothballs so that the designated Iraqis will have a nice place to surrender - Sad man will have already been served up as a Spam substitute at an Air Force Base in Yemin - so he won't make the ceremony - but we can get some top hats and morning suits for the Iraqi dignitaries and get the war behind us so we can start putting the toilets back into operation and brush of our newly revised Rule of Law (For Others).
5 posted on 08/13/2002 10:39:05 PM PDT by SEGUET
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To: swarthyguy
Thank you so much for these few minutes of time travel.

This was really interesting. Thanks again. :-)
6 posted on 08/13/2002 10:49:05 PM PDT by Selara
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To: swarthyguy
It's already the 14th here. This article appeared in today's Daily Yomiuri.

Remains of war dead coming home

Yomiuri Shimbun

The remains of 52 Japanese soldiers who died in Papua New Guinea during World War II were exhumed on Bougainville Island by their families in late July and early August.

The remains will be returned to Japan within the year after the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry completes the necessary paperwork.

The island, 4,000 kilometers south of Japan, was the site of a Japanese military base. More than 60,000 soldiers died in action or from hunger and disease after the supply route was cut by U.S. forces.

The remains of more than 30,000 soldiers are buried under the jungles and beaches of the island, but there is no concrete plan to recover the remains.

The exhumation by the bereaved families was adjourned between 1987 and 1998 due to a civil war triggered by rebels that sought the island's independence from Papua New Guinea.

After the ceasefire, a Japanese man visited the island and with the help of direction from local residents found the former site of a hospital for Japanese soldiers in the Numa Numa district.

Members of Zenkoku Solomon-kai, a Japanese veterans organization, later visited the site and found the remains of 38 soldiers in March. During a week of exhumation work from July 30, the remains of 14 more soldiers were recovered.

Yoshihiro Taniguchi, 61, from Kobe, visited the island for the sixth time this summer. His father, Mitsuyoshi, reportedly died aged 26 on the banks of the Teikon River near the Numa Numa district in November 1944.

Taniguchi visited the island for the first time in 1980 because he wanted to see the place where his father died.

This time, Taniguchi got directions from local people that matched those given to him by his father's comrades who had returned to Japan.

After several hours he managed to reach the opposite bank of a possible burial site between areas where graves were being reopened on the steep mountainside. He held a memorial service there for his father by lighting a candle.

"I still have many things to do because I want to find my father's body," Taniguchi said. "His brother in arms told me he had buried the body somewhere after burning the left hand in a funeral."

Twenty other people who lost family members on the island or in nearby areas fell in alongside Taniguchi's group, and offered sticks of incense and recited sutras at the places where their loved ones might have died.

Another visitor to the area was Sachiko Yoshida, a 62-year-old woman from Toda, Saitama Prefecture, whose father, Saburo Sato, died aged 37 in January 1945, at a hospital on Buka Island near the northern end of Bougainville Island after being injured in a bombing.

Yoshida, who does not remember his face as she was just 2 years old when he went to the war, knows her father only through the war diary he kept.

On Oct. 2, her birthday, he wrote: "Today is my daughter's birthday. It's a pity that I can do nothing for her."

At the site of a local hospital, which was used for Japanese soldiers during the war, Yoshida broke down in tears after reading aloud a poem she had written for her father, saying: "Finally I saw you, Dad."

According to Susumu Kikumoto, director of the secretariat of Zenkoku Solomon-kai, who headed the group exhuming the soldiers' remains, many other families of the soldiers want to reclaim the remains of their relatives. However, many are now elderly and it is harder now for them to obtain information about the whereabouts of the soldiers' graves, he said.

Kikumoto himself is 78 years old. "In a few years I won't be able to play an active role in projects to collect remains. It's time for Japanese people to consider what we should do and what we are going to do about the issue," he said.


Remains of 1.2 mil. not returned

The remains of only about 1.2 million of the 2.4 million soldiers killed in World War II have been returned to Japan, according to the ministry.

State-run projects to collect the remains of soldiers who died on battlefields abroad began in June 1952 after it was adopted by a House of Representatives resolution.

Last fiscal year, the remains of 2,471 soldiers were uncovered in former Soviet republics, 167 in Okinawa Prefecture and Iwojima island, and 235 were exhumed in the Solomon Islands.

In some cases, the remains cannot be exhumed because of regulations and other circumstances in the countries where the soldiers died. It is believed that more than 600,000 soldiers are still buried, excluding those who died at sea.

A ministry official said: "Former soldiers, who know where their comrades died, are getting older. The projects will reach a turning point in 2005, the 60th anniversary of the end of World War II."

Copyright 2002 The Yomiuri Shimbun

7 posted on 08/13/2002 10:49:10 PM PDT by altair
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To: mfulstone
Japan wins!

What world are you living in?

Their economy tanked about 6 years ago and still is tanking.

Quick sell your home and everything you own and fly to Japan. Invest in their diving economy.
8 posted on 08/13/2002 10:51:47 PM PDT by Grampa Dave
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To: swarthyguy
Thanks for posting this.

Close to 60 years later, not a single Nazi or Japanese Imperial Racist has killed or raped a single person as they did with no controlling legal authority in the 1930's and early 1940's.

People say that we can never have peace with the Islamazis.

Yes we can. The method is simple. We kill all of the Islamazis and destroy their weapons of war like we did with the Nazis and Imperial Japanese warriors. Then have war criminal trials for those who funded and master minded the Islamakazi acts of terrorism. Execute the major war criminals and imprison the others for about 50 years.

That will insure at least another 60 years of peace when the Islamakazi Nazis are destroyed.
9 posted on 08/13/2002 11:00:06 PM PDT by Grampa Dave
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